Locomotor, non-locomotor and manipulative movements can be found in daily activities, including during various sporting activities. However, not many people know about these two types of motion.
Locomotor movement itself is a movement that causes displacement or movement of the body from one place to another. Locomotor skills are defined as the skills of moving individuals from one place to another, for example, jumping, walking, running and climbing.
In locomotor movement one has to move the body from position A to B and when moving, the body will be lifted to move to the second position. These movements are usually taught to children at an early age, namely when practicing movement skills. Most children will learn to walk when they are around 1 year old and run when they are around 2 years old. Locomotor movement skills can develop from the results of a certain level of developmental maturity. However, regular practice and experience also have an important role to achieve one’s locomotor skills.
To understand more deeply about locomotor movements, you can find out the types, benefits and examples. The following is a summary of the types, benefits and examples of locomotor movements. Check out the full explanation below!
Definition of Locomotor Movement
Locomotor movement is a body movement by moving from one position to another which consists of basic movements. So, in an individual movement, it is then required to be able to move the body from position A to position B or to position C. When moving independently the body will be lifted and then projected upwards to go to the second position.
Basically, basic locomotor movements are a domain movement of fundamental basic movements. In a locomotor skill then it can be defined as a skill that is moving individuals from one place to another.
Most of the locomotor skills themselves develop as a result of a certain level of maturity. However, experience and practice are also important in achieving mature proficiency. In a locomotor skill, for example, galloping, gliding, fast running, and jumping, which may be more difficult to do because these are a combination of other basic movement patterns.
A locomotor skill in the form of basic or gross motor coordination foundation or gross skill which basically involves a lot of large muscle movements. Locomotor movements are also movements that go anywhere. Experts also define locomotor movement as one of the movements that causes the body to move from one place to another or to various places, so that in English it is also called Traveling.
This is of course the opposite of non-locomotor movement, which does not cause the body to move from one place to another. A locomotor movement is also one of the foundations for the development of movement coordination which generally involves large muscles, muscle growth, endurance and stamina or power.
Examples of Locomotor Movement
Locomotor movement as a movement of the whole body to go through a certain space or distance. This movement will also make a person move from one place to another. Many activities can be done with this locomotor movement.
When doing sports there will be a lot of locomotor movements that are carried out. Not only helping friends to move on exercise, locomotor motion also has various benefits. Know the following examples of locomotor movements:
The first example of locomotor movement is walking. Walking as a movement to move the body from one place to another. Walking is a process of losing balance and returning it alternately when moving forward in an upright position.
In practice, gait shows very little up and down movement and sideways movement. Arms and legs move in opposite directions. In walking, the legs move alternately, with one foot always in contact with the ground or floor. This means that the stepping foot must be placed on the ground before the other foot is lifted. So there is no hover moment.
Body weight is transferred from the heel to the ball of the foot and then to the toes for propulsion. Toes point straight ahead and arms swing free from shoulders in the opposite direction to feet. Body erect, eyes focused forward and directed slightly lower than eye level. The legs swing gently from the pelvis, with the knees bent until they are just a little off the ground.
A gait that has reached the mature stage is soft, smooth, and completed in easy sequences. Assessing the walking patterns of children, pay attention to the following aspects:
- Bouncing walk – too much vertical (upward) thrust.
- Excessive swing of arms out to side.
- Failure of arm swing at (not originating from) shoulder.
- The feet step too close so that the whole body looks stiff when walking.
- Both feet went too far like a duck walk.
- Big toe pointing out.
- The big toe points inward – dove toe.
- Head too far forward – body leans forward before lead foot hits the ground.
Running is also included in locomotor motion. Running as one of the movements of moving the body from one place to another with a step change technique while the body is in the air. Compared to walking, running is the movement of the feet rapidly alternately, in an instant, both feet leave the earth before one foot immediately rests on it.
Running is distinguished from fast (sprint) to slow. The body, although it differs in degree according to speed, must lean slightly forward. Knees bent and lifted, arms swinging in front and back of shoulders, and elbows bent.
During the early stages of running (2 years of age), a child will develop an unstable balance. The child makes exaggerated leg movements, specifically the knees of the legs swinging outward then rotating forward in preparation for the grounding phase. This knee action is accompanied by the feet pointing the toes out. This excessive movement gradually disappears as the child’s limbs become longer and stronger.
3. Stand on tiptoe
Apart from running, another example of locomotor movement is tiptoeing or the movement of moving the body from one place to another using one foot to land and rest on.
Another example of locomotor movement is jumping. The jumping movement as a type of movement skills projects the body and involves landing and refusing using both feet.
Jumping is the movement of resisting and absorbing force by landing on one foot. This movement requires muscle strength, body coordination, and dynamic balance.
Apart from jumping, another example of locomotor motion is galloping. This movement is often referred to as galloping. Galloping as a walking motion activity combined with jumping ( jumping ). The direction of galloping can also be backwards or forwards. This movement itself is done with two legs.
The next example of locomotor movement is the creeping movement. The creeping movement itself can be interpreted as the movement of moving the body from place A to place B or B to A with the body positioned face down on the surface.
Apart from creeping, another example of locomotor movement is climbing as a movement of moving the body up and down using both hands and feet. The upper limbs themselves are in charge of keeping the body from falling.
Another example of locomotor movement is leaping. Leaping itself can be interpreted as a split movement in the air by extending a step to reach a considerable distance. Usually this movement is also combined with a running movement.
Apart from leaping , there is also a locomotor movement called sliding. Slidding is a jumping movement to the right or left with one foot always in front, from a position with both feet wide apart.
The next example of locomotor movement is skipping which can be interpreted as a movement that comes from a combination of alternating walking and lifting movements. One walk, one tiptoe and so on.
The last example of locomotor motion is rolling or rolling. In a simple sense, rolling is a rotating motion without stopping along a surface. This movement can also be done in a forward, backward, and sideways direction.
Examples of Locomotor Game
Doing locomotor movements will also help make your friends aware of your body. In addition, this movement will also help train agility and dexterity in moving. This locomotor movement is also a basic movement that can be done by humans.
Practicing this locomotor movement can also help train body strength and balance. This movement will also be the basic movement in various types of sports. Therefore, this movement will nourish the body. Below are various types of locomotor movements that you can often do.
Locomotor movement as a movement that involves the body in humans. Locomotor movements are also usually often carried out by sportsmen such as football, basketball, volleyball, running and so on.
Because basically locomotor movement also has the characteristics of moving places. For example, moving from one place to another. Meanwhile, when we play soccer without realizing it, we are already doing some of the locomotor movements.
Fundamental basic movements according to Harrow (1972) are an inherent movement pattern that forms the basis for complex movement skills including non-locomotor movements, locomotor movements; and manipulative movements.
The game of softball itself has a series of basic locomotor, non-locomotor and manipulative movements. Locomotor movement as a movement to change places. In locomotor movements, certain body parts move or change places. Examples of locomotor movements include running, jumping and climbing. Meanwhile, non-locomotor movements include movements that are not accompanied by a change of place.
After hitting in softball, it means that certain body parts make movements with the body position in place. Examples of non-locomotor movements themselves are shaking, bending, turning, and swinging. There is a manipulative movement which is a movement that involves mastery of an object or a movement that involves a tool.
Some examples of manipulative movements are hitting, catching, throwing and bouncing the ball. In the game of softball itself there is a combination of basic locomotor, non-locomotor, and manipulative movements. The following are examples of traditional locomotor games:
- Cak Engkleng or Engklek.
- Gobak Sodor.
- Patil Lele.
- Yeye Stilts or Rubber Jump.
- Rangku Pestle Bekel Ball or Stick Dance.
The benefit of the locomotor movement itself is to develop an awareness related to a body’s presence in space. Experts usually refer to it as motor perceptual awareness which consists of: Awareness of one’s own body, Awareness of a spatial relationship (spatial), Awareness of the concept of direction and Visual and auditory awareness from an early age, this awareness will also be seen in a child when imitating the teacher’s movements or imitating other children.
The difference between locomotor and non-locomotor movements is in daily activities. The two basic movements then appear naturally. However, as a means of agility training, this movement is then taught from an early age to children. Educators then realized the importance of honing both locomotor and non-locomotor movements, so that these two things were later included in the sports education curriculum at the elementary school level.
While non-locomotor movement can be known from the beginning of the movement. Non-locomotor movements as basic movements which can then be carried out without any displacement. This movement skill is also done by moving the limbs involving muscles and joints in a stationary or static state of the body.
Non-locomotor movements are also divided into four types, including twisting the body, bending the body, twisting the body, and changing the position of the limbs. If the locomotor movement is described by running, tiptoeing, crawling, and walking. While non-locomotor movements are twisting the body, bending and changing body position or movements to change the position of the limbs that are not accompanied by making the body move completely to another place.
Benefits and Purpose of Locomotor Movement
Benefits of Locomotor Movement
Locomotor movements have several benefits, namely:
- Self-awareness of the body.
- Awareness of direction concept.
- Train agility and dexterity.
- As a basic movement that is usually done by humans.
- Train skills and courage in carrying out a movement.
- Train the strength and balance of the body.
- Develop the ability to recognize space.
- Maintain body health and fitness.
Purpose of Locomotor Movement
The purpose of basic locomotor movements in rhythmic gymnastics is to support the achievement of the goal of perfecting motion which is used as a basis for channeling interests and talents and complementing efforts to develop the whole person. From these goals, children’s movements can be created in the future which can then be directed to other useful activities, especially in the development of sports.
The purpose of rhythmic activity in the first rhythmic gymnastics is to stimulate creativity through freedom of fantasy and an emphasis on spontaneous movement. Second, forming personality, especially individual abilities, personal and social maturity. Third, cultivating movement cooperation aimed at oneself is impossible without paying attention to the movements of others. So that in rhythmic gymnastics there are three things that must be considered, namely rhythm, body flexibility (flexibility), and movement continuity.