Striated Muscles: Definition, Parts, Properties, Characteristics, Working Methods and Functions

Definition of Striated Muscles – Muscles are a network in the human and animal bodies that have a function as an active means of locomotion and move bones. Muscles cause the movement of an organism or movements originating from the organs within that organism.

Muscle is a collection of muscle tissue that contracts with each other. So it will produce a movement. Muscle consists of three, namely striated muscle, smooth muscle and cardiac muscle. This article will discuss about striated muscles. Starting from the definition, the parts of the striated muscles, their properties, characteristics, how they work to the function of the striated muscles.

Definition of Striated Muscles

This muscle has a striated appearance, between dark or actin and light or myosin. Both of them have an alternating pattern. Striated muscles can move at the will of the body or humans.

This also makes striated muscles known as motor muscles. The striated muscles are able to work hard, because in the striated muscles there are many cell nuclei. However, these striated muscles still need rest after doing activities, because these striated muscles tire easily.

Striated muscle or skeletal muscle has a pigment called myoglobin. This type of muscle is the most common muscle found in the body. These muscles dominate most of the body. Not only in the human body, in the animal body there is also this muscle.

Examples of striated muscles in the human body that are easy to see are the biceps and triceps. Both of these muscles are located in the upper arm of the hand. The shape of these muscles is an elongated cylinder. In addition, this muscle also has a lot of core and is on the edge.

The biceps and triceps muscles work with human conscious movement. Through stimuli caused by the activity innervated by conscious nerves or motor nerves in the body. These two muscles are also quite fast and strong. However, it is also easy to experience fatigue. The energy source for striated muscles is energy in the form of ATP. This energy is the result of metabolism that occurs in the body.

Parts of the Skeletal Muscles

The parts of the striated muscles are as follows:

1. Sarcolemma

The sarcolemma is the inner part of the striated muscle. The sarcolemma is a membrane that lines a muscle cell. The function of the sarcolemma is to protect the muscles.

2. Sarcoplasm

The next part in striated muscle is the sarcoplasm. Sarcoplasm is a fluid in the muscle cells. This sarcoplasm has a function for where myofibrils are located. In addition, in the sarcoplasm there are also myofilaments.

3. Myofibrils

Myofibrils are also present in striated muscles. Myofibrils are fibers found in muscles. Myofibrils are divided into two types. First, the homogeneous myofilaments that reside in smooth muscle. Second, the heterogeneous myofilaments that reside in the cardiac muscle. besides this heterogeneous myofilaments are also in the cardian muscle. In striated or skeletal muscle there are also heterogeneous myofilaments.

4. Myofilaments

The next part that is in the muscle is myofilaments. Myofilaments are fine threads or filaments. Myofilaments originate from myofibrils.

Properties of the Skeletal Muscles

The properties of striated muscles are generally the same as other types of muscles. The following are the properties of striated muscles:

1. Conductivity

The striated muscle has the property of conductivity. Conductivity is a capability in which a muscle has the expertise to carry out an action potential.

2. Irritability

Irritability is an excitability. The point is that when the muscles experience a stimulus, the muscles will automatically experience a reaction.

3. Contractility

The next property possessed by muscles is contractility. This property allows the muscles to shorten the tension. In addition, muscles are also able to create tension between the ends.

4. Relaxation

Relaxation is a property that is also owned by the muscles. Relaxation is a property that allows muscles to rest. Usually relaxation is done after the muscle has a contraction.

5. Distensibility

The next property of the muscles is distensibility. Distensibility is the ability of a muscle to be stretched. The withdrawal is carried out by an external force from the muscle. Muscles will not be injured, as long as stretching is not done beyond the physiological limit.

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6. Elasticity

The next property of striated muscle is elasticity. Elasticity is the opposite of distensibility. This property allows the muscle to resist extension. And have the will to return to its original position. It is performed after active or passive extension.

Features of the Skeletal Muscles

1. The characteristics of smooth striated muscles

The characteristics of striated muscles are as follows:

  •   The striated muscles have fibers, numbering up to thousands of fibers. These fibers will form muscle tissue so that it is neatly arranged
  •   It is cylindrical, so it is long. As well as having many nuclei or multinucleus
  •   The striated muscles move consciously or voluntarily
  •   Universally, striated muscle has a diameter of 50 microns. And the length is up to about 2.5 cm
  •   Striated muscles can work hard and fast. However, these striated muscles tire easily
  •   Skeletal muscles are muscles that require a lot of rest
  •   The striated muscles attach to the skeleton of the body. Either in the framework of the human body or the framework of the animal body
  •   The striated muscles move quickly when they contract. When it contracts its shape will contract.
  •   The location of the nucleus of striated muscle cells is located on the edge or peripherally
  •   Striated muscles are located in the chest muscles, thigh muscles, calf muscles and all parts of the human body.

In addition to the above characteristics, striated muscles also have several other characteristics. The characteristics are as follows:

2. Characteristics of cardiac striated muscles

  •   Has many cell nuclei. The nucleus is located in the middle position
  •   Has a transverse line
  •   Cardiac striated muscle is found only in the heart
  •   Unconscious movement
  •   It has a cylindrical and elongated shape
  •   The cell fibers are fused and branched
  •   These muscle contractions are strong and rhythmic


How Striated Muscles Work

All of these movements are controlled by the human brain. The human brain controls the central nervous system by digesting commands from humans. Examples such as human commands, such as running or walking. After that it responds quickly and gives orders to the body in charge of walking and running.

Functions of the Skeletal Muscles

1. Function of smooth striated muscle

The function of the striated muscles is to control body movements. Through activation of somatic branches originating from peripheral nerves. This is done through a fast contraction speed.

In addition to functioning to move the body, striated muscles also have a role in controlling temperature. Uses rapid muscle contractions to release heat. It is useful to increase the temperature. This is another example of the involuntary use of striated muscles.

2. The function of cardiac striated muscles

Cardiac striated muscle functions to pump the heart. The autonomic nervous system controls the cardiac striated muscles. Then it will stimulate to use electrical impulses to perform contractions. After that it will pump blood throughout the body.

This way of working is also supported by a special junction which has the name “interlace disc”. Intercalated discs are located between the cardiac muscle cells or cardiomyocytes. These discs will help carry impulses from one cell to another later. Impulses will be carried out quickly. Making it possible to synchronize contractions.

The function of the disc is really needed as long as the heart pumps blood to all parts of the body. That’s because the thickness of the heart muscle is different from one another. For example, the left ventricle has to pump blood to all parts of the body. The walls of the left ventricle are thinner. That’s because it only needs to pump oxygen-deficient blood the short distance from the heart to the lungs.

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Disorders of the Skeletal Muscles

1. Muscular dystrophy

Muscular dystrophy is a disorder that causes muscle weakness. This disorder is usually due to genetics, or passed down from parents to their children. The cause of dystrophy is a gene mutation that plays a role in the formation of muscle structure. In severe cases, muscular dystrophy can affect other conditions of the heart and respiratory muscles.

Unfortunately, until now there is no medicine that can cure muscular dystrophy. Treatment is done only to relieve these symptoms. Such as physical disabilities and other health problems that arise.

2. Parkinsons

Parkinson’s is a disease that occurs when nerve cells produce too little dopamine. Parkinson’s is a genetic disease. Apart from that, Parkinson’s is also affected by old age. This disorder makes it difficult for sufferers to control the movement of muscles in the body.

In addition, sufferers will experience tremors in the arms, hands, feet, face and other limbs. If the patient’s condition continues to worsen, over time it will be difficult to walk. Not only walking, sufferers will find it difficult to talk and do other activities. Parkinson’s disease can be treated or existing tremors can be controlled.

3. Fibromyalgia

Fibromyalgia is characterized by pain in certain parts of the body. Symptoms include stiff muscles and muscle pain. In addition, you will get tired easily, have headaches and have trouble sleeping. Other disturbances that may occur are memory impairment and abdominal pain.

Fibromyalgia is indeed a disease with no known exact cause. However, abnormalities in certain chemicals or neurotransmitters in the brain. Changes in the way the nervous system processes pain messages, physical or emotional stress, genetic disorders and certain infections are thought to be the cause of this disease.

4. Sprain

Sprains usually occur due to sprains. A sprain is an injury to a ligament. Tissue that connects two or more bones at joints. This disorder includes complaints that commonly occur in the ankles. The disorder occurs due to physical activity.

Usually sprains can also occur when walking or exercising on uneven terrain. In addition, it can also occur due to falling in an inappropriate position. The wrong technique in exercising is also a cause.

Symptoms that arise from sprains can vary. These symptoms depend on the severity of the sprain. Symptoms often include pain, bruising and swelling.

5. Muscle cramps

Muscle cramps are almost the same as sprains. This disorder often becomes a complaint and occurs suddenly. Usually cramps can last for a few seconds or up to several minutes. The cause of cramps is because the muscles are overused. In addition, other causes can occur due to disturbances in the blood circulation of the muscles. Dehydration and lack of mineral intake from the body are also causes of muscle cramps. Other causes are more severe in the form of disorders that occur in the nervous system.

6. Tendinitis

Tendinitis is inflammation of the muscles that occurs due to swelling of the flexible tissue that connects the muscle to the bone or tendons. Swelling in this section is usually severe. This disorder usually occurs in the wrists and ankles. In addition, parts such as knees, elbows and shoulders can also occur.

7. Muscle atrophy

Atrophy is a disorder that occurs when muscle mass decreases or even disappears. The cause of atrophy is not moving for a long time. Muscle injuries can also cause atrophy. Another cause that can cause atrophy is a disease of the nerves that can lead to paralysis.

8. Myositis

Myositis is an inflammation of the muscle tissue. Myositis is caused due to infection or injury. In addition, myositis can also occur due to autoimmune diseases. Symptoms of this disease can be rashes that appear on the skin. In addition, the muscles will also feel weaker. Frequent falls, fatigue when standing or walking, difficulty swallowing or dysphagia and difficulty breathing are also symptoms of myositis.

How to Maintain Muscle Health

  •   Increase protein intake
  •   Exercise regularly
  •   Drink lots of mineral water
  •   Taking vitamins or supplements
  •   Eat healthy fatty foods
  •   Eat foods rich in calcium
  •   Maintain body hormone balance
  •   Eat more vegetables
  •   Avoid alcoholic beverages

That’s information about striated muscles. There are still many interesting things about striated muscles. You can find all this information at sinaumedia as #SahabaTanpaBatas will always provide the best book recommendations for Sinaumed’s.

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Author: Wida Kurniasih

Source: from various sources