Definition of Active and Passive Verbs, Characteristics, Types, to Examples

The meaning of active and passive verbs must be familiar to us in our daily life, especially when studying Indonesian subjects. Understanding active verbs and passive verbs is basically very important. This will help us to use good and correct Indonesian.

Try to imagine what happens when active verbs and passive verbs are used incorrectly. Of course, this could lead to misunderstandings between the speaker and the listener or the writer and the reader.

Therefore, in this article, you will be presented with an explanation of the meaning and examples of the use of active verbs and passive verbs. If you can understand the meaning and examples of active and passive verbs, of course you will be able to write in a correct order that is easy for the reader to understand. Let’s read the full review!

A. Definition of Active and Passive Verbs

Based on the meaning in the Indonesian Language Dictionary (KBBI), a verb can be understood as a word that describes a process, action, or situation. Meanwhile, the verb has a position as a predicate or main element in a sentence structure.

Verbs can basically be used to express an action, event, process, or activity performed by the actor or subject. A sentence usually does not only contain a verb, but can also be filled with a group of verbs (verb phrases), adjectives (adjectives), adjective phrases, and nouns (nouns), or noun phrases. Therefore, verbs can be given a suffix at the beginning of a sentence, at the end of a sentence, and even in the middle of a sentence.

The easiest way to understand the meaning of active and passive verbs is to look at their conjugation. Active verbs generally have a function as a doer or subject that gets the prefix me- or ber-. Meanwhile, passive verbs usually function as actors or subjects that are given the prefix di- or ter-.

Well, here are some differences between active verbs and passive Indonesian verbs that you need to know, among others:

– The difference between active and passive verbs Based on the subject

Active verbs have a subject that is positioned as the doer or the party that does. Meanwhile, passive verbs get a subject that is subjected to a job or action.

– The difference between active and passive verbs based on the predicate

Predicates on active verbs can be marked with the suffix me- or ber-. Meanwhile, predicates owned by passive verbs generally get affixes in the form of di- or ter-.

Examples of the use of predicates on active verbs are write, read, search, catch, swim. Meanwhile, examples of the use of passive verbs, such as shot, read, eaten, drank.

B. Examples of Active Verbs

After being able to distinguish the meaning of active and passive verbs, you can understand more about active verbs through examples. One of the ways that can be used to recognize the characteristics of active verbs. Active verbs can be checked by doing negation or adding the word “no” to the predicate. Meanwhile, you can add the word “not” to predicates that function as nouns.

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To make it clearer, listen to examples of active verbs and nouns in the following sentences,

– Ali “planted” cactus cactus in the yard. (Ali (didn’t) “plant” cactus cactus in the yard.)

– Lia is a cafe waitress. (Lia (not) a cafe waitress.)

1. Examples of Active Verbs

How to identify active verbs that match the SPOK structure in a sentence is actually quite easy. If you have understood the explanation above, you can look again at some examples of the use of active verbs that have been arranged in a sentence below, including the following:

– Roni wears the clothes you gave.

– He eats bread made by his mother.

– The doctor is examining a patient in room 10.

– I’m learning English through an app.

– I’m reading a book in the library.

– Mother fried the fish that father caught.

– His family is still grieving after the passing of his beloved grandfather.

– The lightning had struck someone before the rain came.

– Joko rides a motorcycle calmly.

– I swim regularly every Sunday.

– The policeman is helping a motorist who has skidded on the road.

– The teacher is teaching in class.

– I have already planned a meeting for tomorrow night.

– My cat gave birth to three babies last night.

– The student is still trying to put together a thesis in order to pass this semester.

– Nindi sweeps the house clean.

– Lia speculates about a beautiful future.

– I want to tell the situation.

– Rindi slows down his car.

– Yesterday dad caught a big fish.

– The athletes continue to fight for victory.

– I’ve embarrassed him in public.

– He is writing a letter to his family.

– Don’t hold the racket like that!

– The bird always whistles every morning.

– He is working on his PR.

– She is wearing embarrassing clothes.

– I’m looking for a lost pen.

– I walk from home to school every day.

– He has tried to cook well.

– I heard everything.

– He always belches after eating too much.

– I saw him kill someone.

– Mom cut the onions quickly.

– I have washed your clothes.

– I’m enjoying this beautiful view.

– Today I will marry Rindi.

– He built a beautiful house.

– Help him put the items in!

– I already bought the item you wanted.

C. Examples of Passive Verbs

As previously stated, passive verbs are basically one type of verb that has the function of expressing an activity or job of the subject or person who is subject to the job or action.

Therefore, passive verbs can be marked with the subject of work or action with the suffix di- or terpa- on the predicate. This certainly gives the impression that a passive verb is a sentence that emphasizes the subject and not the object. For example, like being swallowed, burned, kissed, eaten, stepped on, and so on.

If you understand the meaning of passive verbs, you must be able to distinguish between passive verbs and active verbs. Well, so that you can learn more about this material, here are examples of passive verbs that have been arranged in a sentence, among others:

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– Sunflowers are watered by Ana.

– Ani already ate the salmon this morning.

– Carrots have been cooked Intan until ripe.

– River water is poisoned by industrial factory waste.

– Mango syrup is drunk by Budi.

– The book has already been read by Sinta.

– The birthday bread has been cut by Fatimah.

D. Types of Verbs

In the process of understanding the linguistic rules owned by the Indonesian language, you do not understand enough the meaning and examples of active and passive verbs. There are some other types of verbs that you need to understand. Well, the following are some types of verbs that belong to the Indonesian language, among others:

1. Active Verbs and Passive Verbs

In accordance with the explanation above, verbs based on their subject can be grouped into two, namely active verbs and passive verbs. Active verbs are verbs that get affixes in the form of me- or ber-. Active verbs are usually often used to make explanations regarding the activities carried out by the subject or someone who is doing it. Examples of active verbs include “cutting”, “running”, and “dancing”.

Meanwhile, passive verbs are verbs that get affixes in the form of di- or ter-. The passive verb itself is usually used to provide an explanation regarding the activity in which the subject is subject to a job or action. Examples of passive verbs include being eaten or eaten, cut or cut, and so on.

2. Base Verbs and Derivative Verbs

The following types of verbs can be seen based on their form, verbs based on this form can be divided into two, namely basic verbs and derived verbs. The basic verb itself can be interpreted as a type of verb that has the original form. It can be understood that the basic verb does not get affixes or is only a base word. Examples of basic verbs, such as bathing, drinking, running, and so on.

Meanwhile, if the basic verb has the original form, the derivative verb has more forms in the form of affixes. The affixes themselves are mandatory affixes, obligatory bound, free of arbitrary affixes, and reduplication or compound. Examples of derived verbs are like landing, running, meeting, pilgrimage, going round and round, and many more.

3. Transitive and Intransitive Verbs

The third type of verbs are transitive and intransitive verbs. These two verbs are divided based on their object. A transitive verb itself is a type of verb that has an object. This makes this verb must be followed by an object to make a sentence more perfect or have meaning. Examples of transitive verbs include giving, cooking, kicking, and so on.

Meanwhile, the opposite of a transitive verb is an intransitive verb. As a type of verb, intransitive verbs can be characterized by verbs that don’t get or don’t need an object. Therefore, even though it does not use objects in the sentence structure, the meaning of intransitive verbs can be known. Examples of transitive verbs include crying, sitting, and many more.