Solar Climate Classification: Region, Characteristics, Flora and Fauna

Sun’s Climate – Climate is a state or weather condition that occurs in a large area over a long period of time. Climate can also be interpreted as a measure of the average weather in a large area over a certain period of time. Climate divides various regions of the world based on their respective weather characteristics. Differences in climate make different regions have different characteristics of living things, such as animals and plants. Therefore, humans need to adjust the types of plants that are suitable for planting in the climate of their region so that they can produce resources that will be useful to meet their daily needs.

Climates are classified into five groups, namely Sun Climate, Koppen Climate, Junghuhn Climate, Schmidt Ferguson Climate, and Oldeman Climate. The most commonly used climate classification is the solar climate classification. In this article, we will discuss the definition of solar climate, solar climate classification, examples of countries in the solar climate classification, flora and fauna that live in the solar climate classification, and the characteristics of regions in the solar climate classification.

Definition of Solar Climate

Solar climate is a climate based on the amount of heat or sunlight received in a region of the earth’s surface. The amount of heat or sunlight received in that region of the earth is affected by the latitude of the equator. The closer an area is to the equator, the more sunlight or heat it receives. Vice versa, the farther the distance of an area from the equator, the less or less amount of heat or sunlight that can be received.

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Solar Climate Classification

The solar climate is classified into 4 (four) groups, namely tropical climate, subtropical climate, temperate climate, and cold climate.

1. Tropical climate

The tropical climate is found in areas that are on the equator or at latitudes of 23.5 degrees LU to 23.5 degrees LS. The tropical climate has temperatures above 18 degrees Celsius or 64 degrees Fahrenheit. The region with this climate has two seasons which are experienced every year, following the movement of the sun’s circulation, namely the dry season and the rainy season. The dry season will usually occur from March to August. Meanwhile, the rainy season will usually occur from September to February.

1) Tropical Climate Country

The tropical climate region consists of several parts of the Americas, parts of the Asian continent, and parts of the Middle East. The tropical climates of the Americas include parts of Mexico, the Caribbean Islands, all countries in Central America, Nassau in the Bahamas, as well as parts of South America, consisting of Venezuela, Northern Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador, Suriname, Bolivia, Paraguay and Argentina. The tropical climate region on the Asian continent includes the southern part of India, Hong Kong, the Maldives Islands, parts of Bangladesh, parts of Taiwan, and countries in Southeast Asia. The tropical climate region in the Middle East includes Oman, the United Arab Emirates, Yemen, and the southern part of Saudi Arabia.

2) Characteristics of a Tropical Climate Region

  • It has a high air temperature because of the vertical position of the sun. In general, this air temperature is in the range of 20-30 degrees Celsius, or can even reach more than 30 degrees Celsius in some areas.
  • It has higher and longer rainfall compared to other climates. In the rainy season there can be heavy rain almost every day.
  • Gets enough sunlight every year because it is close to the equator.
  • Evaporation of sea water is quite high because there are clouds in the atmosphere.
  • Change of normal air temperature and not extreme.
  • It has low air pressure and changes in pressure that occur slowly and regularly.
  • In the wet tropics, plants that grow in forests are usually green and dense.
  • In the dry tropics there are many savannas.
  • In dry tropical areas, the air can turn around quickly following the Earth’s back radiation which also takes place quickly.
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3) Flora and Fauna in Tropical Climates

Several types of flora are found in tropical climates, namely pine or tusam, ebony, acacia, meranti, iron, keruing, lime, pitcher plant, orchids, lotus, bougainvillea, bamboo, banana trees, durian, and wooden palms.

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Several types of fauna are found in tropical climates, namely: African fauna, consisting of gorillas, camels, elephants, hippos and pangolins; Australis fauna as well as the Pacific Islands and Eastern Indonesia, consisting of koalas, birds of paradise, kiwi, platypus and cockatoos; Fauna of Southeast Asia, South Asia and West Indonesia, consisting of orangutans, tigers, fish, rhinoceros, bears, deer and several types of reptiles; The fauna of Central America and South Africa, consisting of bison, slow lorises, jaguars, bats and piranha fish.

4) Tropical Climate Type

Based on the amount of rainfall in each region, the tropical climate is divided into three types, namely tropical rain forest, tropical rain forest climate, and tropical savanna climate.

a. Tropical Rainy Climate

The climate of tropical rain forests is in areas with latitudes around 10-15 degrees LU and LS. This region has a windy and calm climate accompanied by relatively high rainfall and a relatively short dry season, which is about two months. Some countries that have a tropical rainy climate, namely Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, Brunei, Madagascar, Congo, the Philippines, Brazil, Colombia, Papua New Guinea, Micronesia, Fiji, Nicaragua, Sri Lanka, Peru and Suriname.

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b. Tropical Monsoon climate

Regions with a tropical monsoon climate have characteristics similar to those with a tropical rain forest climate. However, tropical monsoon climates are exposed to more sunlight than tropical rainforest climates. This climate tends to have warm temperatures throughout the year. Several countries that have a tropical monsoon climate, namely India, Southwest Africa, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Southeastern Brazil, Myanmar and Guyana.

c. Tropical Savanna Climate

The tropical savanna climate is the driest tropical climate with low rainfall. Regions with this climate often experience drought which causes the death of flora and fauna. Some areas that have a tropical savanna climate, namely East Africa, Central Brazil, Paraguay, South Africa, West Madagascar, Sudan, Northern Australia, and Bolivia.

2. Subtropical climate

The subtropical climate is found in areas that are at latitudes of 23.5 degrees to 35 degrees LU and 23.5 degrees to 35 degrees LS. The subtropical region is the area that surrounds the tropical climate area, which is a transition between tropical and temperate climates. This region is right at the north or top and the south or bottom of the equator. This climate has four seasons, namely spring, summer, autumn and winter.

1) Tropical Climate Country

Some areas that have a tropical climate, namely the United States and its surroundings, Central Asia, East Asia, northern West Asia, North Africa, southern Africa, and most of Europe, except Scandinavia.

2) Characteristics of the Subtropical Climate Region

  • Has a variety of extreme weather conditions.
  • The time during the day is relatively longer in summer and relatively shorter in winter.
  • It has relatively higher air pressure when compared to tropical climates
  • Has lower air humidity
  • It has an average rainfall, which is between 750 mm to 1000 mm per year.
  • Has a tree with wide and green leaves in winter and fall in summer.
  • It has warm summers and mild winters
  • The distance between one tree and another tree is not too tight.
  • Having a relatively small number or types of plants.

3) Flora and Fauna in Tropical Climates

Several types of flora that live in subtropical regions, namely lavender, cherry blossoms, moss rose , tulips, blanket flowers , palm trees, mango trees, lychee trees, orange trees, avocado trees, fir trees, and wheat.

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Several types of fauna that live in subtropical regions, namely deer, panthers, sambar, deer, squirrels, bears, eagles, frogs, turtles, panthers, and capybaras.

3. Temperate Climate

Temperate climates are found in areas that are at latitudes of 40 degrees to 66.5 degrees LU and LS. Regions with a temperate climate have four seasons, namely spring, summer, autumn and winter. This climate is divided into four types, namely the sea west coast climate, steppe climate, desert climate, and humid continental climate. Regions with a sea-west climate have temperatures that are humid and overcast in winter and dry and sunny in summer. Regions with a steppe climate have cool air. Regions with desert climates have cool temperatures, but are dry and hot in summer and windy in winter. Regions with a humid continental climate have wet conditions in summer.

1) Moderate Climate Countries

Regions that have a temperate climate are in most of the European Continent, such as Denmark, Germany, Italy, France, England, Ireland, Mongolia, Romania and Ukraine.

2) Characteristics of Moderate Climate Areas

a. Located in the area of ​​40 degrees latitude to 66.5 degrees latitude and 40 degrees south latitude to 66.5 degrees south latitude.
b. It has a larger annual temperature amplitude compared to tropical climates.
c. It has a smaller daily temperature amplitude compared to tropical climates.
d. Air pressure and wind direction often experience erratic changes.
e. There are often sudden storms.

3) Flora and Fauna in Temperate Climates

Several types of flora are found in areas with temperate climates, namely bamboo, punus, ferns, cypresses, mini palms, and beluka.

Several types of fauna are found in areas with temperate climates, namely rabbits, snow rats, grizzly bears, wolves, black bears, and salmon.

4. Cold Climate

The cold climate is found in areas with latitudes of 66.5 degrees LU to 90 degrees LU and 66.5 degrees LS to 90 degrees LS. There are more than 20% of the earth’s surface that has a cold climate. This climate is far from the equator, which is in the polar regions of the earth. Cold climates consist of cool or cool summers and winters that are so cold that permafrost can form.

1) Cold Climate Countries

Some countries that have cold climates, namely Alaska, Canada, Iceland, Sweden, Greenland, Norway, Finland, northern Russia, and the continent of Antarctica.

2) Cold Climate Type

Cold climates are divided into three types, namely taiga climate, tundra climate, and arctic climate.

a. Taiga climate

The taiga climate has very cold temperatures in winter. The taiga region is a habitat for boreal forests overgrown with conifer trees, such as pine trees. The boreal forest would be the largest biome on earth if all of its areas were combined. Several types of animals that live in the taiga, namely the Siberian tiger and the brown bear.

b. Tundra climate

The tundra climate has cold temperatures on the verge of normal. The tundra region is frozen cold land filled with short-lived plants. Some areas with a tundra climate, namely the islands in northern Canada, North America, the southern coast of Greenland, and the northern coast of Siberia. Regions with this climate experience long winters and fast cool summers. In winter, this area will be covered with ice and snow. Later in the summer, this area will form a large swamp due to the melting of ice on the ground surface. The types of plants that live in this area, namely mosses and shrubs. One of the animals that live in this region is the wildebeest.

c. Polar climate

Regions with a polar climate have a fairly thick layer of ice. The polar region includes the North Pole and the South Pole. This area is covered in eternal snow and ice throughout the year making it impossible for plants to live and thrive. Animals that live in this region, namely polar bears in the North Pole region and penguins in the South Pole region.

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