Fast walking or commonly called race walking is a branch of athletics. Although almost the same as running, these two sports have many differences.
The most obvious difference between brisk walking and running is in the movement of the legs. In race walking , one foot will always appear to touch or be on the ground. Meanwhile, in running, in a few moments both feet will appear to be floating above the ground.
In addition, when doing race walking , the person’s body should not feel stiff, especially in the hips. The hips are known to be the most important determining part in fast walking movements. Comfortable and relaxed hip movements can make brisk walking movements perfect.
Even though race walking seems easy like human activities in general, fast walking has special techniques and rules that must be understood. Therefore, for Sinaumed’s who want to learn about fast walking, let’s look at the following review!
Definition of Fast Road
According to the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), fast walking can be understood as a branch of athletics which is carried out by stepping quickly forward and the feet are never disconnected from touching the ground. This sport is usually contested in various competitions, from the regional, national, to international arenas.
Meanwhile, based on the book Physical Education, Sports, and Health (2017) by Muhajir, brisk walking can be defined as a step forward that is carried out in such a way that contact with the ground is not interrupted and is maintained.
As an athletic sport that is contested, race walking is included in the responsibility of the world athletics organization or commonly known as the International Amateur Athletic Federation (IAAF).
Reporting from the official website of the IAAF, the fast walking numbers contested at the biggest sporting event in the world, the summer Olympics, include the 20-kilometer (men’s and women’s) and 50-kilometre (men’s) sprints.
History of the Fast Walk
Fast walking is included in athletics which can also be referred to as the “mother or mother” of all kinds of sports. This is because this sport focuses on body movements using these legs and is the oldest sport in the world.
Basically athletic movements have been seen since the beginning of early human life. Walking, running, jumping and throwing activities are unconsciously human efforts in adapting to the environment. It could be, these activities are used in an effort to save themselves from the disturbances around them.
In 390 BC, the development of a nation was centered on increasing physical strength, especially the development towards a harmonious and harmonious body shape. It’s the same with a combination of several activities such as gymnastics, grammar, and music. Even so, race walking is known to be quite difficult to distinguish from running.
Fast walking sport itself began to grow and develop in 1867 in London, England. Over time, the 10 Km race walking sport began to be competed on the track of one of the sports in the biggest sporting event in the world, namely the 1912 Olympics.
Meanwhile, in 1956, fast walking has successfully become an official sport and competed in the Olympics. Furthermore, at the 1976 Olympics, there was a 20 km race walking event. It didn’t stop there, at the 1980 Olympics in Moscow, a 50 km fast walk was added to the race number.
In Indonesia itself, the race walking competition began as a number contested in the 1978 national athletics championship. At that time, the distances contested for women were 5 km and 10 km, while for men they were 10 km and 20 km.
Fast Walking Basic Techniques
Simply put, brisk walking can be done by moving your feet forward in such a way. Of course, with a note that the hind feet must always be in contact with the ground. If both feet fly off the ground when making a forward motion, an athlete may be subject to a violation.
During fast walking, the foot that moves forward must touch the ground first before the back foot moves off the ground. In addition, it is known that the supporting leg must always be straight and not bent at the knee when in an upright position.
The basic technique of fast walking basically has four techniques, namely the start technique, body position technique, footfall technique, and finish technique. So, here is an explanation of the four basic techniques in race walking , including:
1. Prefix Technique (Start)
Prefix technique or so-called start is a technique that is done before starting fast walking. In this prefix technique it is known that there are no special movements that need to be done. The sprint participants only need to stand behind the start line.
So, the steps that need to be carried out in the prefix technique in race walking are as follows:
- Competitors must wait for the sound or direction “do” behind the start line
- Participants must position their left foot directly behind the starting line and their right foot behind their left foot
- Next, the participant’s body must be leaned forward with both hands in a relaxed position
- When the officer hears a “gun shot” or “yes” sound, the participant can move his right foot as quickly as possible while moving his right foot first, followed by his left leg as quickly as possible and with relaxed arm swings and hips.
2. Body Position Techniques
After successfully doing the prefix technique, the next technique that must be mastered is related to body position. When doing fast walking movements, participants must have the right body position. This is because the position of the body is very decisive in doing brisk walking effectively or not.
Therefore, the attitude or position of the body that is good and correct when doing brisk walking, namely positioning the body facing forward. Meanwhile, the elbows are bent so that they form a 90 degree angle with the arm swings and footsteps moving in rhythm.
3. Footsteps Technique
After understanding the technique of proper and correct body position when doing brisk walking, the next technique that needs to be understood is the footwork technique. The correct step technique for fast walking is to focus on the mass or weight of the body on the thighs.
This is because the thighs have a very important role in maintaining the balance of brisk walking. As previously explained, fast walking participants must stay on the ground on one leg.
Therefore, this footstep technique is quite an influential technique because it can be done by keeping the swing of the legs while bending the knees according to the steps taken. Not only that, the heel of the foot must touch the ground first to maintain the certainty of the foot position.
4. Final Technique (Finish)
After successfully performing the prefix technique, body position, and footsteps correctly, the next technique of brisk walking is the ending or finish technique. At first glance, this ending technique is quite easy to do, it’s just that this technique is often not done by novice participants.
When a fast walking sports participant touches the finish line, the participant is not allowed to stop at that moment. Participants are required to keep fast walking until about five meters from the finish line. After more than five meters, participants can start to slow down until they finally come to a complete stop.
Introducing exercise is very good because it can maintain a healthy body. Even better, if you introduce sports through various kinds of sports knowledge, so that you have more insight into the world of sports. The Sports Smart Children’s Encyclopedia book is a suitable book for the child to explore the origins of sports.
Specific Movement Phases of Brisk Walking
After knowing the four basic techniques of the ideal brisk walking sport. Fast walking movements can be done with more specific movements. So, here are the specific motion phases of brisk walking quoted from the Class VIII Middle School PJOK book (2018), including:
1. Single Support Phase
The single support phase can be understood as a preparatory phase for acceleration and foot placement of the free leg. In carrying out this phase, participants can use two ways, namely:
a. Front Strut Specific Motion
The specific movement of the front support can be done by positioning the active front foot with a backwards preparation motion. Competitors may perform the addition phase as short as possible with the knee of the forelimb extended. Next, the leg is swung over the front support leg with the knee, and the lower leg is tried to stay low.
b. Rear Strut Specific Motion
Specific motion of the back support can be done by keeping the supporting leg straight. The supporting leg remains straightened as long as possible. Furthermore, the foot of the supporting leg can be directed forward and rolled along the outside of the sole of the foot to the tip of the toe. Next, the free leg can cross the support leg with the knee while the lower leg is kept low and the forefoot can be placed.
2. Double Support Phase
In addition to the single-support phase, the multiple-support phase can be performed by maintaining contact with the body at all times. In the double support phase, the following are the basic principles that need to be followed, namely:
- The forefoot lands gently on the heel. Meanwhile, the back foot is in a raised heel position.
- Next, alternately swing both arms.
The Phases of a Brisk Walking Technique Activity
In addition to the specific motion phases of fast walking, there are also four phases of fast walking technical activity that you need to know, including the following:
1. Two Foot Pedestal Phase
The first phase is the two-foot pedestal movement. This phase can be done very briefly. When both feet touch the ground, at that moment the push ends and is followed by a pulling movement. A longer pull can create opposite movements of the shoulders and hips.
2. Phase of Attraction
Furthermore, the second phase of the pulling movement can be started after the previous movement is complete. This pulling movement is done with the forefoot through the work of the heel and coordination of all parts of the body. This movement can be completed when the position of the body is above the supporting leg.
3. Relaxation Phase
The relaxation movement phase lies between the end of the pulling phase and the beginning of the pushing phase. Your waist should be in the same plane as your shoulders or arms vertical and parallel to your sides.
4. The Push Phase
The fourth phase or the encouragement phase can be done when the previous phase has been completed. When the body’s center of gravity is focused on the fulcrum, the leg that has just finished pulling can start the pushing movement. Next, the other leg can move forward and straighten.
After that, when stepping forward with a wide range of motion, the waist will be on the same side and forward in the same direction, resulting in a great deal of flexibility. This further provides a boost to the body and legs with the aim of speeding up the steps on fast walking.
Next, the arms can function as a diametrical or natural counterweight and opposite the legs.
As with competitions, there are several rules set so that fast walking can be carried out in a fair and fair manner. The following are fast road regulations that have been established by the IAAF, including:
- A brisk walk should be done with the front foot on the ground while the back foot is lifted for a step.
- If the athlete does not do this then the athlete is deemed to have violated.
- Participants are disqualified if they receive three red cards from three different judges. The red card is given by the head of the jury. If it’s just the initial violation, the athlete is only given a yellow card.
- When starting the prefix or start it must be done standing up. The athlete may not touch the ground with his hands.
- An athlete is deemed to have won the match if the athlete’s body (not head, arms or legs) crosses the finish line.
Benefits of Fast Walking
For Sinaumed’s who are bored with running, brisk walking can be an alternative. There are many benefits that can be obtained when doing brisk walking.
The rules for this sport are quite easy, every one kilometer in 12 minutes or a distance of 5 kilometers is covered in 1 hour. You can use your phone or watch to calculate the walking speed.
So, here are some of the benefits that can be obtained from brisk walking, quoted from the Mayo Clinic website, namely:
- Maintain a healthy weight.
- Prevent and manage a variety of conditions, including heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, cancer, and type 2 diabetes.
- Improve heart function.
- Strengthen the bones and muscles of the body.
- Improve mood, thinking ability, memory, and quality of sleep because it can reduce stress.
- Strengthen the immune system.
- Improve body balance and coordination.
All the benefits above are of course more than the usual way. Considering that brisk walking can also burn more calories than regular walking, this is very effective for friends who are in the process of losing weight. So, are you interested in doing brisk walking?
Sinaumed’s can do brisk walking anytime, be it on holidays or before and after work. You only need to count the time and steps. Well, as explained above, how to do brisk walking just by positioning your body, steps, and synchronized hand and foot movements.