Function of the Thigh Bone – The human body is composed of various elements, one of which is bone. Bones become a place for muscles to attach, protect organs, locomotion, and so on. The human body will continue to be used until the end of life. Therefore, it is necessary to treat bones properly and well.
The femur is a type of human bone that is located in the leg. It becomes part of the supporting tool for human footwork. The femur is one of the most important bones for the human body.
The following is a more detailed explanation of the function of the femur. Sinaumed’s can listen carefully to the review regarding the function of the femur below!
Definition and Function of Bones
In the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), bone is defined as a skeleton or part of the skeleton of a human or animal body; fish bone; objects resembling bones or skeletons.
As in Wikipedia, bone is defined as rigid body tissue and consists of cells embedded in abundant hard intercellular. Calcium phosphate and collagen are the two components that make up bones. Bones begin to form from infancy in the womb and continue until the second decade in an orderly arrangement.
Bones take over the formation of the skeleton and locomotion. It is also a protector of internal organs and a place to store minerals in the body.
In line with the two definitions above, Faweett formulates bone as a connective tissue composed of cells, substance, and fiber, its function is to protect and support the skeleton and tendons as locomotion. The physical properties of bone are very strong, slightly elastic, resistant to compression, and composed of relatively light material.
Bone is responsive enough to respond to metabolic, endocrine, and metabolic influences. With all its hardness and strength, bone is composed of dynamic living matter, periodically and constantly renewed and rearranged throughout human life.
Gartner and Hiatt define bone as vascular connective tissue consisting of grouped cells and intercellular substance. For example solid bone (compact bone), spongiosa bone, and other types of bone. Its function is to protect, support, store minerals at the ends of joints where cartilage acts as a coating to facilitate movement.
In general, bones have the following functions.
- Place of attachment of muscles;
- As a place that provides protection for special tissues such as the blood-forming system (bone marrow);
- Place of formation of blood cells;
- Regulating the level of calcium and phosphate in circulating body fluids;
- Supporting and giving shape to the body;
- passive motion apparatus;
- Covers organs and soft tissues, such as those of the skull;
- Structural support for soft tissue mechanical actions, such as muscle contraction and lung expansion.
In general, bone structure is divided into two, namely macroscopic and microscopic structures. Here’s an explanation of both.
1. Macroscopic Structure
Faweett classifies bones into two categories, namely compact bone (compact substance) and spongy or celadon bone (spongiosa substance). Compact blocks look like solid solid masses with tiny spaces that can only be seen with a microscope.
A typical long bone, such as the femur or humerus, is composed of a hollow cylinder of thick-walled compact bone in the shaft (diaphysis) with a cavity in the bone marrow. The ends of long bones consist of spongy bone covered with a thin, compact bone cortex, the growing long bones are called epiphyses.
Epiphyseal cartilage and adjacent metaphyseal spongy bone constitute the growth zone in all longitudinal increments in which bone growth takes place. Bone is covered by periosteum, a special layer of connective tissue that has osteogenic or bone-forming potential. If a functional periosteum is absent, it has no osteogenic potential and is not associated with fracture recovery.
The cavity of the marrow diaphysis and the cavity in the spongy bone are lined by endosteum which also has osteogenic properties. The compact substance in the flat bones of the skull is formed on the outer and inner surfaces which are often called the outer and inner tables. The periosteum on the outer surface of the skull is called the pericranium and the inner surface is called the dura mater. The connective tissue sheaths of flat bones have an osteogenic potential not different between the periosteum and the endosteum of long bones.
2. Microscopic Structure
Microscopic structures are very small and cannot be seen with the naked eye, so a microscope is needed to see them clearly. Most microscopic structures consist of bone matrix, mineralized interstitium, which is deposited in layers or lamellae 3–7 nm thick.
The interstitial substance of bone is lenticular spaces, called lacunae, each of which resides on an osteocyte cell. Lacunae radiate outward in all directions and penetrate the lamellae of the interstitial substance and anastomose with the canaliculi. The lacunae are widely spaced but they form intact cavities which are interconnected by a network of very fine channels. These fine channels are important for the nutrition of bone cells.
Faweet classifies compact bones in three general patterns, namely: 1). Arranged concentrically around the vascular channels lengthwise, forming cylindrical units called the Haversian system or osteons. 2). The Haversian system contains pieces of lamellar bone of various sizes and irregular shapes. 3). The outer surface of the cortical bone, just below the periosteum, on the inner surface, there are a number of lamellae that run continuously around the shaft.
The microscopic appearance of the periosteum varies according to its functional state. During embryonal and postnatal growth they have an inner layer of osteoblast cells that are in direct contact with bone, after bone growth stops, osteoblasts transform into inactive bone lining cells, but they still have osteogenic potential and if the bone is injured they change 11 again become osteoblasts and participate in the formation of new bone.
Definition and Function of the Thigh Bone
The femur is one of the limbs in the anatomy of the human body. The femur has a Latin name, namely the femur. It is the longest bone in the human body.
The main function of the femur is to support the whole body. It is also the link between the human hip and knee. Its characteristics, the femur belongs to the type of tubular bone which is cylindrical in shape, contains yellow marrow, has two ends, and bulges at the ends.
Launching from id.theasianparent.com, here is the function of the femur.
1. Helping Humans Move
Bones become parts of the body that help human movement. For example the femur provides the capability for articulation and leverage for the leg.
The existence of articulations in the bones provides the possibility for humans to carry out various activities such as running, standing, walking, and so on. Not only that, the femur is also connected to the hip joint, giving the leg the possibility to move in all directions.
2. Supports the Human Body
The femur or femur is the main bone of the leg. Not only that, the femur also functions to support the weight of the body on the feet. This bone belongs to a unique class of bones because it is able to support the body when carrying heavy loads. Even up to thirty times his own body weight. Therefore, this bone is the strongest bone in the human skeleton.
3. Place of Production of Blood Blood Cells
Marrow is an element in the process of producing red blood cells. The femur has a medullary cavity which contains red bone marrow. In the medullary cavity there are stem cells that produce peacock blood cells, namely emopoietic (producing blood cells) and stromal (producing fat).
4. Being the Foundation of All Leg Bones
All leg bones are attached distal to the femur from the knee down to the lower leg. Therefore, the femur is the main bone in the leg.
Thigh Bone Parts
The femur in an adult male is usually around 48 cm long and weighs 283 grams. Quoting from the Sehatq.com page, the femur is composed of the following parts.
1. Head of the Thigh Bone
The head of the femur is located at the proximal end of the femur. The part closest to the heart. The shape resembles a ball in the hip joint. Its function in anatomy allows the foot to move in all directions.
The trochanter is located under the head of the femur. It becomes an extension of the leg or hip. The tendons connected to the gluteus minimus and gluteus medius muscles become the attachment point for the trochanter. Its function is to help run and walk.
3. Minor Trochanter
The lesser trochanter or lesser trochanter is located at the base of the femoral neck. This section allows humans to lift the forelegs because the lesser trochanter is attached to a pair of muscles. Which is beneath the gluteal tuberosity.
4. Thigh Bone Stem
The femur is also connected to the kneecap ( patella ), tibia, fibula, and lower leg bones. The distal end of the femur has a saddle that rests on the fibia. Within the body of the bone is a medullary cavity which contains bone marrow.
Then, at the end of the bone, there is an area of dense compact bone. Surrounding compact bone is spongy bone, which has many small cavities scattered throughout.
Common Problems in the Thighbone
Even though the thigh bone is covered with flesh does not mean it is protected from problems or disease. He can still experience problems or injuries. The following is a summary of the problems that often arise in the femur, which are quoted from various sources on the internet.
1. Thigh Bone Fracture
Fractures are the most common thing that can impair the function of the femur. Although difficult to break, but the situation is very possible. This is caused by the parts of the femur that are very vulnerable, for example the neck of the femur. As you get older it also reduces the density of the femur.
Generally, perthes is experienced by young children. This disease affects the hip joint. This type of disease is very rare. If a child has perthes, there will be a decrease in blood flow to the femur. Thus, the condition of osteonecrosis (death of cells and bone tissue) cannot be avoided.
3. Dislocated Hip
When the top of the femur is pulled away from the acetabulum (the socket where the head of the femur is attached) a dislocated hip can occur. However, hip dislocations are difficult to detect and diagnose with the naked eye.
This is caused by an incorrect estimate, dislocations are often misinterpreted as femur fractures. To find out and ensure more detailed conditions, it is recommended to carry out an x-ray examination.
Bursinitis is an inflammation that occurs in the fluid-filled cushions ( bursae ). This disease affects every joint of the body including the hips and knees.
5. Fermoral Anteversion
Anteversion fermolis is a twisting of the femur. Usually occurs in children. In most cases, this condition will improve on its own after the teenage years without the need for corrective surgery.
Tips on Caring for Bones
Bones need care from ourselves. If not ourselves then who will pay attention to our health? Body health is not only concerned with things that are visible to the eye, but also things that support the body that are not visible. One of them is bone.
Bones need to be maintained for their health because they are a support for humans as long as they live. Launching from the alodokter.com page, Sinaumed’s can apply the following things to treat bone health.
1. Don’t Skip Breakfast
Breakfast is something that is often missed by humans. Even though breakfast is important because it provides the nutrients and energy needed by the body to carry out daily activities.
Bones can be treated by consuming foods that contain lots of calcium and vitamin D. Therefore, a good breakfast menu consists of a variety of foods, one of which contains calcium and/or vitamin D.
Sinaumed’s can consume calcium sources through milk, yogurt, cheese, cereals, and soybeans. Vitamin D can be obtained from fish oil and eggs. These menus can be supplemented by consuming vegetables and fruit to maintain bone strength and health.
2. Exercise regularly
Rarely moving makes Sinaumed’s’ muscles and bones weak. Some research says that people who rarely exercise are more susceptible to bone problems, such as osteoporosis.
Exercise is useful for bones because it can maintain bone density and strength. There are several types of exercise that are good for bone density by doing weightlifting exercises, jogging, yoga, leisurely walks, and rhythmic gymnastics.
3. Taking Supplements
Sources of calcium and vitamin D intake can not only be obtained from consuming nutritious foods, but also from supplements. The supplement is recommended for women who have experienced menopause. Because, when menopause, bone tissue becomes weak.
The need for calcium intake for adults is 1,000 to 1,200 milligrams per day. Meanwhile, the need for vitamin D is 15 to 20 micrograms or approximately 600-800 IU per day.
The proper supplement dosage can be obtained by consulting a doctor.
4. Bask in the Morning Sun
Sunlight is one of the free sources of vitamin D. If Sinaumed’s lacks vitamin D, the bones will become more porous. Not as long as sunrise is the perfect time to sunbathe. The right time to sunbathe is at nine in the morning for 5 to 15 minutes. The intensity is 2 to 3 times a week.
5. Limit Consumption of Alcoholic Beverages and Not Smoking
Smoking and consuming alcoholic beverages are included in unhealthy lifestyles. It will harm the body including loss of bone density. This habit makes the body susceptible to calcium and vitamin D deficiency so that the bones will become more brittle.
Therefore, to care for bone health, Sinaumed’s is advised not to drink alcoholic beverages and not smoke.
6. Maintain Weight
Maintaining an ideal body weight is important to note because it affects bone health and strength. Several studies have stated that body weight plays a role in increasing the risk of damage, injury, and bone problems.
Therefore, Sinaumed’s is recommended to maintain body weight so that bone health will be protected and avoid health problems related to the function of the femur.