The Division of Climate Classification in the World

sinaumedia – Climate is a combination of various daily weather conditions or it is said that climate is the average weather. The climate contained in an area or region cannot be limited by just one climate analysis but is a combination of various climate or weather elements. The following is a more complete explanation of the Climate Classification, Sinaumed’s.

Definition of Climate According to Experts

According to the World Climate Conference states that climate is a synthesis of weather events over a long or long period of time, which is statistically sufficient to be used as indicating a statistical value that is different from a situation at any time.

Definition of Climate According to Experts:

  • World Climate Conference, 1979 According to the World Climate Conference states that climate is a synthesis of weather events over a long or long period of time, which is statistically sufficient to be used as indicating a statistical value that is different from a situation at any time.
  • Glenn T. Trewartha, 1980 According to Glenn, climate is an abstract concept that states a habit of weather and also an element of the atmosphere in an area over a long period of time.
  • Gibbs, 1978 According to Gibbs revealed that climate is a statistical opportunity in various atmospheric conditions, including temperature, pressure, wind humidity, which occur in an area over a long period of time.


Climate Determinants

Differences in climate in each country are influenced by many factors, including the location of the country, the position of the sun, land and sea area, topography, etc. These factors are commonly called climate controllers. 

Climate controllers  can regulate the presence of climate elements or elements in an area. There are two climate control factors, namely:

Extraterrestrial Factors

The climate control factor from outside the earth is the sun. Sunlight is a source of heat or energy for the earth. The sun’s heat or energy can affect the existence and development of: wind, clouds, rain, temperature, air pressure, etc. The sun’s position relative to the earth or vice versa, throughout the year is not the same, but always shifts. This can happen because of the earth’s rotation and revolution around the sun, so that the area on earth that gets energy is always changing, both in quantity, quality, and length of time. The position of the sun relative to the earth has a major influence on the distribution of climate regions on earth.

You can also study discussion of greenhouse gases which play a dominant role in increasing the average temperature of the earth’s surface in the book Science of Climate Change which also discusses various other topics related to climate change.

Earth Factors

Factors controlling the climate from within the earth are determined by humans and the physical factors of the area concerned. Climate control by humans does not much change the condition and development of the climate, but is only able to minimize the effects of the climate, such as making artificial rain. The physical condition of the area that acts as a climate regulator is:

  •  Latitude
  • Earth shape
  • Topography _
  • Air pressure area
  • Ground level
  • Land and sea area
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Various causes of climate change and ways we can do to stop it can be found in the book Why? Climate Change – Climate Change by delivering interesting and fun information.



Climate Classification

Climate Classification is an attempt to identify and characterize the differences in climate found on earth. Due to differences in latitude (position relative to the equator, latitude), geographic location, and topographical conditions, a place has a specific climate. Climate classifications are usually related to biomes or floristic provinces because climate influences the native vegetation that grows in an area. The most commonly known climate classifications are the Koeppen and Geiger classifications. This classification applies to the whole world so it is often referred to for geological and ecological studies. Some countries develop their own climate classifications to address the wide variations in local climates. Indonesia, for example, uses the Schmidt and Ferguson (SF) classification system more frequently, which turned out to be preferred for forestry and agricultural studies. The SF system is based on the classification previously compiled by Mohr, but the criteria are refined. Broadly speaking, the types of climate classification on earth can be grouped into two, namely:

  • Genetic, distinguished by air mass flow, wind direction, topography and differences in sunlight
  • Empirical, based on research methods and scientific observations of the elements that make up the climate.

Thus, the division of climates in the world can be distinguished based on the classification carried out by climatologists. Along with the times and technology, the distribution of climates in the world has changed and the determination of the classification has also become more complex. The following is a climate division based on the observations of climatologists:

Koppen Climate Classification System

The Koppen climate classification system is the most frequently used in the world which is based on average annual and monthly temperatures, and native vegetation. According to Koppen, the climate in the world is divided into 5 classes which are symbolized by the letter AE, as follows:

  • Tropical rainy climate (A): Temperatures range from 18˚C-30˚C, and has monthly rainfall of > 60mm. The vegetation that thrives is a tropical rain forest ecosystem.
  • Dry climate (B): Rainfall that occurs evenly throughout the year. The temperature ranges from 19˚C-32˚C and the vegetation that thrives is in the steppe biome and in the sand or desert biome.
  • Temperate climate (C): Temperatures are divided into two, namely winter temperatures ranging from -3°C to less than 18°C ​​and summer temperatures ranging from more than 10°C. In this climate, the temperature is always humid throughout the year and is dry in winter and summer, rainfall each month is about more than 60 mm.
  • Cold climates (D): The average temperature is -3˚C to ≥ 10˚C. This climate is cold and dry.
  • Polar climate (E): Recorded temperatures of around 0°C to 10°C are due to topographical elevations that are over 5000 feet above sea level. The vegetation that grows is a tundra biome and has eternal snow.
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The Klages System (1942)

This system divides the climate based on wind flow and global rainfall which includes the equatorial zone, this area has the characteristics of wet and tropical rain whose rain is monsoon rain. Tropical zone, this area experiences rain in summer and has savanna biome vegetation and dry forest. Dry subtropical zone, this area is dry and is dominated by deserts or deserts, and its vegetation includes steppes and steppe biomes. Dry snowy rainy zone, this area is characterized by rainy season in winter, and the vegetation includes hard-leaved trees. Extratropical zone, this area experiences rain throughout the year and the vegetation includes heterogeneous forests and the trees have broad leaves. Subpolar zone, this area has limited rain throughout the year and conifer forests dominate the vegetation.

The Schmidt & Ferguson System (1951)

Schmidt–Ferguson classifies climates based on the average number of dry months and the average number of wet months. A month is called a dry month, if in one month there is less than 60 mm of rainfall. Called a wet month, if in one month the rainfall is more than 100 mm.

Oldeman’s System (1975)

Determination of climate according to Oldeman uses the same basis as the determination of climate according to Schmidt-Ferguson, namely the element of rainfall. Wet months and dry months are associated with agricultural activities in certain areas so that the climate classification is also called agro-climatic zones. For example, an amount of rainfall of 200 mm per month is considered sufficient to cultivate paddy rice. As for cultivating crops, the minimum amount of rainfall needed is 100 mm per month. In addition, a 5-month rainy season is considered sufficient to cultivate paddy rice for one season. In this method, the basis for determining wet months, wet months, and dry months is as follows. Wet month, when the rainfall is > 200 mm. The month is humid, when the rainfall is 100–200 mm. Dry months, if the rainfall is <100 mm.

Junghuhn system

Climate According to Junghuhn classifies climate based on altitude and associates climate with the types of plants that grow and produce optimally according to the temperature in their habitat. Junghuhn classifies the climate into four 0-700 m, hot zone, samples- rubber, coffee, sugarcane, corn, coconut 700-1500 m, temperate zone, samples- tea, quinine 1500-2500 m, cool zone, examples- pine > 2500 m, cold zone, example- moss.

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