The meaning of IQ, EQ, and TQ along with their history

What is IQ, EQ, and TQ – Reader, you must have experienced some of these things. You are prayed for, expected, even forced, even scolded by your parents just to be smart. This is because having a smart and intelligent child is the dream of every parent.

Therefore, not a few parents like to take their children for IQ, EQ, and TQ intelligence tests. Even so, of course everyone has different intelligence and cannot be compared to each other.

However, as time progresses, IQ test results are no longer the only determinant of a person’s intelligence. There are many factors in each individual that determine their intelligence and success.

However, have Reader found out what IQ, EQ, and TQ really are? What is the history and what is the difference?

Before we proceed to a deeper discussion. Let’s first know briefly about the three. IQ is intellectual intelligence, while EQ is emotional intelligence. Well, if TQ, that is transcendental intelligence.

From the name, all three are similar. However, IQ, EQ, and TQ have significant differences. The only similarity between the three, which is used as a measure of a person’s intelligence. Then, what is the difference between IQ, EQ, and TQ? Let’s read more in this article.

Meaning of Intelligent Quotient (IQ)

Intelligence Quotient t or what we usually call IQ is an indicator to measure a person’s intelligence. The intelligence in question is the intelligence that is formed on the learning process and life experience.

IQ describes a person’s ability to think, remember, understand, evaluate, process, master the environment, and act in a directed manner. Usually, IQ has a close relationship with intellect, logic, analytical ability, mathematical problem solving, and strategic.

In addition, IQ is also related to the ability to communicate, respond or respond to things around them, as well as the ability to learn number materials, such as mathematics.

Through school, this intelligence is honed by thinking rationally. For example, when we learn about mathematics, we are trained to understand, analyze, and solve problems from that question.

History of Intelligent Quotient (IQ)

Well, where did the concept of intellectual intelligence test come from? The concept of IQ tests has been around since the end of the 19th century, precisely the 1890s.

This concept was created and first thought by Francis Galton (cousin of Charles Darwin the Father of Evolution). Galton took the basis from Darwin’s theory about the concept of individual survival in a species. Simply put, it is a theory about how each person survives, because of the superiority of certain traits that they possess and are descendants of their parents.

Galton also put together a test that measures human intelligence from the aspect of agility and muscle reflexes. It was only at the beginning of the 20th century that Alfred Binet, a psychologist from France, developed a tool to measure human intelligence that is now used by many people.

In 1983, research on the concept of human intelligence tests was continued by Harvard psychologist Howard Gardner . He mentioned that human intelligence is not a single or general concept.

According to him, the intelligence is several sets of specific abilities that amount to more than one. All of that is a function of separate parts of the brain, and is the result of human evolution over millions of years.

As time progressed, people began to realize the importance of intelligence and its testing. Many psychologists began to examine and make various hypotheses about intelligence. Differences of opinion arise with each piece of evidence that is considered strong by each party.

Some believe that intelligence is a single concept called Factor G (General Intelligence). There are also those who consider that intelligence is essentially divided into two sets of abilities, namely fluid (Gf) and crystallized (Gc). For this reason, throughout the 20th century, many types of intelligence testing were ultimately based on those views.

Another factor that also contributes and has a big role in shaping a person’s intelligence is the genetic factor. This is the theory meant by Galton. So, in general, a person’s IQ level is not much different from when they were a child until adulthood.

However, it does not exclude the possibility of other things that affect a person’s level of intellectual intelligence. For example, such as the environment and knowledge gained during the academic process.

Types of Intelligent Quotient (IQ)

Quoting Very Well Mind, according to Howard Gardner there are initially eight types of human intelligence. The eight types of IQ are, among others, as follows.

  • Linguistic intelligence ( verbal-linguistic )
  • Mathematical or logical intelligence ( logical-mathematical )
  • Spatial intelligence ( visual-spatial )
  • Kinetic and bodily intelligence ( bodily-kinesthetic )
  • Musical intelligence ( music-rhythmic and harmonic )
  • Interpersonal intelligence ( interpersonal )
  • Intrapersonal intelligence ( intrapersonal )
  • Naturalistic intelligence _
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Well, as time went on, Gardner finally added another aspect of the ninth intelligence, namely existential . Intelligence that includes the spiritual and transcendental side. Although eventually this type of intelligence became popular, but this existential theory received a lot of criticism due to the lack of empirical evidence.

Therefore, until now experts have not agreed on defining what intelligence is, measured using what tools, and what the meaning of a person’s intelligence score is. In some developed countries, many do not use the term IQ test anymore. Instead, they call it specific tests, such as academic ability tests, verbal intelligence tests, and so on.

Meaning of Emotional Quotient (EQ)

Emotional Quotient or EQ is emotional intelligence related to character. This intelligence is related to one’s ability to control one’s feelings, recognize the feelings of others, adapt, discipline, responsibility, cooperation, and also commitment. EQ is also related to a person’s ability to accept, evaluate, manage, and control his own emotions as well as the emotions of those around him.

A person who does not have a good EQ, will not be able to control anger, is less open, difficult to work with others, easily suspicious, difficult to forgive, even unable to empathize, and so on.

Many things in life are developed by emotional intelligence rather than intellectual intelligence. The researchers also said that EQ has a more important position than IQ.

Because, IQ is not the same as EQ. It could be someone who has a low IQ, but he has a very high EQ. In addition, EQ is neither derivative nor innate from birth. EQ can be honed, strengthened, and taught at any time through character education, understanding other people’s feelings, and so on

The same is true in the world of work. EQ becomes a very important thing. Because, of course, you will not work alone. You will relate and communicate with many parties, such as co-workers, superiors, and clients. Therefore, good emotional intelligence is needed so that you can establish good cooperation.

History of Emotional Quotient (EQ)

The concept of Emotional Quotient was first created by Keith Beasley in his writings in a Mensa article in 1987. However, the term EQ created by him became global (and changed to EI) after Daniel Goleman published his book in 1995 entitled “Emotional Intelligence – Why it can matter more than IQ” . Although Goleman’s book is not considered an academic book, the concept of EI compiled by him makes psychologists again compete to do research on this matter.

Goleman’s reason for changing the term EQ to EI is because it is more appropriate to use it to explain the concept of emotional intelligence in question. From there, finally the experts also prefer the term Emotional Intelligence (EI).

However, even though this concept of EI has been accepted by the general public. There are still many psychological scientists and practitioners who remain skeptical of the concept of emotional intelligence. They often criticize the way it is tested.

The reason is that scientists must work based on evidence. If a scientist in any field makes a hypothesis, it must be supported by accurate measurements.

Types of Emotional Quotient (EQ)

Goleman also divided these emotional abilities into five types. The five types of EQ are, among others, as follows.

  • self awareness,
  • self control,
  • social skills,
  • Empathy,
  • Motivation.

According to Goleman, people who have a high IQ without these five abilities, will be hindered in their academic activities and work.

Meaning of Transcendental Quotient (TQ)

Transcendental Quotient or TQ is a transcendental intelligence related to a person’s ability to interpret life and his life through a religious perspective. TQ can also be called spiritual/divine intelligence, which is the development of spiritual intelligence (SQ). This transcendental intelligence has a visionary concept that is far ahead.

TQ is related to a person’s ability to understand and implement the transcendental rules themselves. For Muslims, the transcendental rules are the Quran and the Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad SAW.

While for other peoples, the transcendental rules are the rules found in their respective religious books. Even so, this concept of transcendental intelligence is more intended for Muslims.

Transcendental intelligence should basically be reflected in human behavior. Philosophical understanding of transcendental intelligence and its consequent and consistent application, gives a lot to human behavior in various conditions. In addition to behavior in performing worship, the behavior of a person with high transcendental intelligence is also reflected in their noble morals.

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History of the Transcendental Quotient (TQ)

This concept of intelligence is the most recent concept that has begun to be accepted by many people. Even more surprising, this concept of transcendental intelligence was created by Indonesians, Reader .

TQ was pioneered by Toto Tasmara’s thoughts published in a book titled Kecerdasan Ruhaniah (Transcendental Intelligence) in 2001. Then it was further researched by Syahmuharnis and Harry Sidharta in 2006 by publishing the book Transcendental Quotient: Kecerdasan Diri Terbaik.

In the introductory part, Toto said that the use of the word spiritual intelligence or Transcendental Intelligence is intended so that people can more easily understand the comparison of his artificial concept with the concept of spiritual intelligence in Western countries. The concept he offers refers to the Al-Quran and the hadith, which are believed to be universal sources of thought and also a way of life .

In presenting the concept of transcendental intelligence, Toto relates it a lot to the teachings of love and morality. According to him, spiritual intelligence is intelligence that is centered on the heart that is filled with love ( mahabbah ) for Allah SWT. Toto also uses piety as an indicator of measurement.

Through Toto’s thinking, Syahmuharnis and Harry Sidharta tried further research to explain various scientific views about spiritualism and the concept of life according to transcendental rules. According to both of them, the concept of intelligence needs to be understood in order to seep into the human mind, so that it underpins all of their daily behavior.

The TQ concept in their book is the same as the TI concept created by Toto. It’s just that TQ, which is an extension of the TI created by Toto, is more clear, especially in the explanation of the measurement method and the connection of TQ with other concepts of intelligence that have been around for decades, such as IQ, EQ, SQ, and others.

Types of Transcendental Quotient (TQ)

According to Syahmuharnis and Harry, indicators of human behavior with high transcendental intelligence (TQ) can be observed from two types of behavior, namely in worship and everyday life. Here is a list of human behaviors that are included in the two types of TQ.

Behavior in worship includes two things, namely:

  1. Only worship Allah SWT.
  2. Carrying out religious obligations.

In daily behavior includes 22 things, among others:

  1. Love both parents.
  2. Have high integrity.
  3. Responsible.
  4. Being fair.
  5. Disciplined and earnest.
  6. Smart and knowledgeable.
  7. Resist temptation.
  8. Always be thankful for favors.
  9. Trusted (trust).
  10. Not arrogant.
  11. Productive, innovative, and creative.
  12. Always think positive and motivated.
  13. Always do good and prevent evil.
  14. Maintain personal hygiene.
  15. Be confident and try to be consistent.
  16. Not grumpy and forgiving.
  17. Not wasteful and miserly.
  18. Unite and maintain friendship.
  19. Caring and appreciative.
  20. Always keep your word.
  21. Always strive for better.
  22. Having a high tolerance without sacrificing faith.

For the creators of this concept of transcendental intelligence, people who have a high TQ automatically have EQ, SQ, and other Quotients at a high level. However, the human does not necessarily have a high IQ, but is included as an intelligent person.

People who have high TQ have understood and practiced the transcendental rules seriously. A set of rules for humans to live, that is to obtain success and happiness in this world and the hereafter.

The rules cover all aspects of human life, both in worship and in daily life. They lead their lives by always exercising their intellect, maintaining self-awareness, emphasizing ethics and morality, based on faith and piety, referring to transcendental rules, and always accompanying their life’s struggle with prayer and worship. All of the above behaviors are components of transcendental intelligence (TQ).


From the explanation above, of course Reader can draw conclusions from the differences in IQ, EQ, and TQ. The three have very far differences. IQ is used to measure intellectual intelligence, EQ measures a person’s emotional intelligence, while TQ is a measure of intelligence from a religious point of view.

All three have their own aspects or types. Reader can also develop those aspects to improve your three types of intelligence. Reader can find many books on how to improve IQ, EQ, and TQ at your favorite Sinaumedia or through

Well, that’s the short and simple explanation of IQ, EQ, and TQ. Now Reader is more understanding, isn’t it?