Khulafaur Rasyidin comes from the words Khulafa’ and Ar-Rasyidin. Khulafa’ means substitute, while Ar-Rasyidin means to receive guidance. So, when combined, Khulafaur Rasyidin means a substitute who gets instructions. Khulafaur Rasyidin is a leader who is willing to replace the duties of Rasulullah SAW. as heads of state, government leaders, and leaders of the Muslim community. Not all the duties of Rasulullah SAW. can be replaced by Khulafaur Rashidun, especially the duties of prophets and apostles.
Khulafaur Rashidun is explained in the words of Allah SWT. in QS At-Taubah verse 100 which reads:
وَالسَّابِقُونَ الْأَوَّلُونَ مِنَ الْمُهَاجِرِينَ وَالْأَنْصَارِ وَالَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُوهُمْ بِإِحْسَانٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمْ وَرَضُوا عَنْهُ وَأَعَدَّ لَهُمْ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي تَحْتَهَا الْأَنْهَارُ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا أَبَدًا ۚ ذَٰلِكَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ
Meaning: “And those who were formerly the first (converted to Islam) among the Muhajirin and Ansar and those who followed them well, Allah was pleased with them and they were pleased with Allah. Allah has prepared for them gardens beneath which rivers flow. They live in it forever. That is a great victory.” (QS. At-Tauba: 100).
The Rashidun Khulafaur were the caliphs of the four companions of Rasulullah SAW. They became the caliphate after the Prophet died. The four companions of the Apostle are people who recognize the Apostle from the beginning given the task by Allah SWT. These four friends were also chosen by the people based on consensus. Companions who became caliphs after the Prophet SAW. who died were Abu Bakr As-Siddiq, Umar bin Khattab, Uthman bin Affan, and Ali bin Abi Talib.
The reign of Khulafaur Rashidun was a very important period for the journey of Islam. This period is referred to as the formation period of Islamic jurisprudence. In addition, after the Islamic Shari’a law was conveyed by Rasulullah SAW, the companions of the Apostle who became caliphs bore a great burden and responsibility to seek sources from the Shari’a. This is necessary to answer during the development of the times which is not in the Al Quran and its Sunnah.
At the same time as the Khulafaur Rashidun, the companions of the Prophet succeeded in expanding Islam beyond the Arabian Peninsula. They have laid the foundations of life from Islamic knowledge to the lives of their people.
All the complete stories of Khulafaur Rasyidin are summarized in this book. His story is so touching and able to strengthen the faith of Muslims and deepen our love for Rasulullah SAW.
For more details about the Rashidun Khulafaur period, below will explain a brief story of each caliphate at that time. Here is the story of Khulafaur Rasyidin.
1. Abu Bakr As-Siddiq
Abu Bakr’s real name is Abdul Kaaba. Then the name was changed by Rasuk to Abdullah. His full name is Abdullah bin Abi Quhafah at -Tamimi. Abu Bakr was born to the husband and wife Usman (Abu Quhafah and Umm Khair Salma bint Sakhr, he came from the Taim tribe. He was born in Mecca in 572 AD.
Since childhood, Abu Bakr has been gentle, honest, and patient. When he entered his teens, he became friends with Rasulullah SAW. and other companions who accompanied the Prophet as well. Since then he was nicknamed As-Siddiq because he always believed and justified what the Apostle said.
Abu Bakr was chosen as the caliph by way of deliberation between the Muhajirin and the Ansar. In the period after the Prophet’s legacy, there was a dispute between the Muhajirin and the Ansar during the selection of the Prophet’s successor. The Ansar offered Sa’ad bin Ubadah as the successor to the Apostle’s leadership, while Abu Bakr As-Siddiq offered Umar bin Khattab and Abu bin Ubaidah as the successor to the Apostle’s leadership.
During this period of dispute Abu Bakr emphasized to the Ansar that the Muhajirin were the right ones to replace the Prophet’s leadership as Islamic leaders because the Muhajirin had been privileged by Allah SWT. the first emigrants recognized Muhammad as a prophet and were with him in all circumstances.
At that time, Umar bin Khattab rejected Abu Bakr’s proposal to make him a substitute for the Prophet. Even Umar said that Abu Bakr was suitable to be the caliph of the Emigrants. After deliberation, the two people finally agreed to make Abu Bakr caliph. There were several agreements that made Abu Bakr accepted as caliph namely.
- He was the first person to acknowledge the Isra’ Mi’raj event;
- Abu Bakr who accompanied Rasulullah SAW. to emigrate to Medina;
- Abu Bakr was a very persistent person and always protected those who embraced Islam;
- He was once a prayer priest as a substitute for the Apostle when he was sick.
During the leadership of Abu Bakr, he prioritized the interests of his own country rather than matters that had nothing to do with his people and country.
The problem that existed in his country at that time was that people started leaving Islam because they thought that after Muhammad died, Islam had also ended its power. Then there are also many people who claim to be a substitute for Rasulullah SAW. Thus Abu Bakr decided to fight them all.
All decisions that occurred during the reign of Abu Bakr were always in his hands. But previously he always consulted with his friends before deciding something.
Before Abu Bakr died, he appointed Umar bin Khattab to replace his position as caliph. He pointed to Umar not just casually, but had considered it because of the existing political situation. Abu Bakr was worried that if the next caliphate elections were held like the previous caliphate elections, the political situation would become increasingly murky.
2. Umar bin Khattab
Umar bin Khattab was 13 years younger than Rasulullah SAW. he was born in Mecca in 582 AD, and in 634 AD he succeeded Abu Bakr as caliph.
Since he was a child, Umar was known as a brave and intelligent person. He is not even afraid to tell the truth to anyone. Before he converted to Islam, he had opposed Islam, but after entering he was very much defending Islam and against its enemies. Because of his courage, Umar bin Khattab was feared by the Quraysh.
The nature of his courage in the truth made Rasulullah SAW. gave him the nickname Al-Faruq which means the differentiator. The meaning is that Umar is a person who can distinguish between truth and evil.
Umar bin Khattab’s caliphate began when Abu Bakr was sick and summoned Uthman bin Affan to write a will for Umar to replace him as caliph. Abu Bakr’s goal was to avoid disputes over the election of the caliph when he died. With the election of Umar bin Khattab as caliph, all Muslims agreed with Abu Bakr’s decision.
The length of time Umar bin Khattab served as caliph earned him a new title, namely Amir al-Mu’minin, which means leader of the faithful. This title was given by you Muslims because you saw Umar bin Khattab who led Islam for 10 years. Therefore he really deserves the title
During his leadership, Umar bin Khattab prioritized the expansion of Islam which reached up to one-third of the world. With Umar’s hard work, Islam could reach as far as Europe. Thanks to Umar’s leadership style, he became a force for Islam to be reckoned with. At that time the Islamic position had the same strength as the Romans and Persians.
At that time the Islamic territory was extended to Egypt, Iraq, Syria, Palestine and other Persian countries. After ruling several countries with Islam, Umar formed a government similar to that of Persia. Umar bin Khattab made a government administration that governed eight areas, namely, Mecca, Medina, Syria, Jazirah, Basrah, Kufa, Palestine, and Egypt. The department was set up to regulate the salary and land tax of each official in the area thus triggering the creation of the Baitul Mal.
Umar died at the age of 63 after reigning under Islamic leadership for 10 years and 6 months. His death was caused because he was stabbed by Abu Lu’lu’ah. He was a slave from al-Mughirah bin Syu’bah during the dawn prayer.
3. Uthman bin Affan
Uthman bin Affan in 579 AD in Taif, the fertile area of the Hijaz region, located in northwestern Saudi Arabia. He was born after 5 years from the year of the Elephant. This made him 5 years younger than Rasulullah SAW.
Ustman bin Affan was a wealthy merchant and also a well-known revelation writer. Ustman is known as a quiet person and has good manners. Because he did a lot of good deeds, he received the title Ghaniyyun Syakir, which means a rich person who is very grateful to Allah SWT.
Even though he is a rich man, he does not forget the people under him. He also did not hesitate to join the war. It was even narrated from Ibn Syihab Al-Zuhri that Uthman had prepared 940 camels and 60 horses for Jaisyul Usrah (difficult troops) in the Tabuk War.
In addition, he also gave 10,000 dinars (about 483 million rupiah) to Rasulullah SAW. with his own two hands. The incident was narrated by a companion of the Prophet, namely, Hudzaifah.
Because Uthman had done a lot of good, he was married to the Prophet’s daughter, Ruqayyah. After Ruqayyah died, he remarried the Prophet’s daughter, Umm Kullsum. Thus he was given the nickname Dzun Nurain, which means having two lights.
Ustman bin Affan has services in the form of recording the Al Quran into several manuscripts. He also determined the recitation in the Quran to be simultaneous and uniform. His great work is very beneficial for Muslims. Therefore, he was given an award as the Usmani Mushaf.
This period of his leadership began when Umar bin Khattab became seriously ill after being stabbed by Abu Lu’lu’ah, a slave from Persia. Because of Umar’s illness, he formed a team that had members Uthman bin Affan, Ali bin Abi Talib, Talhah bin Ubaidillah, Zubair bin Awwam, Abudrrahman bin Auf, and Sa’ad bin Abis Waqqas.
The formation of this formation aims to elect a replacement for Umar bin Khattab to become caliph. However, the four members resigned. Then, based on the general opinion of the people that they wanted Uthman bin Affan to be the replacement for Umar bin Khattab. Abdurraham bin Auf also tended to choose Uthman bin Affan to replace Umar bin Khattab’s role.
With the agreement and approval of the Muslims, Uthman bin Affan was appointed caliph at the age of 70 years. He became caliph for 12 years, which was longer than Umar bin Khattab.
During his reign, Uthman bin Affan expanded Islam to several areas that Umar bin Khattab had not previously reached. Muslims were a little disappointed because of the difference in character between Uthman bin Affan and Umar bin Khattab. Uthman has a nature that tends to be gentle and makes Islam a little weak.
During his reign, the policy of Uthman that was most highlighted was when he appointed his family relatives to occupy important positions such as governors in Islamic territories.
In addition to the problem of expanding the area, Uthman also paid attention to development in the city. He built flood prevention dams, city streets, bridges, mosques, and also expanded the Prophet’s mosque.
At the end of his reign, Uthman did not leave the slightest message. This is because he died suddenly because he was killed when he was reading the Koran. He died at the age of 83 years. This made the political situation worse.
Written in 1916, this classic book unravels the “black hole” of the life and career of Uthman and his descendants, Orkhan, Murad and Bayezid, the founders of the Ottoman Caliphate. Analyzing sources from Ottoman writers, compiled with the writings of Byzantine historians, and enriched with primary documents stored in museums, the author presents a picture of the realization of this caliphate.
4. Ali bin Abi Talib
Ali bin Abi Talib had the full name Ali bin Abi Talib bin Abdul Muttalib bin Hasyim. He was born in Mecca on the 12th of Rajab in the 30th year after the birth of Rasulullah SAW. Ali was born to a married couple named Abi Talib bin Abdul Muthalib and Fatimah bint Asad. Previously his mother gave him the name Al-Haidarah which means lion, then his father gave him the name Ali.
As a child, he was educated and raised by Rasulullah SAW. The affection and nobility that the Apostle gave to Ali shaped Ali’s character. Because of the Apostle’s upbringing he dared to convert to Islam at a very young age, he converted to Islam after Siti Khadijah. Because of the courage possessed by Ali bin Abi Talib, he was given the title Lion of Allah and Karamallahu Wajhahu which means may Allah glorify his face.
The leadership period began after Uthman bin Affan died. At that time Muslims were confused as to who would replace Ustman as Islamic leader. Then at that time someone suggested that Ali bin Abi Talib be Uthman’s replacement as caliph. All the majority of Muslims agreed with the appointment of Ali as the caliphate, except for those who only agreed with Muawiyah bin Abu Sufyan.
During his time as a leader he replaced officials who were less competent at work, he also fixed the finances of the Baitul Mal, then advanced the field of linguistics, and promoted development.
The reign that was run by Ali bin Abi Talib was different from the previous reign, where at that time the area of Islam was very wide and was already heavily influenced by worldly issues.
Ali also faced opponents who raised the rebellion. In fact, he also fought Zubair bin Awwam and Aisyah because he was considered not to have completed the murder case of Uthman bin Affan.
All of these contradictions resulted in the emergence of the Jamal War or referred to as the camel war because Aisha rode a camel to fight. The conflict between Ali and Muawiyah also led to the Siffin War.
Then these wars ended with tahkim/arbitration at Daumatul Jandal in 34 H. Because all the events that occurred resulted in the emergence of three groups in Islam, namely Khawrij, Murji’ah, and Shi’a. The three groups color the development of thought in Islam.
Sinaumed’s, that’s a brief explanation of the story of Khulafaur Rasyidin. From the stories there are differences in leadership, and every leader also has an example that we can make as an example.
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This ebook is an attempt by Muslim intellectuals in East Java to contribute their thoughts in order to participate in educating the people to be made into a collection of writings by Muslim scholars, hopefully it will be more useful and inspire the people to always maintain their Faith and Piety to Allah SWT.