Definition of Manipulative Movement – Humans must move so that the cells and joints in the body are not stiff and continue to function properly. The movements that humans do, no matter how simple, are still important to maintain the health of the body. In performing movements, some movements are indeed planned, but some other movements occur spontaneously.
Basic human movements are classified into three, namely locomotor movements, non-locomotor movements, and manipulative movements. Locomotor movement is one of the most important movements for human transportation. These skills are known as skills that move individuals in a space or from one place to another.
Meanwhile, nonlocomotor movement is also called stability skills. Nonlocomotor movement is movement performed by minimizing or without moving from its place or track. As for manipulative movement, it is the ability to move by someone using objects or tools.
In this article it will be shown more about the manipulative movements that have been summarized from various times on the internet. Here is a more detailed explanation of manipulative movements.
Understanding Manipulative Movements
Manipulative has a basic word in the form of “manipulation”. In the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), manipulation is defined as the act of doing something with hands or mechanical tools skillfully; group or individual efforts to influence the behavior, attitude, and opinion of others without that person realizing it; embezzlement; deviation.
Manipulative movement is a person’s ability to move by using objects or tools. Manipulative movement is one of the complex movement skills that children do when they are in development. Manipulative movements are related to things outside of humans that must be manipulated in such a way that a skill is formed.
Launching from the Bola page, com, some experts express the meaning of manipulative motion as follows.
- According to Sujiono, manipulative movement is an activity performed by the body with the help of tools.
- According to Pramono, et al. stated that manipulative motion is the motion of playing a certain object or tool, such as a ball, racket, or bat.
- According to Hidayat, manipulative movements are movements that are developed when the child is mastering various objects.
- According to Suyantini, manipulative movement skills are movements that require coordination with the surrounding space and objects or activities performed by the body with the help of tools.
- According to Syarifuddin and Muhadi, manipulative basic movement is one of the domains of fundamental basic movement, in addition to locomotor and non-locomotor basic movement.
Manipulative movements play a significant role in learning physical education. Especially in sports that require a more skillful form of movement from the body parts. For example, football, volleyball, basketball, kasti, and so on.
Manipulative movement skills are classified into three groups as follows.
- Throwing objects away: throwing, hitting, kicking.
- Increase abilities: catch, collect, take.
- Move together: carry, reflect ( dribbling ).
Launched from the Id.berita.com website, the results of learning manipulative movements can be seen in various ways as follows.
- Directly observe the child’s appearance when doing the skill and the network.
- A child’s progress in movement can only be seen through continuous observation.
- Assessment of the child’s psychomotor ability is done with an appearance test or model.
- Includes observation of the initial movement, main movement, and final movement of the assessed skills.
Types of Manipulative Movements
Manipulative movements have a variety of movements. Here are the types of manipulative movements reported on the Sportstars.id website.
In the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), hitting has the meaning of applying something hard or heavy with force (to knock, hammer, punch, knock, forge, and so on); attack; traverse; defeat; take (earn) too much profit; eat or kill (in a game of chess).
The hitting motion can be done with one or two hands. In fact, this movement can also be done with tools.
Melar comes from the root word “lempar”. In the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), throw means to throw away; throw (with). This movement can be practiced by throwing an object with one or two hands.
Menggiring is formed from the root word “giring”. Herding in the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI) means to drive animals to a place; deliver (bring) criminals and so on to a place; carry the ball with the feet.
Herding motion requires high concentration. This is due to its function, which is to move things either from the feet or the hands.
Kicking comes from the root word “tendang”. In the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), kicking is defined as kicking; kicking (with the foot); drive out; fired; remove (from office, company, organization, etc.); urge (push) strongly.
When performing a kicking motion, good coordination between the eyes and feet is needed. If the coordination goes well then it will influence the point of aim or the direction of the shot.
Seizing in the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI) is defined as emegang (something that moves fast, loose, etc.); hold (animals, thieves, criminals, etc.) with hands or tools; pounce; menadah (receive, cover) thrown items; found (people doing bad things, mistakes, secrets, etc.); receive (voice, radio broadcast, etc.); be able to understand (know and so on); observe; receive (with the senses); eat or touch (about fishing and so on).
Catching is one type of manipulative movement. This movement is usually done using one or two hands. Its function is quite simple, namely capturing an object.
Examples of Manipulative Movements
Posted by Kompas.com, here are some examples of manipulative movements in various sports.
1. Examples of Manipulative Movements in the Sports Branch of Football
Soccer is a sport that uses a ball made of leather or rubber that is played by two teams with each team consisting of 11 core players and several substitute players. Some experts also think that soccer is a game played by kicking the ball with the aim of putting the ball into the opponent’s goal.
According to Agus Salim, soccer is a branch of sports that plays the ball with the feet with the aim of putting the ball as much as possible into the opponent’s goal in accordance with the provisions that have existed before, either by the soccer association or other authorized parties.
Meanwhile, according to Soekatamsi, soccer is a competitive doubles game where each team consists of 11 players including the goalkeeper. The basic techniques of the soccer game are kicking the ball, stopping the ball, dribbling the ball, heading the ball, passing the ball, grabbing the ball, and catching the ball.
Meanwhile, the basic rule of football that Reader needs to know is the number of football players as many as 11 players who are placed in different positions. 1 as a goalkeeper, 4 as a defender, 2-5 as a midfielder, and 1-3 as a forward. Meanwhile, the duration of football matches is 2 x 45 minutes for two halves.
Not only the number of players and the duration of the game are regulated. The field also has rules, based on the Maxmanroe.com website, following the football field standards.
- Length 100 – 110 meters.
- Width 64 – 75 meters.
- The width of the goal is 7.32 meters.
- Goal height 2.44 meters.
- Radius of the central circle: 9.15 meters.
- Penalty area: 40,39 x 16,5 meters.
- Goal area: 18,35 x 5,5 meters.
- Ball diameter: 21 – 22.5 centimeters.
- Circumference of the ball circle: 68 – 71 centimeters.
- Ball weight: 410 – 450 grams.
In the sport of soccer there are several manipulative movements that are performed including kicking the ball, stopping or controlling the ball, dribbling the ball, dribbling the ball, and catching the ball.
2. Examples of Manipulative Movements in Volleyball
According to the Indonesian Volleyball Association (PBVSI), volleyball is a sport played by two teams separated by a net. The game of volleyball is played by two teams or teams against each other with a total of six people.
Both teams must pass the ball over the net to fall into the opponent’s area. During the game, both teams are given the opportunity to bounce the ball three times to return the ball.
In the athletic branch of volleyball there are several manipulative movements including throwing the ball, passing the ball , and hitting or smashing the ball.
3. Examples of Manipulative Movements in Basketball Athletics
basketball is defined as a group ball sport consisting of two teams with five members each. The two compete to score points by putting the ball into the opponent’s basket.
This game can be played in an open or closed field. Meanwhile, the standard international rules of the basketball game are four rounds with each round being 10 minutes (4 x 10 minutes). Each break in the game is given for 10 minutes.
Launched from the bola.com page, the following are the rules of the basketball game.
- This player can throw the ball from any direction, using one between or both hands.
- The non-ball player runs while holding the ball. The ball must be thrown at the point of the player receiving the ball.
- The ball should be held, either in or between the palms.
- Players are not allowed to tackle opposing players in any way. The act of tackling an opponent can be sanctioned for severe violations.
- If one of the players makes a mistake three times in a row, then the mistake will be counted as points for the opponent.
- This point will be earned if the ball thrown into the basket.
- If the ball will be thrown out of the competition arena, then the right to play it first is the first player to touch it.
- The competition time is four quarters, each of which lasts 10 minutes.
- The team that manages to put the ball into the ring with the most points is declared the winner.
Meanwhile, the size of the basketball court is as follows.
- Length: 28 meters
- Width: 15 meters
- Diameter of the central circle: 3.6 meters
- Distance from the three-point line to the ring: 6.75 meters
- The distance of the arc line of the basketball ring: 1.25 meters
Meanwhile, the size of the ring and post from the basketball game is as follows.
- Ring height: 3.05 meters
- Ring diameter: 45cm
- Distance between ring post and endline : 1 meter
- Reflector board length: 1.8×1.05 meters
- Size of the middle box of the reflective board: 59x45cm
- Reflector board distance to the endline : 1.2 meters
In the sport of basketball, there are several manipulative movements including passing the ball, catching the ball, shooting the ball , and dribbling the ball.
4. Examples of Manipulative Movements in Badminton Athletics
Badminton is one of the sports that can be done outside or inside the field. The field for playing badminton is divided into two parts and separated by a net. It is played by using a racket as a batting tool and a shuttlecock.
In the sport of badminton there are several manipulative movements including hitting the shuttlecock with the racket, swinging the racket, and resisting the opponent’s attack with the racket.