The Functions of the Sole Bones You Must Know

The sole function of the soles of the feet is one of the most important anatomical parts of the body whose function is to balance the body’s weight while walking. What is the function of the sole of the foot?

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The feet have a dorsal or ground-facing surface and a ventral or upward-facing surface. The lower or ventral surface of the foot is also often referred to as the sole or bottom of the foot. The foot is divided into three parts, namely the heel, the arch, and the anterior bone of the metacarpophalangeal joint. So, what are the functions of the soles of the feet?

The function of the soles of the feet

There are 3 main functions of the soles of the feet:

  1. Weight Transmission – Transmits body weight to the ground when standing and walking.
  2. Posture Balance – Maintain balance posture when standing and walking.
  3. Assist Ambulation – Ambulation is moving from one place to another.

Quoted from the Epainassist.com page, here is an explanation of the function of the bones of the sole of the foot:

1. Heavy Transmission

Let’s understand the function of the foot bones in the western transmission category through the following anatomical structures:

The arch has a function as a spring because of the elastic nature of the ligaments and tendons, which support the arch as well as to connect the joints. Weight is transmitted anteriorly and posteriorly through the arch.

Posterior transmission of weight through the calcaneus bone to the ground. Anterior transmission of weight through the base of the great toe medially or on the inside and the base of the 4th toe laterally or on the outside.

Most of the weight while in a standing position is transmitted to the ground via the big toe and calcaneus bone but a small portion of the weight is also transmitted to the ground via the remaining 4 toes and the lateral foot which is in direct contact with the ground.

The transmission of body weight during walking, running and jumping depends on the part of the foot in contact with the ground. Let’s clarify one by one.

2. Transmission of Weight Through the Arches of the Legs

The arch of the foot is the center of the sole, which is between the heel and toe. Bones, ligaments and tendons support arches. The arch of the foot is divided into two, namely the longitudinal and transverse arches. After the bones support the arch, namely as follows:

  • 5 metatarsal bones
  • 1 cuboid bone
  • 1 navicular bone and
  • 3 tulang cuneiform.

3. Transmission of Weight Through the Base of the Toes (Anterior Sole)

The base of the toes is a raised bump that sits between the metatarsal bones and the phalanges. This lump is caused by the presence of the metatarsophalangeal joints.

The lump that is located under the big toe is prominent and most of the anterior weight is transmitted past the lump that is under the big toe. During walking and walking action the weight is transmitted mainly over the anterior sole. Less than the weight is transmitted across the anterior sole when standing, resting or sitting.

4. Transmission of Weight Through the Heel

The heel is the posterior or rear end of the foot arch and sole.

The heel supports the posterior or rear arch of the foot.

The tuberosity of the calcaneal bone lies on the ground in the standing position.

The bony prominence or tuberosity of the calcaneal bone is covered by ligaments, tendons and fat pads that lie beneath the subcutaneous tissue and skin.

Body weight is transmitted primarily through the heel to the ground during walking. Weight is transferred to the ground through the heel while walking.

5. Balance Posture

Posture is a balanced position adopted to prevent falling or swaying when standing, sitting or lying down. Balancing and maintaining normal body posture involves contracting the leg and back muscles so as to prevent swaying in the upper body.

Contraction of the muscles under the feet complements the force of gravity in order to achieve an appropriate balance posture. The muscles under the heel are the Gastrocnemius, Soleus, and Plantaris muscles. The arch of the foot transmits weight anteriorly and posteriorly through the tarsal and metatarsal bones which is useful for balancing posture.

The spring action of the arch of the foot is achieved by the relationship between the tarsal bones and the anatomical position of the muscles, tendons and ligaments. The mobility of the arch of the foot can keep the bones and joints in proper alignment during various activities which makes the balance posture maintained. The tuberosity of the calcaneus bone from the heel anchors it to the ground during standing and maintains normal balance while in a standing position.

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6. Help Ambulation

The function of the third solebone is for Ambulation including walking, running and jumping. The body is pushed forward, backward or laterally during ambulation.

The ossicles also contain abundant nerves and the arch of the foot can aid in ambulation. The human body moves forward, backward or is in a lateral position when it is resting or moving.

The sole and arch of the foot can reinforce forward, backward, circular and lateral movements. Ambulation is assisted by a wide range of motion of the ankle joints and toes.

Movements at the ankle joint include:

  1. Plantar Flexion – The movement of the foot towards the ground is known as plantar flexion
  2. Dorsiflexion – The upward movement of the foot is known as dorsiflexion.
  3. Internal Rotation – The foot is turned inward also known as medial rotation.
  4. External rotation – The foot turning outward is also known as lateral rotation.
  5. Flexion – Toes are bent toward the ground.
  6. Extension Movement – ​​Toes are bent up or away from the ground.
  7. Abduction – Toes spread away from one another.
  8. Adduction – Toes brought together.

Plantar flexion and toe flexion provide assistance to strengthen the foot on the ground during posture maintenance and ambulation. Plantar and foot extensions are useful for strengthening springs such as arch action as well as helping to propel the body in different directions.

Thus, some data regarding the function of the bones of the soles of the feet. Hopefully it can help Sinaumed’s in understanding body anatomy.

Diseases of the soles of the feet

The soles of the feet are parts of the body that have a function as a pedestal when Sinaumed’s is walking. When this part of the body experiences a certain condition, of course your steps will be hampered. In the end, sore feet can interfere with all activities that require Sinaumed’s to stand and walk. There are various conditions that can cause pain in the soles of the feet.

These conditions also have different symptoms and ways of handling. So, if Sinaumed’s is experiencing pain in the soles of the feet, Sinaumed’s may be experiencing one of the following conditions:

1. Calluses

Calluses are one of the most common skin problems on the soles of the feet. This thick, hardened layer of skin can form when the skin tries to protect itself from friction and pressure. This skin thickening sometimes causes pain when Sinaumed’s steps due to friction and pressure. If it doesn’t cause pain, calluses don’t need to be treated. However, if the condition is causing you discomfort, there are home remedies and topical medications that are useful for treating calluses.

2. Plantar Warts

These plantar warts actually have a shape that is quite similar to calluses. This one skin problem also often appears on the skin of the pads, for example on the heels or soles of the feet. Pressure and friction can cause plantar warts to grow inward under the hard, thick layer of skin (callus). The difference between plantar warts and calluses, plantar warts are caused by a virus, the human papillomavirus .

This virus can enter the body through small cuts or other weak points on the bottom of the feet. In general , plantar warts are not a serious health problem and can disappear without special treatment.

3. Plantar Fascilitis

Plantar fasciitis is one of the most common causes of heel pain. This condition can occur when the band of thick tissue that runs down the bottom of the foot and connects the heel bone to the toes becomes inflamed. This inflammation is what causes the stabbing pain that generally occurs when taking the first steps in the morning. When Sinaumed’s is awake and moving around, the pain will generally decrease, but may return after a long period of standing or when standing after sitting.

4. Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome

Tarsal tunnel syndrome (TTS) is caused by repeated pressure which results in damage to the posterior tibial nerve or the nerves that are close to the ankle. The tibial nerve runs through the tarsal tunnel, which is a narrow passage inside an ankle. Damage to the tibial nerve in general can occur when there is consistent pressure.

When experiencing TTS, Sinaumed’s may experience pain, numbness, or tingling. This pain can be felt anywhere along the tibial nerve, but is generally felt in the sole of the foot or in the ankle.

5. Flat Feet (Flat Feet)

The majority of people have an arch in the middle of the soles of their feet. Even so, in people who have flat feet , the soles of the feet do not have an arch and are just flat in shape. Most people have no signs or symptoms associated with flat feet. However, some people who have flat feet admit to experiencing foot pain, especially in the arch and heel areas.

The pain may worsen when the person is active. Swelling along the inside of the ankle may also occur. Flat feet can occur when the arches don’t develop during childhood. In other cases, flat feet can develop after an injury or with age.

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6. Metatarsalgia

Metatarsalgia is a condition in which the metatarsals or the soles of the feet experience pain caused by inflammation. This condition is often experienced by athletes jumping or running athletes. There are also a number of other causes, including foot deformities, and shoe sizes that are either too loose or too tight. Simple treatments at home, such as applying ice packs and resting, can often relieve symptoms. Wearing properly sized footwear with shock absorbing insoles or arch supports can prevent and minimize the occurrence of metatarsalgia

7. Bunion

A bunion is a disorder in the form of a lump of bone. Bunions form at the joint at the base of the big toe. Bunions can occur when some of the bones in the front of the foot move out of place. This can cause the tip of the big toe to pull toward the smaller toes, forcing the joint at the base of the big toe to bulge. The skin over the bunion may appear red and sore.

Abnormalities of the metatarsal bones in children

Bone growth in children occurs generally from the vulnerable parts of the bone and is referred to as the growth plate. During the remodeling or rebuilding process, the old bone tissue is gradually replaced by new bone tissue.

However, many bone disorders stem from changes that occur in the musculoskeletal system of growing children. These disorders can improve or worsen as the child grows.

Bone abnormalities can be congenital, meaning that the condition is inherited from parents and is sometimes associated with certain pathologies. However, this condition can also occur during childhood after experiencing an injury or accident, and can even occur without any clear cause.

There are four types of bone disorders, namely:

  1. There are areas that bend in the bone or are called “angulations”.
  2. There is a twist in the bone, otherwise known as a “rotation or torsion”.
  3. Shift in bone position caused by a fracture or due to an osteotomy. This type of bone deformity is called a “translation or displacement”
  4. The difference in bone length compared to the contralateral, or what is also known as the “leg length difference”

All of these types of bone deformities can occur alone, but often a combination of these bone abnormalities is found.

Symptoms of Children’s Foot Bone Abnormalities by Type

Early signs of a bone disorder in each child’s foot can vary depending on the type of bone abnormality experienced. Several foot bone abnormalities that are common in children, for example the cavus foot, clubfoot, tarsal coalition, accessory navicular, and juvenile bunion.

1. Cavus foot

Cavus foot generally occurs when a child has an arch that is too deep compared to normal. In many cases, the heel of the foot curves inward or is better known as the cavovarus deformity of the foot. This condition can affect both feet and can occur gradually.

Children who have cavus foot abnormalities can experience symptoms in the form of pain and calluses appear because the feet are not in a parallel position, which causes the load to be uneven. Children with cavus foot disorders can also experience sprained ankles or even cause fractures.

2. Tarsal Coalition

Tarsal coalitions can occur when a child develops an abnormal connection between the bones in the midsection and the back of the foot. This condition is generally recognized in late childhood or early adolescence when the coalition begins to inhibit the movement of the legs, causing pain, and sometimes causing stiffness.

3. Clubfoot

Clubfoot can occur when one foot or sometimes both feet turns inward and points downward. This condition can be seen immediately after birth, because clubfoot is known to develop in infants during pregnancy, which is between 9 and 14 weeks of gestation. In many cases, these bony abnormalities can be detected using routine ultrasound.

4. Navicular Accessories

Accessory navicular is a condition where there is an extra bone growth center on the inside of the navicular as well as in the posterior tibialis tendon that attaches to the navicular. The main symptom of this protruding bone is pain.

This congenital defect is thought to arise during development when the bones are calcified. Because the accessory bones and the navicular never grow together, over time, excessive movement between the two bones can cause pain.

5. Juvenile Bunion

As with bunions in adults, juvenile bunions also occur when the joint at the base of the big toe or metatarsophalangeal joint moves outward from alignment so that the big toe points inward.

However, this bunion is not like the bunion that occurs in adults which is usually caused by the use of inappropriate footwear or having hereditary genes, juvenile bunion often occurs in children who have loose joints and loose ligaments. This leg bone abnormality often occurs in girls compared to boys.

So, if Sinaumed’s sees that a child is experiencing pain in the legs or often slips and falls while walking, it is best to have your little one checked by the doctor immediately. Because, this can be an early sign of foot bone abnormalities in children and carry them into adulthood.