Functions of the Utilizing Bones and Parts of the Human Body

The function of the lifting bones – Humans generally have bones in their bodies. It is impossible for a human to live without having bones. It gives shape to the human body. The human body consists of various bones, one of which is the rib cage.

The ulna is adjacent to the ulna. Even though they are located next to each other, they have different functions. However, in general, the functions of both are the same, namely as a support for the body, a place for muscles to attach, and so on.

To understand the meaning, function, problems, and how to treat a bone injury, You can listen to the following explanation.

Definition and Function of Bones

In the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), bone is defined as a skeleton or part of the skeleton of a human or animal body; fish bone; objects resembling bones or skeletons.

As in Wikipedia, bone is defined as rigid body tissue and consists of cells embedded in abundant hard intercellular. Calcium phosphate and collagen are the two components that make up bones. Bones begin to form from infancy in the womb and continue until the second decade in an orderly arrangement.

Bones take over the formation of the skeleton and locomotion. It is also a protector of internal organs and a place to store minerals in the body.

In line with the two definitions above, Faweett formulates bone as a connective tissue composed of cells, substance, and fiber, its function is to protect and support the skeleton and tendons as locomotion. The physical properties of bone are very strong, slightly elastic, resistant to compression, and composed of relatively light material.

Bone is responsive enough to respond to metabolic, endocrine, and metabolic influences. With all its hardness and strength, bone is composed of dynamic living matter, periodically and constantly renewed and rearranged throughout human life.

Gartner and Hiatt define bone as vascular connective tissue consisting of grouped cells and intercellular substance. For example solid bone (compact bone), spongiosa bone, and other types of bone. Its function is to protect, support, store minerals at the ends of joints where cartilage acts as a coating to facilitate movement.

In general, bones have the following functions.

  • Place of attachment of muscles;
  • As a place that provides protection for special tissues such as the blood-forming system (bone marrow);
  • Place of formation of blood cells;
  • Regulating the level of calcium and phosphate in circulating body fluids;
  • Supporting and giving shape to the body;
  • passive motion apparatus;
  • Covers organs and soft tissues, such as those of the skull;
  • Structural support for soft tissue mechanical actions, such as muscle contraction and lung expansion.

Bone Structure

In general, bone structure is divided into two, namely macroscopic and microscopic structures. Here’s an explanation of both.

1. Macroscopic Structure

Faweett classifies bones into two categories, namely compact bone (compact substance) and spongy or celadon bone (spongiosa substance). Compact blocks look like solid solid masses with tiny spaces that can only be seen with a microscope.

A typical long bone, such as the femur or humerus, is composed of a hollow cylinder of thick-walled compact bone with a cavity in the bone marrow. The ends of long bones consist of spongy bone covered with a thin, compact bone cortex, the growing long bones are called epiphyses.

Epiphyseal cartilage and adjacent metaphyseal spongy bone constitute the growth zone in all longitudinal increments in which bone growth takes place. Bone is covered by periosteum, a special layer of connective tissue that has osteogenic or bone-forming potential. If a functional periosteum is absent, it has no osteogenic potential and is not associated with fracture recovery.

The cavity of the marrow diaphysis and the cavity in the spongy bone are lined by endosteum which also has osteogenic properties. The compact substance in the flat bones of the skull is formed on the outer and inner surfaces which are often called the outer and inner tables. The periosteum on the outer surface of the skull is called the pericranium and the inner surface is called the dura mater. The connective tissue sheaths of flat bones have an osteogenic potential not different between the periosteum and the endosteum of long bones.

See also  difference between join and union

2. Microscopic Structure

Microscopic structures are very small and cannot be seen with the naked eye, so a microscope is needed to see them clearly. Most microscopic structures consist of bone matrix, mineralized interstitium, which is deposited in layers or lamellae 3–7 nm thick.

The interstitial substance of bone is lenticular spaces, called lacunae, each of which resides on an osteocyte cell. Lacunae radiate outward in all directions and penetrate the lamellae of the interstitial substance and anastomose with the canaliculi. The lacunae are widely spaced but they form intact cavities which are interconnected by a network of very fine channels. These fine channels are important for the nutrition of bone cells.

Faweet classifies compact bones in three general patterns, namely: 1). Arranged concentrically around the vascular channels lengthwise, forming cylindrical units called the Haversian system or osteons. 2). The Haversian system contains pieces of lamellar bone of various sizes and irregular shapes. 3). The outer surface of the cortical bone, just below the periosteum, on the inner surface, there are a number of lamellae that run continuously around the shaft.

The microscopic appearance of the periosteum varies according to its functional state. During embryonal and postnatal growth they have an inner layer of osteoblast cells that are in direct contact with bone, after bone growth stops, osteoblasts transform into inactive bone lining cells, but they still have osteogenic potential and if the bone is injured they change 11 again become osteoblasts and participate in the formation of new bone.

Definition and Function of the Lifting Bone

The radius or radius is the forearm bone that connects the elbow to the hand on the thumb side. It is located on the lateral side of the ulna (ulna). It is composed of dense and strong bones with a hollow front for the marrow.

The shape of the body of the smecaine lifting bone is getting bigger and will form the wrist joint. The upper end of the radius joint with the upper arm bone (humerus) at the elbow joint, precisely at the superior radioulnar joint . Meanwhile, the lower end is jointed with the scaphoid and lunate bones (one of the wrist bones). It also joints with the ulna at the inferior radioulnar joint.

The main function of the radius bone is as a framework for the forearm, a place for muscles to attach, and to connect the wrist and upper arm. Launching from the page, here are the functions of the lifting bones in the human body.

  • As a place for blood cell production because it contains marrow;
  • Helping hands to lift weights;
  • As a former bullet joint in the wrist;
  • Arranging the forearm frame as part of the upper limb;
  • As a place of attachment of the biceps;
  • As a wrist activator;
  • Supports the muscles for movement in the elbows and arms.

Umbrella Bone Parts

At the upper end of the picking bone there is a distinctive part, namely a bone hump with a round shape. The hump of bone is called the head radii (radius head). The surface of the head itself is in contact with the capitulum in the upper arm bone.

Around the head will be jointed with the ulna. Meanwhile, near the head there is a rough structure which is usually called the radial tuberosity. The body of the radius bone has a sharp interosseus (bone facing the ulna).

At the lower end of the bone there is a protrusion of the styloid process distally. There is a small rough structure on the posterior surface called the dorsal tubercle.

Problems with the Scapula

The radius bone is prone to cracking and breaking, especially when someone falls. This is due to the possibility of holding body weight using the lower hand. This causes greater pressure on the radius bone. The main symptom of a broken bone or fracture is pain in a certain part of the body. Like forearms, wrists, or elbows.

Several symptoms such as swelling, crackling sounds, bruises, numbness, protruding bones and a feeling of tenderness in the forearms should be a cause for concern and need to be watched out for because they have the potential to interfere with the function of the lifting bones. Falling position can potentially interfere with the function of the lifting bones. It’s like falling on your back. These conditions can increase the risk of severe injury to the radius bone.

See also  Sexual Harassment: Definition, Types, Characteristics, and What to Do!

Generally, fractures like this occur in the elderly. Meanwhile, in children, the cracks that occur rarely split into two parts. This happens because children still have not fully developed radius bones. Therefore, the radius bones in children are more flexible.

Management of Disorders of the Pickle Bone

Treatment for bone injuries varies depending on the severity. For example, handling using casts or other supporting devices, surgery, and other handling methods. fracture healing takes between two to three months for the bone to function normally.

The healing process can be accelerated by doing physical therapy or physiotherapy. When You has an injury to the radius bone, he must immediately consult a doctor so that proper treatment can be carried out immediately.

Tips on Caring for Bones

Bones need care from ourselves. If not ourselves then who will pay attention to our health? Body health is not only concerned with things that are visible to the eye, but also things that support the body that are not visible.

Bones need to be maintained for their health because they are a support for humans as long as they live. Launching from the page, You can apply the following things to treat bone health.

1. Don’t Skip Breakfast

Breakfast is something that is often missed by humans. Even though breakfast is important because it provides the nutrients and energy needed by the body to carry out daily activities.

Bones can be treated by consuming foods that contain lots of calcium and vitamin D. Therefore, a good breakfast menu consists of a variety of foods, one of which contains calcium and/or vitamin D.

You can consume calcium sources through milk, yogurt, cheese, cereals, and soybeans. Vitamin D can be obtained from fish oil and eggs. These menus can be supplemented by consuming vegetables and fruit to maintain bone strength and health.

2. Exercise regularly

Rarely moving makes You’ muscles and bones weak. Some research says that people who rarely exercise are more susceptible to bone problems, such as osteoporosis.

Exercise is useful for bones because it can maintain bone density and strength. There are several types of exercise that are good for bone density by doing weightlifting exercises, jogging, yoga, leisurely walks, and rhythmic gymnastics.

3. Taking Supplements

Sources of calcium and vitamin D intake can not only be obtained from consuming nutritious foods, but also from supplements. The supplement is recommended for women who have experienced menopause. Because, when menopause, bone tissue becomes weak.

The need for calcium intake for adults is 1,000 to 1,200 milligrams per day. Meanwhile, the need for vitamin D is 15 to 20 micrograms or approximately 600-800 IU per day.

The proper supplement dosage can be obtained by consulting a doctor.

4. Bask in the Morning Sun

Sunlight is one of the free sources of vitamin D. If You lacks vitamin D, the bones will become more porous. Not as long as sunrise is the perfect time to sunbathe. The right time to sunbathe is at nine in the morning for 5 to 15 minutes. The intensity is 2 to 3 times a week.

5. Limit Consumption of Alcoholic Beverages and Not Smoking

Smoking and consuming alcoholic beverages are included in unhealthy lifestyles. It will harm the body including loss of bone density. This habit makes the body susceptible to calcium and vitamin D deficiency so that the bones will become more brittle.

Therefore, to care for bone health, You is advised not to drink alcoholic beverages and not smoke.

6. Maintain Weight

Maintaining an ideal body weight is important to note because it affects bone health and strength. Several studies have stated that body weight plays a role in increasing the risk of damage, injury, and bone problems.

Therefore, You is recommended to maintain body weight so that bone health will be protected and avoid health problems related to bones.