Definition of Tropical Climate, Characteristics of Tropical Climate and Distribution of Tropical Climate – Climate is a situation where there are average weather conditions in an area for a long period of time (minimum 30 years). Climate is influenced by the atmosphere, air temperature, air humidity, rainfall, sunlight, and of course the equator.
The world has four climates, namely tropical, subtropical, temperate, and polar. The difference in climate in various parts of the world is caused by the equator.
In the hemisphere close to the equator will have a tropical and subtropical climate. While the part of the earth that is far from the equator will have a moderate and polar climate. Tropical climate is an area located between the isotherm line on the northern and southern parts of the earth
Often people think that climate, weather, and season are the same. Although all three are different. Climate as explained above. Weather is a behavior of the atmosphere in the short term. While the season is a period of time in which there is a dominant weather phenomenon.
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Definition of Tropical Climate
Tropical regions are divided into two according to natural conditions. The first is a dry tropical region, including steppes, dry savannas, and deserts. Then the second humid climate includes tropical rainforests, savannas, and areas that have a wet season.
According to Lippsmeier (1994), Indonesia enters the tropical rainforest part of the area around the equator up to about 15 degrees in the north and south. The character of this climate is usually characterized by high precipitation and humidity.
A climate like this also has the character of little wind, moderate to strong solar radiation, little heat exchange due to high humidity.
This climate has two seasons each year, namely the dry season and the rainy season. The dry season usually occurs between March and August. While the rainy season usually occurs between September and February.
- Relatively high air humidity reaches above 90%.
- Has high rainfall.
- The annual temperature in Indonesia can be more than 18 degrees, then in the dry season it can reach 38 degrees.
- The difference between seasons in Indonesia is not very noticeable. Except during periods of light rain and heavy rain accompanied by strong winds.
- While the dry climate shows some characteristics as follows:
- Have low air humidity below 50%.
- Has low rainfall.
- High solar radiation because it is rarely covered by clouds, so the sunlight directly reaches the ground.
- There are many deserts, this happens because of low rainfall.
- When it is at extreme temperatures, there is often a breakdown or explosion of rocks.
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Characteristics of a Tropical Climate
Each climate must have its own characteristics or characteristics. Below will be explained some characteristics of the tropical climate. Characteristics of a tropical climate include:
- Having high rainfall, and longer in each year, this also makes the soil in the tropical climate fertile.
- Evaporation of sea water is quite high because there are clouds in the atmosphere.
- The tropical climate area is located between 23.5 degrees LU and 23.5 degrees LS.
- Air temperature change is normal and not extreme.
- It has a low air pressure, and the pressure change is slow
- It has a small annual amplitude of around 1-5 degrees Celsius, except for the daily amplitude which is larger.
- Wet tropical regions are usually plants that grow in green and dense forests.
- In dry tropical regions there are many savannas.
- Due to the movement of the sun’s circulation, the tropical climate has two seasons, namely the dry season and the rainy season.
- Rainfall in tropical climates is higher and longer compared to other climates in the world.
- The tropical climate region receives sunlight every year because it is located close to the equator.
- Has an average high air temperature due to the vertical position of the sun. Generally, the air temperature is around 20-30 degrees Celsius. It can even reach more than 30 degrees Celsius in some places.
- Tropical climate can affect global climate if it has significant changes.
- The air temperature in a tropical climate is very high. During the day it can reach 45 degrees Celsius, and 10 degrees Celsius at night.
- The dry tropical climate region of the air can turn quickly, this is due to the earth’s return radiation which also happens quickly.
In Indonesia itself, which is included as a tropical rainforest, it has a diverse flora and fauna in it. Get to know the various fauna available through the book Meet the Animal Habitat: Tropical Rainforest Series below.
Distribution of Tropical Climate Regions
Not only in Indonesia, several other countries also have the same climate, which is a tropical climate. A country that has a tropical climate is a country that is in the tropic of cancer zone , 23.5 degrees LU, and the tropic of capricorn 23.5 degrees LS. This tropical climate region always gets full vertical sunlight during the day. Of course, this tropical region is crossed by the equator.
Countries that have a tropical climate include several states in the Americas, Asia, and countries in the Middle East. Here are the details:
1. States in the Americas
- All countries in Central America
- Caribbean Islands Region
- Nassau in the Bahamas
- Upper South America includes Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, Suriname, Paraguay, Argentina, Venezuela, northern Chile, and Brazil.
- Part of Mexico
2. The Asian continent
- South East Asia
- Hong Kong
- Maldives Islands
- Part of Taiwan
- Part of Bangladesh
- Southern part of India
3. Countries in the Middle East
- Southern Saudi Arabia
- United Arab Emirates
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Tropical Climate Type
You should know that tropical climates are divided into three types. The division of this type of tropical climate is based on the amount of rainfall in each region. Here are the three types of tropical climates.
1. Tropical Rainforest Climate
The climate in this tropical rain forest is in the region of the equator, which is around 10-15 degrees LU and LS. This area has calm winds with high rainfall, even the dry season in this area only occurs for two months.
Countries that have a tropical rainforest climate include Indonesia, Congo, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Brunei, Madagascar, Suriname, Singapore, Philippines, Brazil, Micronesia, Fiji, Sri Lanka, Colombia, Peru, Nicaragua and surrounding areas.
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2. Tropical Monsoon Climate
This monsoon climate has the same character as a tropical rainforest, the difference is that the tropical monsoon climate is more exposed to sunlight. This climate has warm weather throughout the year.
Countries that have a tropical monsoon climate include Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Guyana, Southwest Africa, and Southeast Brazil.
3. Tropical Savannah Climate
The area that has a tropical savanna climate is the driest tropical climate area because it has minimal rainfall. In areas with a tropical savannah climate, droughts often occur which cause flora and fauna to die.
Countries that have a tropical savanna climate include Sudan, East Africa, South Africa, Northern Australia, Central Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Western Madagascar.
Wet Tropical Climate Factors in Indonesia
Indonesia is located on the equator which has a tropical climate. Indonesia falls into the wet tropical category. This is also influenced by the shape and location of Indonesia as an archipelago country and surrounded by the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean.
That is what makes Indonesia have a wet tropical climate. A lot of sea evaporation brings a lot of rain and makes it humid.
Other factors also affect the wet tropical climate in Indonesia, and there are three scales that affect Indonesia’s climate. Here are the factors.
1. Global Scale
On this scale it means that Indonesia is surrounded by the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. As well as a direct border with the Asian continent and Australia. With the location of Indonesia like that makes Indonesia have a Wet Tropical Climate.
2. Regional Scale
On this scale, it means that the Indonesian archipelago is surrounded by 5 large islands, not including the small islands spread from Sabang to Merauke, as well as surrounded by the sea and straits.
3. Local Scale
On this scale it means that Indonesia has towering mountains. Mountains have an influence on rainfall and temperature, as well as climate. This is because the mountain has a lower temperature than the sea surface.
Flora and Fauna in Tropical Climates
Different climates will produce different flora and fauna as well. Each flora and fauna has its own life expectancy. If it is not suitable for the climate then they will not be able to live in the area.
In addition to climate, the type of soil is also influential for plant life. Different soil will also grow different plants as well. Not only that, the influence of other living things is also an important factor, as well as the intensity of sunlight because flora needs sunlight.
1. Flora of Tropical Climates
As we know that regions with a tropical climate have tropical rainforests. The characteristic of tropical rainforests is to have homogeneous plants and thick leaves, and the forest will tend to be darker. The types of flora that will be found in tropical climates are:
- Meranti ( Shorea and Parashorea )
- Pinus or Tusam
- Keruing (Dipterocarpus)
- Black Wood ( Diospyros sp )
- Palm ( Palmae )
- Ironwood ( Eusideroxylon zwageri )
- Chalk ( Dryobalanops )
- Acacia ( Acacia auriculiformis )
As we know that Indonesia is a country with a tropical climate and is known for its fertile soil so it is blessed with a variety of plants beneficial to human health.
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2. Tropical Climate Fauna
Animals that live in tropical climates are also animals that are resistant to weather, temperature, and the surrounding environment. In the wild this can be called natural selection. Here are the types of animals in tropical climates:
- African fauna: gorillas, elephants, pangolins, camels, hippos.
- Australis fauna as well as the Pacific islands and Eastern Indonesia: paradise, cockatoo, kiwi, platypus, and koala.
- Fauna of Southeast Asia, South Asia, and Western Indonesia: bears, tigers, rhinos, deer, orangutans, several types of reptiles, and fish.
- Fauna of Central America and South Africa: bats, bulls, jaguars, kingfishers, and endemic fish such as piranhas.
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Reader can also see various other interesting facts about fauna in tropical regions through the 200 Important Facts about Animals & Their Habitats: Tropical Regions & Rainforests below.
Tropical Climate Economic Sector
Economy is an important thing for every country. Employment in a country is also determined by the climate in that country. Indonesia has a tropical climate where the work area is not far from nature. Here are some of the livelihoods of people with a tropical climate:
1. Agriculture and Horticulture
This job is suitable for regions that have a tropical climate because they have enough sunlight and high rainfall. For example, when the rainy season arrives, farmers work their land to grow crops. The plantation workers will also produce quality fruit, with good color and good taste. This is also due to the soil and enough sunlight.
2. Sea Mining and Fishing
Tropical regions in Southeast Asia mostly utilize marine resources as a means of livelihood. Marine resources that are utilized such as fish, salt, petroleum, and also natural gas. The vastness of the sea in Southeast Asia and having abundant natural resources make some people in Southeast Asia use the sea as a source of livelihood.
3. African Agriculture, Mining and Industry
Not only in Southeast Asia, the African region that has a tropical climate also has some people working in agriculture, mining, and industry. As with other tropical climate regions, there are many natural resources that can be used for food or other raw materials.
Specifically, this book discusses the study of environmental politics, fisheries, and food which are strategic sectors in Indonesia. In that way, this book is worthy of your possession to increase your insight into strategic sectors in the country of Indonesia.
Tropical climate is a region that is between the isotherm line of 23.5 degrees LU and 23.5 degrees LS. Tropical climates are further divided into two, namely dry tropical climates and wet tropical climates, both of which have some differences such as the existence of savannas in dry tropical climates and the existence of tropical rainforests in wet tropical climates.
The tropical climate also has several characteristics such as high rainfall, low air pressure, normal air temperature changes, a lot of sea water evaporation, and others. The distribution of this tropical climate is quite wide. The tropical climate is spread over several states in Central and South America, the Asian continent, and several countries in the Middle East.
Not only dry and wet tropical climates, but this tropical climate is divided into three more parts, namely the tropical rainforest climate, the tropical monsoon climate, and also the tropical savannah climate. Indonesia has a tropical climate due to several supporting factors on a global, regional, and local scale.
Flora and fauna in tropical climates are also diverse. Flora and fauna in tropical climates are different from regions with non-tropical climates. Things like this happen because the factors of temperature, environment, and soil also affect the existence of flora and fauna.
The tropical climate makes the people in the region have jobs that are not far from nature. People who live in tropical climates partly work in agriculture, plantations, mining, and industry. All these jobs are related to the utilization of natural resources.
Well, that’s the explanation about the meaning, characteristics, distribution, and other things related to tropical climate. It ‘s fun to learn about things related to one’s own region, which Indonesia also includes having a tropical climate.