Understanding Irrigation: Network, Types, Purpose, and Benefits

Meaning of Irrigation – Hello Friends Reader, Do You Know? Irrigation is an important thing in agriculture. Plants cannot grow optimally without proper irrigation.

This will also greatly affect the harvest to come. Understanding the importance of irrigation makes irrigation development a priority. According to the data in the data frame, the government through the Office of Public Works and People’s Housing (PUPR), is targeting a 90 percent increase in irrigation in 2019. Let’s have a look at the discussion of the meaning, network, type, purpose and benefits of irrigation.

Definition of Irrigation

Irrigation is an effort to prepare and manage water to support agriculture. Irrigation is the artificial discharge of water from an available water source to a land with the aim of draining it regularly in accordance with the needs of plants when the supply of soil infiltration is insufficient to support plant growth, so that plants can grow normally.

According to Government Regulation Number 25 of 2001, irrigation or irrigation management is all efforts to utilize irrigation water, including the operation and maintenance, security, restoration, and improvement of the irrigation network.

As with the surface water network, to meet the needs of the agricultural area in Molek, water flows by gravity from the Blobo watershed using primary, secondary and tertiary channels. The flow of water can be successful if the condition of the channel is very good, so the effort made for the physical maintenance of the irrigation channel needs to be paid more attention.

With law No.7 of 2004 article 41 paragraph 1 related to water resources, irrigation is the preparation, arrangement, and production of water to support agriculture, including surface irrigation, swamp irrigation, groundwater irrigation, irrigation with pumps and irrigation embankment According to Law Number 7 of 2004, irrigation includes the preparation, regulation, and disposal of water to support agriculture.

Definition of Irrigation in UU No. 7 of 2004 is not more than just an effort to provide water for agricultural purposes only, but a wider scope including:

  1. Irrigation, efforts to prepare and manage water to support agricultural activities from surface water and ground water.
  2. The development of swamp areas, that is the maturity of land in swamp areas, among others for agriculture.
  3. Flood management and regulation of rivers, reservoirs, and much more

To achieve the highest possible irrigation efficiency, the loss of water that occurs during the distribution of irrigation water must be limited.

It is not only farmers or governments that need to understand irrigation. The knowledge of this irrigation system also needs to be known by many people. The purpose is to involve everyone in maintaining this irrigation system. For example, don’t dirty your irrigation system. Before discussing the agricultural irrigation system further, it is good to understand the definition of irrigation system.

As explained in the book “Irrigation Hydrology” , irrigation is the systematic distribution of water to cultivated land for plant growth. While in the sense of Government Regulation Number 20 of 2006, irrigation is the preparation, arrangement, and disposal of irrigation water to support agriculture, and its types include surface irrigation, swamp irrigation, groundwater irrigation, pump irrigation, and pond irrigation.

In the Scientific Journal Mustek Anim Ha Vol 1 edition 3 it is also explained that irrigation is an activity related to the collection of water for rice fields, fields, plantations and other agricultural endeavors.

The Meaning of Irrigation According to the Experts

Number in accordance with government regulations. Number 23 of 1998, Irrigation is defined as the provision and arrangement of water with the aim of supporting agriculture.

Number in accordance with government regulations Year 1998 Article 22 Irrigation is also included in the concept of drainage, that is the arrangement of water in the plant growth media so as not to interfere with the growth or production of plants, while according to Small and Svendsen irrigation is the act of human intervention to change the flow of water from the source out, without interfering with agricultural production.

The term irrigation is an activity related to taking water from gardens or agribusiness to increase the production of agricultural products. Another term for irrigation is the preparation, intake, distribution, and preparation of water for agricultural land.

According to Abdullah Agoeda in The History of Irrigation in Indonesia , cited in a Dutch government report, irrigation is defined as “technically directing water through diversion channels to agricultural land and once taken, the maximum yield will flow continuously.”

According to Gandakoesuma (1981: 9) , irrigation is an effort to introduce water by building buildings and channels to drain water for agricultural purposes, distribute river or field water regularly, and process water that is no longer used, after all the water finished.

Must take action to limit the intake of water from water sources below to places that need water or must be distributed to plants that need it.

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Mawardi Erman (2007:5) states that irrigation is a business to obtain water that uses buildings and prosthetic channels for the needs of supporting agricultural production.

According to Government Regulation No. 25 of 2001 (CHAPTER I article 1) on irrigation states that what is meant by using irrigation is the business of preparing and arranging water to support agriculture, which types include surface water irrigation, groundwater irrigation, pump irrigation, and pond irrigation.

According to Wirosoedarmo, irrigation is an activity related to obtaining water for rice fields, fields, plantations, fisheries or ponds, etc., which are essentially for agricultural purposes.

According to Sosrodarsono and Takeda , irrigation directs the water needed for plant growth to agricultural land and distributes it systematically.

According to Hansen et al. , irrigation is the use of water in the soil for the purpose of providing the water needed for plant growth.

According to Kartasapoetra , irrigation is the preparation and arrangement of water to meet the benefits of agriculture by using water from surface water and groundwater.

History of Indonesian Irrigation

Since ancient Egypt, irrigation has been known by the Nile River. In Indonesia, traditional irrigation has existed since the time of our ancestors. This can also be seen cultivated in governments in Indonesia.

By damming between rivers to direct water to rice fields. Another way is to find water in the mountains and run on bamboo continuously. Some also carry buckets made of betel leaves or pull them from the river and throw them in the field along with buckets filled with areca leaves.

Jatiluhur Reservoir located in Jatiluhur District, Purwakarta Regency, built in 1957 with an area of ​​8,300 hectares and a water storage potential of 12.9 billion m3/year is the first multi-purpose reservoir in Indonesia.

Irrigation Network

The irrigation network is a unit of channels and structures required to manage irrigation water from preparation, collection, distribution, administration and use.

According to Government Regulation No. 25 of 2001 on irrigation, the definition of an irrigation network is channels, buildings and additional structures forming a unit that is necessary to organize irrigation water starting from preparation, collection, distribution, management, use and disposal. There are two types of irrigation networks, namely:

  1. The main irrigation network is the irrigation network where the irrigation system is located, starting from the main building, main/main channel, annex building, picture and additional building.
  1. The level 3 irrigation network is a functional irrigation network of the water supply infrastructure in the 3rd level plot which consists of a service provider canal called a tertiary channel, a division channel called a quaternary channel and an evacuation channel and additional channels, including a network of irrigation pumps with a wide service area assimilated to the tertiary area .

Based on maintenance, the irrigation network can be divided into 4 (four) types of maintenance, namely:

  1. Routine maintenance: light maintenance on buildings and irrigation channels can be done temporarily during continuity operations, which maintenance is only partial

the building/canal is just above the surface.

  1. Periodic Maintenance: Maintenance is done on building components and canals under water, when to make this work, the drains are first flushed.
  1. Preventive Maintenance: Preventive maintenance is an effort to prevent damage to the irrigation system as a result of irresponsible human intervention or disturbed animals.
  1. Emergency Maintenance: work carried out to repair due to unexpected damage, for example due to floods or earthquakes.

Types of Irrigation 

1. Surface Irrigation

According to Moch Absor, upper irrigation is an irrigation system that intercepts water exclusively in the river through a weir building and also through a free intake building, then the irrigation water is flowed by gravity through channels to the agricultural land.

Here are known primary, secondary & tertiary channels. This water arrangement is done using a sluice gate. The process is gravity, high ground will receive water first.

2. Water Pump Irrigation

Water pump irrigation is irrigation where water is taken from a well and raised through a water pump, then flowed using many methods, for example using pipes or channels. During the fever of the dry issue, this irrigation can continue to flow to the rice fields.

3. Gravity Irrigation

Gravity irrigation is irrigation that utilizes the force of gravity to flow water based on the origin to the location that needs it, usually this irrigation is used in Indonesia. There are three types of gravity irrigation including:

  • Wild pond irrigation.
  • Canal based pond irrigation.
  • Furrow & wave irrigation.
  • Sprinkler Irrigation

Irrigation is a gift of water using the method of spraying or using to imitate rain (sprinkling), the water that is sprayed will be, for example, fog, as a result of which the plant receives water based on the top, the leaves will get wet first, and then drip to the roots.

4. Dry Land Irrigation or Drip Irrigation (Trickle Irrigation)

This irrigation has the same principle as using sprinkler irrigation but the tertiary pipe is formed through tree strips & the pressure is smaller because it only drips. The advantage of this system is that there is no top genre.

Based on the method of water discharge measurement and the degree of installation equipment, the irrigation network is divided into three categories, namely:

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A. Moderate Irrigation

Simple irrigation networks are often managed independently by a group of farmers who use water, so their equipment and ability to measure and regulate is very limited.

The available water is generally abundant and has a moderate to steep slope, facilitating drainage and water distribution. Irrigation networks are easy to organize because they involve water users from the same social background.

However, this network still has some weaknesses, among them the waste of water occurs due to the amount of wasted water, the wasted water does not always reach the more fertile land below it, the work of the basin is temporary so it does not last long.

B. Semi Technical Irrigation

The semi-technical irrigation network has a permanent or semi-permanent basin structure. The photo booth is usually equipped with a catch and measure structure. The channel network already has several permanent buildings, but the distribution system is not yet fully able to organize and measure.

Because they do not have the ability to organize and measure well, organizational systems are often more complex. A water distribution system is similar to a simple network, where the water source is used to irrigate a wider area than just the area served by the network.

C. Technical Irrigation

The irrigation technical network has a fixed exploitation structure. Click on buildings and structures to adjust and scale. In addition, there is a separation between the draining and the giving channels.

Alignment and measurement is done starting from the seepage building to the tertiary site. Plot Level 3 plays a central role in the network of irrigation techniques. In order to streamline the irrigation service system for agricultural land, a map organization has been formed that covers primary parcels, secondary parcels, tertiary parcels, valuable parcels and paddy fields as small units.

5. Micro Irrigation

Irrigation systems only run water around the roots. Some types of this system are drip, micro spray and mini sprinkler. This irrigation system offers several advantages such as water saving, lower flow rate, can be done with fertilization and can be applied to different soil topographies.

6. Status of the Irrigation Network

  1. Government Irrigation : an irrigation network created and managed by the central or regional government. These sprinklers are usually large in size.
  2. Village Irrigation : The irrigation system is built and managed by the village community. The scale of this irrigation system is from 100 to 500 hectares with a simpler network.
  3. Private Irrigation : an irrigation network built and managed by an individual or individuals for their own needs. For example, when someone opens an agricultural business, to manage a garden, he builds an irrigation system.

Purpose and Benefits of Irrigation

According to the irrigation planning standard KP-01, irrigation is a system of providing water on agricultural land to meet the needs of plants so that the plants can grow well. The purpose of irrigation is:

  1. Wetting the plants . Moistening the soil using irrigation water overcomes water shortages in agricultural areas with little or no rainfall. This is important because the lack of water needed for growth can affect crop yields.
  2. Nourishing . Fertilizing is to provide a lot of water, the purpose of which, in addition to wetting, also provides useful substances for the plant itself.
  3. Adjust the temperature . Plants can grow well at temperatures that are neither too high nor too low, depending on the type of plant.
  4. Clean the soil or get rid of pests . The purpose of irrigation is also to kill insects that nest in the soil and damage plants, so that in the dry season it is necessary to add water to the rice fields so that the rice loses its salinity.
  5. Clogging . Clogging or what can be called Kolmatase Diairi with the purpose of improving/lifting the soil surface.
  6. Increase groundwater supplies . The purpose is to increase the supply of ground water for daily needs. This is usually done by storing water at one point, so that the water can seep into the ground and finally be used by those who need it. Irrigation is needed for agriculture, plantations and others.

In order to meet the needs of irrigation water, it is necessary to be inclusive and even, especially where water resources are limited. In the dry season, for example, many agricultural areas are not planted because there is not enough water needed.

In order to meet the needs of irrigation water, it is necessary to apply the right management measures supported by good technology and legislation. The use of hydraulic energy resources is adjusted to meet the needs of the plant.

Good management means that buildings and irrigation systems and their installations must be managed in an orderly and orderly manner under the supervision and responsibility of the body or organization. Water Farmers Association (P3A) (Regulations) (Government, 2001).

The benefits of irrigation are:

  • Add water to the soil to provide the liquid needed for plant growth.
  • Guaranteed harvest during the short dry season.
  • Cools the soil and atmosphere, creating a favorable environment for plants to grow.
  • To wash and reduce salt in the soil.
  • To reduce the risk of soil erosion.
  • To soften the plow and clods of soil.===========