Inventor of cells – Does Sinaumed’s know that the term cell actually comes from the Latin word cella which means small room. The first person to discover cells in the world in 1665 was Robert Hooke.
History of Cell Discovery
Robert Hooke, the discoverer of cells, made observations on cork slices using a magnifying glass microscope. From his observations, Hook saw that there was a small room that made up cork. Then, the small room he named Sel. Meanwhile in 1831, Robert Brown revealed that the cell is a small room but limited by a membrane. Where in it there is also a liquid that is named protoplasm. The fluid consists of cell plasma or also commonly called cytoplasm and cell nucleus (nucleus). Then inside the cell nucleus, there is a nuclear plasma called the nucleoplasm.
Several years later, in 1839, a physiologist from Germany, Theodor Schwann, stated that all organisms are composed of cells. Then a related question arises, where do these cells come from? Then a German physicist named Rudolf Virchow revealed that these cells came from cells that had previously existed. The theory of “cells come from cells” was later strengthened by various studies by a microbiologist from France, namely Louis Pasteur. Where he did it from 1859 to 1861.
The size of the cells themselves vary greatly. Ranging from 1 to 10 microns, for example, bacteria. Then there are also those measuring 30 to 40 microns, for example Protozoa. Some even reach several centimeters, for example, cotton fibers. In addition, cells also have various shapes. Despite its very small size, its structure is very complicated and each part of the cell has a different and special function. For example, mitochondria in cells are useful for producing energy, while lysosomes function as a digester. But please note that the parts in the cell cannot stand alone. So that these parts must be in the cell unit so that it can function normally. Between parts of the cell will definitely be interconnected and dependent. Therefore,
What Are Cells?
The cell is one of the smallest units of living things that can sustain life like living things in general. It is called the smallest unit because it can be divided into smaller parts and each part can stand alone. Cells can carry out a life process such as carrying out an overhaul, respiration, arrangement, cell division, reproduction, and are also sensitive to a stimulus.
Structurally, a living body must consist of cells. So that the cell is often referred to as the structural unit of living things. The body of a living thing can carry out life if the cells that are arranged in it can function properly. So that the cells are called the functional units of living things. Where all living cells can reproduce with the aim of multiplying themselves.
The reproduction is done by means of cell division. Where division will be carried out either by single-celled organisms or multi-celled organisms. Cells contain a number of genetic material or material that will later be tasked with determining the characteristics of these living things. With the existence of genetic material, the characteristics of a living thing can be passed on to their offspring. Usually, the properties of living things depend on the properties of individual cells.
Theory About Cells
With the development of cell discoveries, it has encouraged the development of perceptions about cells. From this then came the theories about the cell. The following are some theories about cells that need to be understood.
# Cell Is Unitary Or Structural Unit Of Living Things
This theory was put forward by someone named Jacob Schleiden around 1804 to 1881 and also Theodor Schwann around 1810 to 1882. In 1839 Schleiden, a botanist from Germany, conducted a microscopic observation on plant cells. At the same time, Theodor Schwann also made observations on animal cells.
From the results of both observations, draw a conclusion as follows:
a) All living things are made up of cells.
b. The cell is the smallest structural unit in living things.
c. One-celled organisms consist of only one cell. Meanwhile, organisms that consist of more than one cell are called multi-celled organisms.
# Cells As Functional Units of Living Things
Max Schultze (1825-1874) said that protoplasm is the physical basis of life. Protoplasm is not only part of the cell structurally, but also includes an important part of the cell which acts as a place for the chemical reactions of life to take place. Because of this statement, the cell theory emerged which explained that the cell is the functional unit of life.
# Cells As Units of Heredity of Living Things
In science and technology has encouraged the discovery of a number of inheritance units that exist in the nucleus, namely chromosomes. In the chromosome there is a gene which is the carrier unit of this trait. Through this discovery, the theory emerged that the cell is the unit of heredity of living things. The following are some of the discoveries that support the development of the cell theory, including:
a.Robert Brown (1812), a Scottish biologist, found a small object floating in the liquid cell called the nucleus.
b. Felix Durjadin (1835), considered that the most important part of a cell is a cell fluid known as protoplasm.
c. Johannes Purkinje (1787-1869), he was the first to propose the term protoplasm which is used as the name of the embryonic material of the egg.
Cell Inventor and Cell Concept
Cells, of course, are not all bricks. Where a cell is actually more than a brick against a house. It could be said that cells can live separately from other cells. For example, bacteria are unicellular organisms. Every activity carried out by organisms, basically can be carried out by cells. There are many cell organelles that have special functions as well as the functions of organs in the human body.
Evolution of the Cell Concept
The concept of the cell began to develop and was studied by Robert Hooke in 1665 to 1836 by Theodor Schwann and Matthias Schleiden. Then they said that the cell as the smallest structural and functional unit of living things.
1. Robert Hooke
Robert Hooke was the first person to observe cells in 1665. The cells he observed came from a thin slice of cork and viewed through a microscope. Hooke discovered that the thin strips of cork had a hollow, hexagonal shape.
2. Latest Theory
The theory expressed by Hooke was then continued by Matthias Schleiden and also Theodor Schwann in 1836. Then from this theory it proved that the cell is not an empty cavity but instead contains protoplasm which is useful for supporting all activities of living things. From the observations and research they did, it can be concluded that a cell theory states that living things are made up of cells. The theory was developed again with a new opinion that every cell comes from other cells. Then the cell is the smallest structural and functional unit of living things.
3. Cells As Structural Units
As the smallest structural unit, the cell is the smallest unit that can stand alone. That means, there are no smaller parts than cells that can be said as one unit of living things. Therefore, the cell is the basic constituent of the body of a living thing.
4. Cells as Units of Heredity and Functionality
All activities of living things basically occur at the cellular level. Cells are respiration, synthesis, response, transportation, reproduction, and many other activities of living things. Therefore, the cell as one of the smallest functional units means that all activities of living things are carried out at the cellular level. Meanwhile, as a unit of heredity, it means that all cell characteristics can be inherited from one generation to the next.
Two Kinds of Cells
In general, there are two types of cells, namely prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. Here is a full explanation:
This type of prokaryotic cell has a characteristic that does not have a nuclear membrane. Whereas eukaryotic cells have a nucleus. The DNA of prokaryotic cells has a circular shape and also has another circular DNA called a plasmid. Then, what similarities are there between the two? So, prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells both have a plasma membrane, ribosomes and cytoplasm. Even though it looks simple, all life activities can be carried out by prokaryotic cells. In prokaryotic cells, cell activities occur in the cell membrane and cytoplasm. Meanwhile, eukaryotic cells have more complicated activities.
2. Eukaryotic Cell
Eukaryotic cells have more complex properties than prokaryotic cells. Where eukaryotic cells consist of three major parts, namely the cytoplasm, cell membrane, and cell nucleus.
Cell Theory According to Experts
In its development, cell theory continues to experience development from various scientists who are trying to find cell theory studies. The following are some brief explanations for understanding cell theory from several experts:
1. Schleiden Cell Theory
In his theory, Scheilden revealed that the cell theory is every form of living things. This includes plants that are made up of cells. Schleiden’s statement was later supported by Theodor Schwann who also said that all living things are composed of cells. With this support, the two of them finally formulated a cell theory. In their opinion, the cell is the smallest unit of life or the living thing itself.
2. Max Schultze’s Cell Theory
In his theory, Max Schultze revealed that the cell is a form of the smallest functional unit of living things. In a cell there will be a form of cooperation between tissues and also cell organelles properly. So that the process can help living things to carry out activities properly.
3. Rudolf Virchow’s Cell Theory
The last cell theory is Rudolf Virchow’s cell theory. In this theory he revealed that the cell is the smallest growth unit of living things. That means, every living thing in it has cells that will later grow and develop from small to become a larger organism and have a function. This theory is known as “Omne Cellula e Cellula” which means that every cell comes from cells that previously existed and will continue to grow.
After understanding the cell theory described above. In the following, the author will provide a brief explanation of the function of the cell itself.
Everything that occurs in chemical reactions will certainly create living things that carry out activity is a form of metabolism. Each of these chemical reactions will later occur in the cell. Metabolism that occurs in a cell can take the form of catabolic reactions. Where it is the overhaul of chemical compounds that function to produce energy. Then the reaction will be used as material for the formation of other compounds. In addition, existing cells can also take the form of anabolic reactions. Where the reaction is a reaction to the preparation of cell components. One of the catabolic processes that convert food and produce energy in cells is cellular respiration. This process will continue in the eukaryotic mitochondria or what is commonly called the prokaryote cytosol and produce ATP.
2. Cell Communication
The ability of a cell to make communication is a process of receiving and also sending signals to and from other cells. This shows that there is a reaction between unicellular organisms to regulate the function and development of the multicellular organism’s body. For example, in bacteria that communicate with one another in the quorum sensing process. It aims to determine whether the number of cells is sufficient before finally forming a biofilm. While the cells in the animal embryo will communicate to coordinate the process of differentiation into various other types of cells.
3. Cell Cycle
It should be understood that each cell originates from the division of previous cells. While the process of cell life to carry out cell division to the next cell division is called the cell cycle. Generally, the cycle is composed of four coordinated processes. Among them are cell growth, separation of DNA that has divided and then becomes daughter cells, DNA replication, and subsequent division.
4. Cell Differentiation
This cell differentiation will form various types of cells that will emerge during the development of a multicellular organism that occurs from a single fertilized egg. For example, in mammals, where they come from one cell that develops into an organism with hundreds of different types of cells, namely nerves, muscles, skin, and others. Cells in the embryo then provide cell signals to influence the gene expression of other cells. That’s what makes the process of cell differentiation occur.
5. Programmed Cell Death
Cells in multicellular organisms can experience death due to controlling the cell population in a way that offsets the development of cells that are not going well. For example, to prevent tumors, we have to kill cells to remove some parts of the body that are not needed. In addition, during the formation of the embryo, namely the toes or human hands will be together. This happens because there is awareness of cell death between fingers. It could be, the time and place of death of a cell is the same as growth and also cell division.
That was a brief explanation of the history of cell discovery and various in-depth explanations about cells. Is Sinaumed’s interested in learning more about cells?