Growth and Development in Living Things – Every living thing goes through a process of growth and development. This growth and development as two processes that run parallel and side by side.
So that the process of growth and development cannot be separated from one another. Check out a more complete explanation of the following Growth and Development, Sinaumed’s.
Definition of Growth and Development
Growth in biology refers to physical changes in the form of an increase in size, volume, height, and mass, friends.
This happens because during the growth period, the cells in a living creature’s body increase in number, as a result the tissues and organs in the living body’s body also change in size.
Well, body changes in this growth can be measured quantitatively. We can measure our height and weight using a tape measure and body scales. Growth has a very distinctive characteristic, which is irreversible, meaning it cannot return to normal.
So your current height can’t change anymore to be like when you were little. Growth as a process of increasing size that cannot return to its origin (irreversible), includes an increase in volume and an increase in mass.
Apart from being caused by an increase in cell size, growth also occurs due to an increase in the number of cells. For example, a newborn baby, for example, is 45 cm in size and weighs + 3 kg.
After experiencing growth, height can reach more than 150 cm and weight more than 30 kg. Development is a process towards achieving maturity. At the cellular level, development can take the form of the differentiation of newly dividing cells to form the tissues that make up certain organs.
In plants development is characterized by the emergence of flowers or fruit. While in animals and humans it is characterized by the maturity of the reproductive organs so that they are ready to produce offspring.
Development also causes psychological development from infancy, childhood, and adulthood. Unlike growth, development cannot be seen with the naked eye or measured and weighed.
This is because development in biology refers to the process leading to maturity. Because it cannot be measured and weighed, progress can only be measured qualitatively.
Learn about the growth and development of living things in a fun, varied, creative, and responsible way through the book Thematic 3A Growth & Development of Living Things in the 2013 Revised 2016 Curriculum which acts as a facilitator and motivator.
The point is this, if you pay attention to a newborn, the baby can only cry. But once the baby enters the age of one to three years, he starts babbling smoothly. This is what is known as development. Growth and Development does not only occur in humans, but also:
1. Growth and Development in Animals
Growth and development in animals occur in all parts of the body, in contrast to plants which occur only in certain parts, namely in the meristem area.
Growth and development in animals begins with the formation of a zygote from the fertilization process and continues until the animal reaches adulthood. Thus growth and development in animals can be divided into two parts, namely the embryonic phase and the postembryonic phase.
The embryonic phase is the growth and development that starts from the zygote until the formation of an embryo before birth or hatching. While the post-embryonic phase is the growth and development that starts from birth or hatches until the animal is an adult.
2. Growth and Development of Plants
Begins from seed germination. The sprout then develops into a perfect little plant. After growing to a certain size and age, the plant will develop to form flowers and fruit or seeds as a breeding tool.
Growth in plants occurs in the meristematic area (growing point), which is the part that contains meristem tissue. This tissue is located at the tip of the stem, root tip, and cambium.
The activity of the meristem tissue located at the tips of the stems or roots produces a different growth pattern when compared to the meristem tissue in the cambium. Therefore growth in plants can be divided into two types, namely primary growth and secondary growth.
Sinaumed’s can learn about the development and growth of both plants and animals through the book SD/MI KL.III Growth & Development of Living Things Theme 1 K/13 Rev.18 BSE.
Factors Influencing Growth and Development
The growth and development of living things is influenced by two factors. These two factors are internal factors and external factors. Let’s discuss internal factors first, shall we?
As the name implies, this internal factor is found in our own bodies. There are two internal factors, namely genes and hormones. Genes have a role in our growth by 60% to 80%. Because everyone’s genes are different, differences appear in the human body.
For example in Europeans and Asians. Europeans tend to be bigger and taller than Asians because their genes are different.
While hormones have a role in stimulating the growth of our bodies. When we are in a period of growth, there is something called HGH (Human Growth Hormone) aka human growth hormone. The amount of hormones in our body must be just right, my friends. The problem is that if the amount of our hormones is too little, our growth will be stunted and the result will be our bodies become stunted.
On the other hand, if there are too many of them, our growth will become exaggerated, aka excessive. As a result our body will experience gigantism, having a size and height above normal.
Even though most of our growth and development is influenced by genes and hormones, our growth and development can also be influenced by external factors, aka factors that are around us, friends. One of the external factors that affect our growth and development is the food we consume.
When we were little, our parents always tried to provide nutritious and balanced food so that we could grow and develop optimally.
In addition to food, environmental conditions also influence the growth and development of living things. For example, in plants, the condition of sunlight in the environment where they grow and develop has a very big role.
This happens because plants need sunlight to carry out photosynthesis.
If sunlight in the plant’s environment grows and develops less or does not exist, after a while the photosynthesis process will stop and eventually it can die.
If you pay attention, your height and size can be different when compared to your classmates. Even though you are almost the same age, in other words, the growth and development time is almost the same.
Why is that? This is because growth and development are influenced by various factors. Because there are different factors that affect growth and development, the height and size of your classmates may vary. Factors that affect growth and development can be divided into:
1. Internal Factors
Internal factors that affect growth and development come from within the living body itself. Included in this category are:
Hormones are substances that control various functions in the body. Even though the levels are small, hormones have a real influence in regulating various processes in the body. There are various types of hormones that affect growth and development in living things:
1) Hormones in Plants
Hormones in plants are often called phytohormones or body regulators. Some of them
- Auxin (functions to stimulate cell elongation, stimulate the formation of flowers, fruit, and activate the cambium to form new cells),
- Cytokinins (stimulate cell division and accelerate the formation of roots and shoots),
- Gibberellin (stimulates cell division and enlargement and stimulates seed germination. In certain plants, gibberellins can cause flowers to appear more quickly),
- Ethylene (plays a role in inhibiting stem elongation, accelerating fruit aging, and causing leaf senescence),
- Abscisic acid plays a role in the defoliation process.
2) Hormones in Animals
Thyroxine (functions to control animal growth. In frogs this hormone stimulates the start of the metamorphosis process), Somatomedin, which affects bone growth, Ekdison and juvenile (functions affect the development of the larval and adult phases, especially in invertebrate animals)
3) Hormones in Humans
Learn hormones in the human body through an adventure with Ddotty & Sleepground to understand how they work in the book Latest Science: Ddotty & Sleepground – Hormones, Important Substances in the Human Body.
Hormones are produced by endocrine glands or blind glands, which are glands that do not have ducts.
Some growth hormones in humans include the hormone thyroxine (produced by the thyroid or thyroid gland, it will affect growth, development, and carbohydrate metabolism in the body.
Deficiency of this hormone can cause mixoedema (obesity). Growth hormone produced by the anterior pituitary is also called somatotropin hormone (its role affects a person’s growth rate.
A child will not grow normally if there is a lack of growth hormone.
During growth, an excess of this hormone will result in gigantic growth, otherwise a deficiency will cause stunting. If excess hormone occurs after adulthood, it will cause enlargement of certain body parts, such as the nose or ears).
The hormone testosterone (regulates the development of the reproductive organs and the appearance of secondary sex characteristics in men), the hormone estrogen or progesterone (regulates the development of the reproductive organs and the appearance of secondary sex characteristics in women).
Genes are substances or materials that carry traits that are inherited from the parent. Genes affect the characteristics and characteristics of living things, for example body shape, height, skin color, flower color, fur color, fruit taste, and so on.
Genes also determine the metabolic capacity of living things, thereby influencing their growth and development.
Animals, plants and humans who have good growth genes will grow and develop rapidly according to their growth and development period.
Although the role of genes is very important, genetic factors are not the only factors that determine growth and development patterns, but are also influenced by other factors.
For example, plants that have superior characteristics in terms of growth and development will only grow quickly, bear fruit quickly and bear fruit abundantly if planted in fertile land and the conditions are suitable.
If it is planted in barren land and the environmental conditions are not suitable, its growth and development will not be good. Likewise, superior livestock will only produce optimally if given good feed and maintained in an appropriate environment.
In humans themselves, it is believed that genes are the elements that shape self, life, character, and even human destiny, which Sinaumed’s can learn more about through the book Genes by Siddhartha Mukherjee.
2. External Factors (External)
External factors that affect the process of growth and development of living things come from environmental factors. Several environmental factors that affect the growth and development of living things are as follows.
a. Food or Nutrition
Food is a raw material and source of energy in the body’s metabolic processes. The quality and quantity of food will affect the growth and development of living things.
The nutrients needed by humans and animals are carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals. All of these substances are obtained from food. As for plants, the nutrients needed are in the form of water and nutrients dissolved in water.
Through the process of photosynthesis, water and carbon dioxide (CO2) are converted into food substances with the help of sunlight. Although they do not play a direct role in photosynthesis, nutrients are needed for plants to grow and develop properly.
Whereas in humans, it is believed that nutrition is important since a person is still in the stages of fetal development until birth which is the golden period of child development. Learn more fully in the book Baby Brain Training Food, a Source of Nutrition for the Golden Age of Baby Brain Development.
b. Water and Humidity
Water and humidity are important factors for growth and development. Water is needed by living things. Without water, living things cannot survive.
Water is where chemical reactions take place in the body. Without water, chemical reactions in cells cannot take place, which can result in death.
Humidity is the amount of water vapor in the air or soil. Moist soil has a good effect on plant growth.
Humid conditions a lot of water that can be absorbed by plants and less evaporation. This condition greatly affects cell elongation. Moisture is also important to maintain the stability of cell shape.
For plants, soil affects their growth and development. Plants will grow and develop optimally if the soil conditions where they live are in accordance with the nutritional needs and nutrients. Soil conditions are determined by other environmental factors, such as temperature, mineral content, and water.
All living things need an appropriate temperature to support their growth and development. This temperature is called the optimum temperature, for example the normal human body temperature is around 37°C.
At the optimum temperature, all living things can grow and develop properly. Animals and humans have the ability to survive within a certain range of environmental temperatures.
Plants show a more pronounced effect on temperature. Rice planted at the beginning of the dry season (high average air temperature) is harvested faster than rice planted during the rainy season (low average air temperature).
A type of rose that grows and flowers well in cool mountains, when planted in hot coastal areas its growth becomes slow and does not produce flowers as beautiful as before.
This is because all processes in growth and development such as water absorption, photosynthesis, evaporation, and respiration in plants are affected by temperature.
Photosynthesis can also be interpreted as the process of cooking food in green plants with the help of sunlight. However, the process of photosynthesis that occurs in plants is more complex. Learn this process easily through the Smart Boy Science Comic: Photosynthesis.
Light affects the growth and development of living things. Plants really need sunlight for photosynthesis. However, the presence of light can actually inhibit plant growth because light can damage the auxin hormone found at the tip of the stem.
If you store sprouts in a dark place for a few days, they will grow faster (taller) than they should, but appear weak and pale or yellowish due to lack of chlorophyll. Apart from plants, humans also need sunlight to help form vitamin D.
Study the various plants that are spread throughout the world in the Encyclopedia of World Flora which is below. This book is equipped with interesting explanations and pictures of flora so that Sinaumed’s will be more enthusiastic about learning it.
4 Fields of Human Growth and Development
In simple terms, there are four areas of human development and growth. These fields consist of physical, intellectual, emotional, and social. The four mutually influence each other and become important in determining the factors that affect human growth and development.
1. Physical field
Physical measuring will automatically present the growth and development of this section. As mentioned above, physical growth would refer to changes in one’s body.
This can be measured qualitatively by numbers such as height and weight. Physical development usually refers to skills in carrying out complex activities and requires certain skills.
A person’s physical development is usually related to fine and gross motor skills. This skill would also be related to one’s muscle size and strength. Physical development follows a person’s age. In those with intellectual disabilities, this development can be stunted.
Human growth and development will also depend on the intellectual factors they have. It is about one’s ability to learn something. Also about how one can organize thoughts and ideas in dealing with life.
To develop one’s intellectual side, language and communication skills are important. In addition, he must also be able to develop the cognitive side. Cognitive itself is a person’s ability to use and organize thoughts to understand the world around.
Emotional factors also play an important role in human development. This ability is related to one’s feelings towards other people and other things in life.
A person’s expression in expressing his feelings can be expressed in words. If the individual is still a child, their language skills may still be limited in expressing emotions. When children are emotional, it could be that their control is still immature.
No wonder we see them crying, hitting, laughing loudly, and even kicking. All expressions will be conveyed depending on the situation experienced whether happy, sad or angry. The more mature, generally a person’s emotional control will be better.
The social side is also important because it is in the course of one’s life. This ability is important in building relationships with other people in various environments and situations.
Consciously or not, someone has been in social relationships since they were little. Many consider that this skill is one of the conditions for a person’s success in life.
In the course of his life, a person will learn this ability in various ways, including:
- Respect the opinions and feelings of others
- Share with others
- Communicate with others Make friends
Recommended Books & Articles Related to the Growth and Development of Living Things
Source: from various sources