12 Disorders and Abnormalities of the Human Skeletal System

Disorders and Abnormalities of the Human Skeletal System – In the human body there is a skeletal system that functions as a passive movement tool as a place for muscles to attach and give body posture. In addition, the human skeleton also functions to protect the soft internal organs.

The main constituent of the skeleton is bone. In the previous article about the types of bones, we mentioned that human bones have several types, such as long bones, sesamoid bones, flat bones, short bones, etc.

The human skeleton and bones can experience disorders and several diseases. Here are some disorders and abnormalities in the human skeletal system:

Disorders and Abnormalities of the Human Skeletal System

1. Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis occurs when bone density decreases, so it becomes very brittle. This condition makes bones vulnerable to fractures, especially in the hips, wrists and spine. This condition does not appear suddenly. Osteoporosis will develop over time and is usually only detected when a person falls lightly, but the bone has been broken or fractured.

Even though it is synonymous with old people’s disease, this bone calcification can actually also occur in young people and even children. Having a family history of osteoporosis, never exercising, and having a body mass index less than normal can increase the risk of developing this bone disorder. A more complete discussion of osteoporosis can also be found in the Osteoporosis book below.

2. Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis is a bone disorder that is quite common. The condition occurs when the protective covering at the ends of the bones wears away, causing the two bones to rub against each other without cushioning. Osteoarthritis can cause pain and swelling in the affected joints. If left untreated, this condition can even change the shape of the joints and make bones and cartilage more at risk of breaking.

This disease also generally affects people over 50 years of age. Therefore, from an early age we must get used to living healthy and prevent this disease. Learn how in the Osteoarthritis Vs Osteoporosis Detection book below.

3. Rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis or more commonly referred to as rheumatism is an autoimmune disease. This means that the immune system, which should protect the body from disease, actually attacks healthy cells in the bones and causes health problems. This condition can cause swelling in the joints, make the sufferer have a fever, feel weak, and always tired. Rheumatoid arthritis symptoms can be relieved with medication or, in some cases, surgery.

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4. Scoliosis

When viewed from behind, our spine will look straight. However, in people with scoliosis, a disease that causes abnormalities in the spine, the alignment that should be straight will curve to form the letter S or the letter C. Generally, the cause of scoliosis cannot be known with certainty.

However, experts believe that scoliosis is not only caused by one thing, but a combination of several factors. You can find a guidebook regarding scoliosis in Sinaumed’s in the book I Suffer from Scoliosis.

5. Bone Injury

Bone injuries can occur due to accidents, falling during sports, or being hit by certain objects. These injuries usually cause broken bones, sliding joints, muscle pain, and torn muscles. Bone injuries are divided into two, namely acute and chronic:

  • Acute bone injuries Examples of acute bone injuries are sprains and broken bones due to something that happens suddenly, such as an accident. Symptoms of an acute bone injury include sudden pain, swelling, bruising, immovability of the bone, or even visible displacement of the bone and fractures.
  • Chronic bone injury Meanwhile, chronic bone injury is an injury that occurs due to continuous pressure on one bone, due to sports or long-term physical activity. This condition often occurs in athletes. Symptoms of a chronic injury include sharp pain during exercise, a dull ache when resting, and swelling.

6. Paget’s disease

In Paget’s disease, the bones grow too large and become weak. This condition often occurs in the leg bones, hip bones, spine, and head. Paget’s disease is a type of bone disease that is often not realized because it does not cause pain, and will only cause symptoms when other conditions, such as fractures and arthritis, have occurred.

Until now the cause of Paget’s disease is not known with certainty. But experts suspect this disorder has something to do with genetic disorders.

7. Fibrous dysplasia

In fibrous dysplasia, the genes in the body instruct healthy bone to be replaced with fibrous tissue. This causes bones to become brittle, deformed, and break more easily. Often, this condition only occurs in one location, for example on the hands, hips, face, legs, or ribs. Also Read: Actually, How Many Human Bones?

8. Osteomyelitis (bone infection)

Bone infection can occur when bacteria that cause infection enter blood vessels or spread to the tissue around the bone. Infection can also appear directly in the bone, if the person has an open wound and the bacteria directly enter the bone. People who experience it will feel fever, pain, swelling, and weakness. Usually, the bacteria that cause this infection are Staphylococcus bacteria.

9. Bone cancer

Bone cancer can be divided into two types, namely primary and secondary. Primary bone cancer is cancer that starts in the bones. Meanwhile, secondary bone cancer is cancer that initially appears in other organs, then spreads to the bones. Symptoms of bone cancer include bone pain that doesn’t go away and gets worse at night, swelling and redness in certain bone areas, lumps appearing on the bones, and brittle bones.

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10. Osteogenesis Imperfecta

Disorders of this one bone are caused by hereditary or genetic factors that appear at birth. People who experience it inherit a gene from their parents that makes bones brittle, break easily, and have an abnormal shape. This makes the joints in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta easily detach and curvature of the spine.

This condition can also be accompanied by hearing and breathing problems, as well as dark patches appearing in the white area of ​​the eyes. Until now, there is no treatment that can be done to cure this bone disease. However, sufferers can reduce their symptoms by living a healthy lifestyle, taking medication from a doctor, and in some cases, through surgery.

11.Spinal Stenosis

Spinal stenosis is a bone disorder characterized by narrowing of the nerve space in the spine. This makes the nerves pressed and pinched and makes the sufferer feel severe pain.

12. Osteonecrosis

Osteonecrosis is a condition of the death of bone tissue. This condition occurs when the bone loses its blood supply. Without a blood supply, the bone tissue will die and the bones will become damaged. Under normal conditions, when there is damaged bone tissue, the body will make new tissue to replace it.

But in people with osteonecrosis, cell damage occurs faster than the body can build new bone. If left unchecked, this condition will make the sufferer feel severe pain in the bones, and within two years it will be difficult to move.

13. Osteomalacia

Osteomalacia is a bone disorder similar to osteoporosis. It’s just that this condition is caused by a deficiency in vitamin D levels in the body that is severe and continues to occur for a long time. Low levels of vitamin D prevent the body from absorbing the calcium it needs to build bones.

So that the bones in the body do not regenerate. In addition, the existing bones are constantly experiencing calcification. Osteomalacia can cause symptoms in the form of muscle pain and the joining of two bones so that they change their shape. In conditions that are severe enough, this disease can also cause sufferers to be more susceptible to fractures.