In living life, humans have rules that are binding, but not written, namely values. This value has been attached to human beings since he was born. Humans grow with the values that apply in the place where they grow.
In the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), value is defined as price (in the sense of estimated price); price of money (compared to the price of other money), intelligence numbers; seed; more or less content; rate; quality; characteristics (things) that are important or useful for humanity; something that perfects man according to his essence.
Meanwhile, according to Steeman, value is something that gives meaning to life, which provides a reference, point of departure and purpose of life. Value is something that is upheld, which can color and animate one’s actions. Values are not only seen as mere beliefs, values always involve mindsets and actions, so that there is a very close relationship between values and ethics.
In line with Steeman, Rokeach also defines value as a deep belief about actions, actions or behavior that are considered bad. Meanwhile, according to Linda and Richard Eyre, values are standards of behavior and attitudes that determine who we are, how we live and how we treat others. Of course good values can make people better, live better and treat others better.
Tyler also defines value as an object, activity or idea expressed by individuals who control education in directing interests, attitudes and satisfaction. It is further explained that since humans have learned to value an object, activity and idea, this object becomes an important regulator of interest, attitude and satisfaction. Therefore, schools must help students find and strengthen meaningful and significant values for students in obtaining personal happiness and making positive contributions to society.
Value is objective and subjective. Here’s an explanation of both.
1. Value is Objective
In this view, the value of an object is attached to the object and does not depend on the subject judging it. Each object has its own value even if it is not assigned a value by a person or subject.
For example, the view of the green hills is always beautiful. Anyone who sees it will be amazed and admit that the mountainous landscape will always be beautiful to look at from any side.
2. Value is Subjective
This view assumes that the value of an object depends on the person or subject who judges it. An object that is the same can have different values and even contradict each other for one person to another.
An object can be said to be good or bad, useful or not, depending on the subject who judges it. For example, someone judges the color pink is only suitable for women. Some others consider that the color pink is suitable for all genders and does not reduce the aura of people who believe in a gender.
Functions and Characteristics Value Characteristics
Launching from the Maxmanroe.com page, here are the functions of value for human life.
- As a guide on how to think and act according to the norms and values that apply. As a reference in determining the choice of individual roles in society and as a unifier of many people into certain groups.
- As a means to assist the process of self-development of every individual in society.
- As a protector of every individual in society.
- As a means to encourage everyone to do something based on certain values.
- As a means to convey opinions to the general public.
- As the embodiment of an individual or group of individuals in society.
Value can be identified through several characteristics. The following are the characteristics of the values summarized from the Maxmanroe.com page.
- A value is formed through the process of socialization.
- Value is the result of interaction between citizens in society.
- Values are distributed among the members of society.
- Values are part of efforts to meet human social needs and satisfaction.
- Values can influence social self-development.
- Values can have different influences among members of society.
- Values tend to relate to one another and form a value system.
- Values in society are general, abstract, mixed, and stable.
Value is something conceptual and contains moral qualities that are not always realistic.
Value Formation Process
Values cannot appear suddenly. It goes through a long process to form. The following is the process of forming value that has been summarized from the Maxmanroe.com page.
1. Process from God
Most of humanity believes in God. they believe that God governs everything in the universe including the values of human life. In the holy books of various religions, there are values that guide humans in behaving towards each other and their environment. For example, the value of obedience, the value of compassion, and other human values that are believed to come from God.
2. Process of the Individual
Every human being has a good side and a bad side in each of them. A person’s life journey will be greatly influenced by the values that exist in him. For example, at work, if someone is diligent in pursuing a career then he has a great chance to be successful in the field he is in.
3. Community Process
Most people have the belief that values are absolute and true. This is then used as a guideline in behaving in the life of every individual in society.
For example, good behavior in society in the form of being polite and courteous to others, respecting the opinions of others, greeting each other, participating in mutual cooperation, and participating in every other community activity.
Values in Society
Launching from the Jatikom.com page, the following is a classification of values based on the purpose of the assessment.
1. Ethical Values
Ethical values are values that make a human being a complete person. For example, the value of honesty. Ethical values are related to morals. It is also related to right and wrong held by a group or society. Ethical or ethical values are also often referred to as moral values, morals, or manners.
2. Aesthetic Value (Beauty)
The value of beauty is a value that comes from the element of feelings in humans. The value of beauty is also referred to as the value of aesthetics. Beauty has universal characteristics so that the value of beauty shared by each person will be different from one another.
For example, some people agree that music is a form of beauty. However, some other people think that fine art is the true form of beauty.
3. Religious Values
Religious values are values that are considered to be sourced from God Almighty and are absolute or inviolable. Religious values or religious values become a way or reference for humans in living their lives and relating to their God.
For example, humans worship according to the religious procedures and beliefs they adhere to. For example, Muslims carry out the obligatory prayers, Christians and Catholics carry out services every Sunday, Hindus worship in temples, and so on.
4. Social Value
Social values determine the quality of human relations in their social life. This value relates to attention and treatment of fellow human beings in the environment. This value is created because humans are social beings.
Each individual must maintain relationships with others. This relationship will create harmony and mutual assistance. Concern for environmental issues, such as mutual cooperation activities and mutual assistance in neighbors is a form of social value.
According to Prof. Dr. Notonegoro, values can be classified into three, namely.
1. Material Values
Material value is everything whose function can be felt physically (physical elements). For example, stone can be used to build buildings. Therefore, stones have material values that can be felt by humans.
2. Vital Value
Vital value consists of everything that is useful in supporting daily activities. For example, jackets in winter or rain are used to warm the body. However, in hot or dry season the jakret has no value or its use decreases. Jackets based on their uses are included in objects that have vital value.
3. Spiritual Values
Spiritual value includes everything whose benefits can be felt mentally or spiritually. Spiritual values include religious, moral or goodness values, beauty or aesthetics, and truth. For example, every individual believes in a religion or belief and practices these teachings in everyday life.
Which teachings are believed to give peace and serenity in their hearts. The freedom to have a religion or belief and to worship according to religious teachings is part of spiritual values.
Spiritual values can be grouped into four groups as follows.
- The value of truth, namely the value that comes from the elements of human reason (logic, reason, reason, mind, creativity). For example iron when heated expands, 1 + 1 = 2.
- The value of beauty, namely the value that comes from the elements of human feelings (feelings and aesthetics). For example, works of art.
- Moral values, namely values relating to good and bad, originate from elements of human nature such as will or will (intention and ethics). For example helping victims of natural disasters.
- Religious value, namely the highest and absolute spiritual value originating from human belief or belief in God Almighty. For example, religious rituals.
Meanwhile, according to Walter G. Everee, values can be classified into 6 groups as contained in Jattikom.com as follows.
- Economic values ( Economic Values ), namely values related to the economic system. These values are expressed by the market price which includes all items that can be purchased.
- Recreation values , which include the values of the beauty of nature and games at leisure, as long as they can enrich life and physical and spiritual freshness.
- Association values , which include various forms of human association from friendship, family life, village life, nation to international level association.
- Bodily values , which include matters relating to the maintenance of health, efficiency and beauty of physical life.
- Intellectual values , which include the values of knowledge and the search for truth.
- Character values, which include all personal and social challenges and virtues, including fairness, willingness to help, self-control, and love of truth.