Definition of the Non-Aligned Movement: History and Objectives of the Non-Aligned Movement

Definition of Non-Aligned Movement – ​​Does Readers know what non-aligned movement is? So, the meaning of this non-aligned movement is an international organization consisting of 100 countries that do not consider their countries to be allied with or against any big power bloc.

The purpose of the existence of this non-aligned movement organization is certainly one of the ways to reduce tensions between the two blocks involved in a dispute. In addition, this organization also aims to unite countries that do not want to form an alliance with countries that participated in the Cold War.

Then what exactly is the meaning of the non-aligned movement? For more details, let’s look at the explanation below regarding the meaning of the non-aligned movement and its brief history.

Definition of Non-Aligned Movement

The non-aligned movement or commonly abbreviated as NAM or Non Aligned Movement (NAM) is a movement pioneered by third world countries that have members of more than 100 countries and seek to carry out their foreign policies in a way that does not take sides with anyone or does not consider their own country has an alliance with the West Bloc or the East Bloc. The NAM was founded on September 1, 1961 which was spearheaded by several figures, including Soekarno from Indonesia, Jawaharlal Nehru from India, Gamal Abdul Nasser from Egypt, Kwame Nkrumah from Ghana, and also Joseph Broz Tito from Yugoslavia.

The Western Block countries with the largest number are eight countries consisting of the United Kingdom, the United States, Belgium, France, Canada, the Netherlands, Luxembourg and Norway. Meanwhile, the Eastern Bloc consisted of only four countries, namely East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Romania, and also the Soviet Union. To be able to maintain the position of each block, the Western Bloc finally formed the North Atlantic Treaty Organization or NATO. Meanwhile, the Eastern Bloc formed the Warsaw Pact. In addition, the two blocs continue to look for allies to increase their defense in Asia, Africa and America.

Even though currently the two blocs are no longer at war, the differences between the two blocs continue to be a problem material in international life. Therefore, in response to conditions that could heat up at any time, the countries that had just gained independence in the Asia-Africa region also finally held discussions through the Asian-African Conference or KAA which was held in Bandung, West Java.

According to the website of the Indonesian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Asian-African Conference has a fairly close relationship with the NAM. At a meeting of KAA member countries in Indonesia in 1955, an agreement called the Ten Principles of Bandung was born. The agreement contains the principles of implementing international cooperation. After that, from 1 to 6 September 1961, the First Summit was held again in Boegorg, Yugoslavia. The conference was attended by approximately 25 countries including Indonesia.

Through this conference, a neutral country organization or NAM was born. Therefore, the NAM was finally officially established on September 1, 1961. Several countries that were in the NAM and participated in attending the Summit I included Algeria, Afghanistan, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, Burma, Congo, Cambodia, Cuba, Ethiopia, Cyprus, Ghansa, India, Guinea, Indonesia, Lebanon, Iraq, Morocco, Mali, Sudan, Somalia, Tunisia, RPA, Yugoslavia, Yemen and Nepal.

At the First Summit, the NAM founding countries agreed to establish a movement, not an organization to avoid all bureaucratic implications in building a work effort between each NAM country. Then the First Summit emphasized that the NAM would not be directed to a passive role in international politics. But to formulate the country’s own position in an independent way that can reflect all the interests of member countries.

NAM succeeded in occupying a special position in foreign policy in Indonesia. This is because since the beginning of the formation of the NAM, Indonesia has played a central role, the KAA has also become one of the proofs of Indonesia’s role and contribution in pioneering the establishment of the Non-Aligned Movement. In particular, President Soekarno was also recognized as one of the initiating figures and also the founder of the NAM organization. Indonesia considers that the NAM has an important role. Because the principles and goals of the NAM are to reflect on the struggles and goals of the Indonesian people, as stated in the 1945 Constitution.

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History of the Non-Aligned Movement

The word “Non-Aligned” was first introduced by the Prime Minister of India, namely Jawaharlal Nehru in his speech in 1954 in Colombo, Sri Lanka. In that speech, Nehru explained the five pillars that can be used as guidelines to form Sino-Indian relations which are called the Panchsheel or the five controllers. This principle was then used as the basis of the Non-Aligned Movement. The contents of the five principles include:

1. Mutual respect for territorial integrity and sovereignty.
2. Non-aggression agreement
3. Non-interference in other countries’ internal affairs
4. Equality and mutual benefit
5. Maintaining peace

The Non-Aligned Movement originated from an Asian-African Summit held in Bandung, Indonesia in 1955. At the conference, countries that sided with a particular bloc would declare their desire not to be involved in a confrontation between Western or Eastern ideologies. The founders of this movement were five world leaders, including Josip Broz Tito the president of Yugoslavia, Soekarno the president of Indonesia, Gamal Abdul Nasser the president of Egypt, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru the prime minister of India, and Kwame Nkrumah from Ghana.

This movement had lost its credibility in the late 1960s when its members began to split and join other blocs, including the Eastern Bloc. After that, the question arose about how a country allied with the Soviet Union like Cuba could claim to be a non-aligned country. The movement then began to split completely during the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979.
The ASEAN Summit or Summit is the culmination of meetings between leaders of ASEAN member countries in relation to economic and cultural development among Southeast Asian countries. In order to achieve the ASEAN goals that have been formulated, it is necessary to conduct business and activities. During implementation, 11 committees have been formed, for example, food ingredients and committees for agriculture, finance, tourism, and also the mass media. This committee has a goal to improve the form of cooperation between the six member countries. In addition, it also forms committees from the Ad Hoc Committee or Working Committee. These committees include the Special Committee which has the duty to improve trade relations with the ECC. Then the committee is also tasked with increasing cooperation between ASEAN and Australia, New Zealand, Canada,

Purpose of the Non-Aligned Movement

The main purpose of the existence of the non-aligned movement or NAM is to support the right to self-determination, sovereignty, national independence, and also the national integrity of member countries. In addition, the main objectives of the NAM are as follows:

1. Against apartheid.
2. Not taking sides in multilateral military pacts.
3. Struggle to oppose all forms and manifestations of imperialism.
4. Fight for and oppose colonialism, occupation, racism, neo-colonialism, and foreign domination.
5. Disarmament.
6. Will not interfere in the internal affairs of other countries and coexist peacefully.
7. Refuse to use or threaten force in international relations.
8. Building a social economy and restructuring the international economic system.
9. Carry out international cooperation in accordance with equal rights.
10. Developing solidarity among developing countries to achieve prosperity, togetherness and independence.
11. Alleviating world tension, due to the emergence of feuds between the two blocks, namely the West Block and the East Block.

Implementation of the Non-Aligned Summit

The Non-Aligned Summit is a high-level conference held by countries that adhere to political principles that are not bound by any of the blocs.

1. First Conference

The first meeting was held in 1961 in Belgrade to spark political principles together. The meaning of this policy reads “politics based on peaceful coexistence, free from blocs, not members of military alliances and dreams of aspirations to eliminate colonialism in all its forms and manifestations”.

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The first Non-Aligned Conference which was held in September 1961 in Belgrade was seen as a continuation of the Asian-African Conference in Bandung. A total of 25 countries took part, 8 from Asia, 9 from Africa, 1 from Europe, Yugoslavia, then one from Latin America, Cuba and 6 from Arabia. The conference was the driving force of President Tito who shifted to the Third World as they wanted to escape the second block of isolation. Threesome with Nehru as well as Nasser, Tito played vocal group meeting. Where the conference discussed racial discrimination, assistance for progress, and also development and disarmament.

2. Second Conference

The second conference was held in October 1964 in Cairo. Where the conference was attended by delegates from 48 countries and 10 countries with official observer status, most of which were Latin America. The two conferences saw conflict between the moderate leaders of the Nehru state group and also the leaders of the radical groups Soekarno and Kwame Nkrumah.

3. Third Conference

In September 1970, the third Conference was held in Lusaka, the Capital of Zambia. The number of participants present at that time increased to 54 countries, 9 countries sent observers. The main theme of this conference, led by the President of Zambia, Kenneth Kaunda, is the dispute over the racist white minority regime in South Africa. The principle of non-alignment was stated not to reduce its power as it had been formulated in Cairo and also Belgrade.

 

4. Fourth Conference

The fourth high-level conference took place in September 1973 and was attended by 75 countries in Algeria. Where at that time, Prince Sihanouk who came from Cambodia represented the royal government. The observers consisted of organizations from the independence and liberation movements of South Africa and also Latin America. The main theme presented at the conference chaired by Algerian President Boumediene was regarding the problems of poor countries. In closing, the right of resolution is formulated to nationalize foreign companies.

5. Fifth Conference

The fifth conference was held in August 1976 in Colombo, the capital of Sri Lanka. In this conference, apart from being strengthened by non-aligned countries which are detrimental to the world economic order that is unjust and can threaten world peace, a joint formulation was also formulated to fight non-aligned countries in the field of trade. industry, information technology media, which includes ways to strengthen non-aligned countries. From the conference, they succeeded in formulating a joint action program called the declaration of struggle.

6. VI Conference

The sixth conference was held in September 1979 in Havana, the capital of Cuba. The number of participants who took part in the conference were 94 countries, 20 observers, and 18 organizations as well as countries with guest status. Even though the atmosphere was filled with conflict between moderates and radicals, the conference succeeded in formulating a resolution to strengthen the non-aligned principles formulated in a political declaration. Not only that, an economic declaration strengthening the non-aligned attitude towards what they claim is detrimental to the domination of foreign economic wealth by developing countries was also successfully formulated.

7. VIIth Conference

Cambodian membership was not completed successfully. Thus, both Heng Samrin’s government and the Pol Pot regime only became observer status, the Non-Aligned Summit, which was supposed to be held in September 1982 in Baghdad, the capital of Iraq, was canceled due to the war between Iraq and Iran which had not been successfully resolved. Then, Delhi, the capital of India, became the substitute venue for this seventh non-aligned conference.

This is an explanation of the meaning of the non-aligned movement, history, and also the purpose of the existence of the non-aligned movement. Hope it is useful.