Definition of Rhythmic Movement: History, Types, Elements, Examples, and Benefits

Meaning of Rhythmic Movement – Rhythmic motion or commonly known as rhythmic gymnastics is a type of sport that can be done alone or with many people. This sport is usually an alternative for people to always maintain body fitness.

Readers needs to know, there are lots of elements contained in every movement of rhythmic motion. For example, flexibility, balance, continuity, body flexibility, rhythm, to flexibility.

In this article, we will explain the ins and outs of rhythmic motion, starting from the meaning, history, types, elements, stages, to the benefits that need to be known. Let’s see the full review!

Definition of Rhythmic Movement

In general, rhythmic motion or often referred to as rhythmic gymnastics is an activity performed with music or songs as accompaniment. In the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), rhythmic gymnastics is the activity of moving the body to the rhythm of a song or music.

Quoted from Encyclopaedia Britannica (2015), rhythmic motion or better known in English as rhythmic gymnastics is a physical activity that is carried out with the help of, for example, balls, ropes and ribbons.

Meanwhile, according to Oktariyana and Oktariyani in their book entitled Multimedia-Based Rhythmic Gymnastic Movement Learning , rhythmic motion is mostly done as a goal to improve fitness, health, and of course body flexibility, especially to increase cardiovascular endurance and body joint flexibility.

Rhythmic motion can also be done using tools or without tools. For example, several tools that are often used, such as maces, hoops, sticks, balls, ribbons, and hats. The series of rhythmic gymnastics can also be done by walking, running, jumping, jumping, and swinging and rotating the hands.

As the name implies, rhythmic motion is a sport in which there are elements of motion coordination that follow the rhythm (beats), both from music and without music. Therefore, rhythmic motion requires a very good harmony between movement and rhythm.

In its development, rhythmic motion has become a sport that is contested. The Federation Internationale de Gymnastique , or FIG for short, is an international organization that oversees rhythmic movement athletes.

History of Rhythmic Movement

Rhythmic motion originally had a very long history. Quoted from the Olympic.org online page, rhythmic motion was first recognized in the 18th century. At that time, this activity was better known as group gymnastic movements accompanied by some basic choreography.

European society’s interest in gymnastic activities at that time led to the emergence of many competitions for rhythmic motion. Rhythmic movement is a very interesting blend of several disciplines. For example, classical ballet, such as plies and arabesques.

In Indonesia alone, rhythmic motion became known in 1912 during the Dutch colonial era. Rhythmic movements entered at the same time as the establishment of physical education as one of the compulsory subjects in various Dutch East Indies schools. Meanwhile, during the Japanese colonial era, rhythmic movement was banned, so it was replaced with Taiso or morning exercises which had to be carried out in schools.

During its development, rhythmic motion began to be included as a sport by the Federation Internationale de Gymnastique (FIG) in 1963. A year later, more precisely in 1964 in Budapest, Hungary, for the first time an international competition or tournament was held for the sport of rhythmic motion.

Ludmila Savinkova from the Soviet Union was an athlete who became the first world champion in the rhythmic gymnastics category. By holding this international competition, of course it succeeded in making the world community more enthusiastic. No wonder that every year, the number of athletes for rhythmic gymnastics is increasing.

Over time, in 1984 to be precise, rhythmic motion was officially registered as one of the sports in the biggest competition in the world, namely the Olympics. The athlete who won the gold medal in the rhythmic motion category was Lori Fung from Canada.

Until 1992, competition for rhythmic gymnastics was only held specifically for the women’s singles category. Only in 1996, the team or group category for rhythmic gymnastics began to be contested in the Olympics.

Types of Rhythmic Movement

According to the Physical Education and Health book, there are three types of rhythmic motion which ultimately make rhythmic motion what it is today. The three types of rhythmic motion include:

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1. Delsarte

Rhythmic motion was first pioneered by a director named Delsarte (1811 to 1871). Therefore, until now this type of rhythmic motion is called Delsarte rhythmic motion.

This rhythmic motion basically comes from a theatrical art. Delsarte himself wanted every movement of the cast to be carried out as if it were a natural movement.

2. Jacques-Dalcroze

Rhythmic motion also comes from the art of music fronted by a music teacher named Jacques-Dalcroze. Dalcroze hoped that each song would become a movement in rhythmic motion. In this system, of course music takes precedence over movement.

Meanwhile, Dalcroze’s student Bode agreed that a move should be made from the inside to the ferries. So do not be surprised if the rhythmic movement itself is also known as ” Ausdruck Gymnastiek ” or can be interpreted as gymnastics that is carried out with feeling.

Over time, Bode’s disciples continued to experience growth. In fact, Bode’s students admit that they are very happy to give them during practice with tools such as balls, clubs and hoops.

3. Rudolf Laban

Rudolf Laban (1879 – 1958) became the pioneer of rhythmic movement which departed from the art of dance. This rhythmic movement can be regarded as a sports activity similar to dance, especially ballet. The rhythmic movements taught by Rudolf Laban prioritize the beauty and harmony of the movements. Therefore, to perform this rhythmic motion requires flexibility of the body in order to produce very beautiful movements.

Elements of Rhythmic Movement

According to the book entitled Multimedia-Based Rhythmic Gymnastic Movement Learning (2018) by Oktariyana and Oktariyani it is known that there are three elements that need to be emphasized in rhythmic motion, namely flexibility, balance, continuity, body flexibility, rhythm, and flexibility. The following are some elements that need to be known from rhythmic motion, including:

1. Body Flexibility

In rhythmic motion, the element of body flexibility can be understood as the ability to move the limbs freely without pain. This is due to the flexibility of the body in rhythmic motion in accordance with the joints and muscles that can move freely.

For example, when doing movements such as twisting, bending, or stretching the body. Therefore, when ordinary people see someone doing rhythmic movements, it is like seeing a broken body.

2. Body Balance

The element of body balance is a person’s ability to control or control the balance of the body when performing rhythmic movements. This element can be said to be very important because it makes a person more stable when moving.

In order for someone to have body balance when doing rhythmic gymnastics or rhythmic movements, they can use hand swings and stepping exercises and of course it must also be accompanied by the rhythm of music.

3. Continuity of Movement

Continuity of movement in rhythmic motion can be understood as one of the elements that make a series of movements always continuous or uninterrupted. If one part of the movement is over, one can continue the movement to the next part according to the rhythm of the song that accompanies the exercise.

Therefore, it’s a good idea to arrange a series of rhythmic movements that you want to display so that activities can run well and smoothly. Rhythmic motion is basically a gymnastics performed to express a sense of art or beauty. In addition, rhythmic motion also has the goal of fostering and improving the art of movement with rhythm.

4. Body Dexterity

The body’s flexibility when performing rhythmic movements can be seen after the body gets used to all kinds of gymnastic movements. Several characteristics related to the flexibility of the body in rhythmic motion can be seen when the body parts are not too stiff in movement. In order to get used to doing rhythmic movements, it takes a long time, so you have to be diligent and tenacious.

5. Rhythm

As the name implies, rhythmic motion is a combination of movement with rhythm. Good rhythmic movement depends on having a rhythm that fits the sequence of movements. Rhythm itself is a movement that is carried out simultaneously with the tempo of the movement.

Rhythm that is widely known and used by many people, especially students, among others, rhythm 2/3, 3/2, or also 4/4. For example, the 2/3 rhythm song is the duck goose cut, the 3/4 rhythm is the parrot, and the 4/4 rhythm is an example of the rice cut song.

6. Flexibility (body flexibility)

The last element of rhythmic motion is flexibility or often also called body flexibility. Flexibility is a person’s ability to dynamically move joints and muscles at a certain angle. Flexibility itself is adjusted to the ease in folding the body and limbs, starting from twisting, stretching, bending and bending movements.

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Flexibility is important because it can make a person not afraid of getting injured when doing a series of rhythmic gymnastic movements. Flexibility in rhythmic motion itself can be seen from the agility of movement. This of course can be obtained from a routine and consistent rhythmic motion training.

Example of Rhythmic Movement

The following are several forms or combinations of step pattern movements in rhythmic motion sports from the class VII Physical Education, Sports and Health Education modules, namely:

1. Rhythmic motion of regular steps or loops

How to do regular step patterns or loops, namely:

  • Someone has the initial attitude of standing straight while both hands are on the waist.
  • During the first count, the right foot can be stepped from the heel, sole, followed by the fingertips.
  • By the time it reaches the second count, the next step is to step with the left foot, just as it was done when stepping on the right foot.

2. Rhythmic movement of meeting step patterns or bijtrekpass

How to do a meeting step pattern or bijtrek pass, namely:

  • The initial attitude is to stand straight while both hands are placed on the waist.
  • On the first count, the right foot steps forward.
  • Next, when it reaches the second count, the left foot follows to step forward.
  • Then, the left foot can be moved to step forward until it is parallel to the right foot.
  • Alternate the movement of both legs.

3. Rhythmic movement of the front step pattern or galoppas

How to do the front step pattern or galoppas, namely:

  • The initial stance is standing straight with both hands placed on the waist.
  • Starting on the first count, the right foot should step forward.
  • By the time it reaches the second count, the left foot can be moved forward by stepping the right foot together.
  • Next, both feet can step alternately for several counts forward alternately. (Counts can be adjusted according to the rhythm leader’s instructions or the rhythm beat of a song or music).

4. Rhythmic motion of a cross pattern

How to do cross pattern motion, namely:

  • The movement begins with the initial attitude, namely standing straight with both hands that are right on the waist.
  • Next, on the first count, the left leg can be crossed with the right leg through the front.
  • Then, on the second count, the right foot can step towards the left side.
  • This movement can be continued continuously. Up to the opposite with a 2/4 beat. Movement is done 4 x 8 counts.

5. The rhythmic movement of the side step pattern or called zijpas

How to do a side step pattern or called zijpas, namely:

  • The side pattern movement starts with the initial attitude of standing straight with both hands placed on the waist.
  • At the first count, the right foot can step towards the right side.
  • Then, at the second count, the left foot can be moved to catch up with the right leg until it is tight or parallel.
  • Next, do the same movement to the left side.
  • Movements can be done repeatedly or alternately using a 4 x 8 count pattern.

6. The rhythmic motion of the jump pattern forward

How to do the forward jump pattern, namely:

  • The forward jump movement begins with the initial attitude of standing upright with both hands on the waist.
  • At the time of counting to one, the right leg jumps together swinging the left leg.
  • Next, on the count of two, jump for the left leg while swinging the right leg.
  • Do these movements alternately or repeatedly for 4 x 8 counts.

7. The rhythmic motion of the jump pattern by opening and closing the legs

How to do a jump pattern by opening and closing your legs, namely:

  • Begin the movement with the initial attitude of standing straight with the position of both hands placed on the waist.
  • On the first count, both legs can be moved open wide to the side.
  • After that or the count of two, close both legs tightly and together again.
  • Do this movement repeatedly and continuously according to the count applied (4 x 8 counts or more).

Benefits of Rhythmic Movement

After discussing various things about rhythmic motion, here are some of the benefits of rhythmic motion that Readers can feel. According to the book Multimedia-Based Rhythmic Gymnastic Movement Learning there are several benefits of rhythmic motion, including:

  • Rhythmic motion can be used to burn excess fat, increase heart and lung endurance, improve the appearance of certain body parts.
  • Rhythmic motion is a type of exercise or gymnastics that can be used to lose weight.
  • If done lightly, the body’s system can be improved while eliminating bad habits, such as smoking.
  • This sport can improve coordination, agility, endurance, flexibility, balance and various other activities.
  • The body becomes healthier and the mood is happier because of the influence of music.

Thus the discussion about rhythmic motion as a sport that is very suitable for Readers to be fitter and healthier.