Complete 20+ Branch of Physics and Explanations

In this article, we will discuss the branch of physics. There are various branches of physics, such as Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics, Thermodynamics, Electronics, Geometric Optics, Quantum Physics, Geophysics, and others. Check out the full review below. 

Physics is a natural science which is divided into several branches. Each of these branches of physics has a different focus of study. The division of physics simultaneously proves that physics is a comprehensive science. This aligns with the fact that many facets of the universe can be studied separately.

Branch of Physics

All branches of physics have played many roles in human life. The following are the important branches of physics:

1. Mechanics


Mechanics is a branch of physics that studies motion and changes in the shape of objects caused by forces. Mechanics is a branch of science in the early or oldest period of all branches of physics. Rows of physicists who laid the foundations of mechanics include Archimedes, Galileo Galilei, and Isaac Newton.

Mechanics is a branch of physics that is widely applied in everyday life. The most crucial problem in mechanics is how things move and what causes them. This problem was solved by Newton in his Laws of motion. The branch of physics mechanics is further divided into two, namely kinematics and dynamics.

  • Kinematics is a part of mechanics that studies the motion of matter without regard to the cause of the object’s action.
  • Dynamics is a branch of mechanics that studies the relationship between the motion of an object and the cause of action, namely force.

2. Fluid Mechanics

The next branch in physics is fluid mechanics. Fluid mechanics comes from the words mechanics and fluid. Mechanics is the study of motion, while fluid is a substance that, when a force is applied to it, will change shape continuously because it cannot withstand the pressure, no matter how small the force acts.

So, mechanics study motion in fluids (liquids, gases, and plasmas) and the forces acting on them. Fluid mechanics is a science that has long been applied in everyday life. Since time immemorial, without us realizing it, many human activities have been related to fluid mechanics.

Famous fluid mechanics laws include Archimedes’ Law, Pascal’s Law, and Bernoulli’s Law. The physics branch of fluid mechanics is further divided into fluid kinematics and fluid dynamics.

  • Fluid kinematics is a branch of fluid mechanics that studies the behavior of fluids at rest or not in motion.
  • Fluid dynamics is the branch of fluid mechanics that studies fluids in motion or flow.

3. Thermodynamics

Physics also has a branch called thermodynamics. In simple terms, thermodynamics is the study of energy transformations, changes in state, and the equilibrium of a group of particles that make up gases, liquids, and solids, especially those related to thermal or heat properties.

Thermodynamics is often defined as the study of energy changes from one form to another, significantly changing from heat to other forms of energy. The physicist who is known as the father of thermodynamics is Sadi Carnot.

4. Electronics

Electronics is a branch of physics that studies the emitting behavior and effects of electrons and the control of charged particles in vacuum, gases, and semiconductor materials.

In other words, electronics is a branch of science that deals with how to flow and control electrons and their behavior and effects when in a medium such as a vacuum, gas, semiconductor material, or a pie.


Electronics is further divided into several branches, including:

  • Digital electronics are electronic systems with digital strategies or discrete signals.
  • Analog electronics are electronic systems that have a continuous signal.
  • Microelectronics is an electronic device that uses the concept of integration (integrated circuit-IC).
  • Integrated circuits (ICs) are Active Electronics components consisting of a combination of hundreds, thousands, and even millions of transistors.
  • Optoelectronics is an electronic component that uses the properties of light or the interaction of light with matter.

5. Geometric Optics

Geometric optics is a branch of physics that studies light’s reflecting and refracting properties. A well-known law in this branch of physics is Snell’s law. The basics in geometric optics are as follows:

  • The path of light in a homogeneous medium is straight
  • The rays do not affect one another
  • The trajectory of the rays can be reversed
  • The trajectory of light obeys Snell’s laws of reflection and refraction

6. Physical Optics

Physical optics is a branch of physics that studies the properties of interference, diffraction, and polarization of light. In another sense, physical optics is the study of the physical properties of light as a wave. Light is polychromatic, consisting of many colors called the color spectrum.

7. Quantum Physics

Quantum Physics

Quantum physics is a branch of physics that studies the physical properties of matter on an atomic or sub-atomic scale. The essence of quantum physics is uncertainty; predictions in quantum theory are more likely than confident. Quantum physics is a branch of physics that will invite us to see the world of physics from a different perspective. A point of view that considers matter not only as matter but also as waves.

8. Medical Physics

Medical physics is a branch of physical science that uses the principles, methods, and philosophies of physics in practice and research to prevent, diagnose, and treat disease. Medical physics is needed to reduce the risk of devices that use radiation by implementing and developing quality assurance methods in terms of the safety and feasibility of medical radiation equipment.

9. Biophysics

Biophysics is a branch of physics that studies physical phenomena in living things. Biophysics is a combination of biology and physics. In biophysics, biological processes are studied using physical methods. The method is applied to biological organisms and systems to gain insight into how they work

10. Geophysics

Geophysics is a branch of physics that studies the earth, including the atmosphere surrounding it, such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, landslides, weather changes, etc.

Geophysics is the knowledge of the physical properties of the earth, and its application includes methods: seismic, gravitational, magnetic, electrical, and radioactive.

Geophysics is a combination of physics and geography.

11. Environmental Physics

Environmental physics is a branch of physics that studies everything about the earth and air and those related to the environment. Environmental physics is divided into several components: soil physics (surface and deep), water physics, air physics, ocean physics, earthquake physics, cloud physics, atmospheric physics, and weather physics.

12. Astrophysics

Astronomy is a branch of physics that studies space and everything in it. In other words, Astrophysics is the study of celestial bodies such as the moon, planets, and stars, including the sun. Astrophysics is a combination of physics and astronomy.

13. Economic Physics

Economic physics is a branch of physics that studies economics using physical methods. Financial physics is a combination of physics and economics. The physics framework is used to solve problems that exist in economics.

14. Radiation Physics

Radiation Physics is the science of physics that studies any process by which energy moves through a medium or space and is eventually absorbed by another object.

15. Atmospheric Physics

Atmospheric physics is a branch of physics to study the atmosphere. Atmospheric physicists attempt to model Earth’s atmosphere and the atmospheres of other planets using fluid flow equations, chemical models, radiation budgets, and energy transfer processes in the atmosphere (and how these bind to other systems, such as the oceans).

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16. Meteorology

Meteorology, or weather science, is a branch of atmospheric science that includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with the main focus being on the science of weather forecasting.

17. Computational Physics

Computational physics is the study of numerical implementation of algorithms to solve problems in areas of physics where quantitative theory already exists. In history, computational physics was the first application of modern computer science in science and is now a subsection of computational science.

18. Physics of solids

Solid matter physics is the study of the physical properties and behavior of substances in the solid phase

19. Physics of condensed matter

Condensed matter physics deals with the exploration and manipulation of phenomena and physical properties of solid and liquid matter based on the principles of quantum mechanics and statistical physics.

20. Nuclear Physics

Nuclear physics is the study of atomic nuclei and the changes in atomic nuclei. Particle physics is the branch of physics that studies the fundamental particles that makeup matter and radiation and their interactions. Particle physics is also called high-energy physics.

Relationship of Physics with Other Sciences

Physics is a very fundamental science among all the Natural Sciences. For example, in Chemistry, the arrangement of molecules and practical ways of changing specific molecules into others using the method of applying the laws of Physics. Biology must also rely heavily on physics and chemistry to explain the processes in living things.

The purpose of studying Physics is to know the essential parts of objects, understand the interactions between objects, and explain natural phenomena that occur. Although physics is divided into several fields, the laws of physics apply universally. A review of a phenomenon from a particular area of physics will obtain the same results when viewed from another area of physics.

In addition, the basic concepts of physics support not only the development of physics itself but also the development of other sciences and technology. Physics supports both pure and applied research. Geologists, in their study, use gravimetric, acoustic, electrical, and mechanical methods. Modern hospital equipment applies physics principles, and astronomers require spectrograph optics and radio engineering.

Benefits of Studying Physics

It is something that we often hear about the statement of some people, or maybe most people think physics is complex. They believe physics is a science full of formulas and high-level mathematical calculations. This results in not everyone being able to study physics well. Even physics is often considered the scourge of learning. This situation is almost the same as the assumption in mathematics.

But despite all the assumptions above, there is something more essential for us to consider. That is about the advantages of studying physics and the disadvantages if we do not want to study physics. Whether we realize it or not, essentially every human being needs knowledge. It keeps up with technological developments to live this life in harmony, where the development of technology is certainly an implication of the physical sciences that experts in their fields have studied.

Studying physics has many benefits. From the beginning of studying physics, physics has been proven to help humans carry out daily life activities. There are several benefits of studying physics, including:

  • Physics plays a significant role in technological discoveries.
  • Through physics can reveal the secrets of nature.
  • Physics is at the forefront of technological developments.
  • Physics is a basic science that has a role in developing other sciences.
  • Physics trains us to think logically and systematically.