Getting to Know the Process of Metabolism of the Human Body – Metabolism is the overall chemical reaction in cells that involves enzymes in living bodies whose purpose is to produce energy. Later, the energy produced will have many uses in daily activities, ranging from controlled body weight, smooth blood circulation, good state of mind, good immune system, and more energy. Check out a more complete explanation of the following metabolism, Sinaumed’s:
Definition of Metabolism
Metabolism is all the chemical reactions that aim to maintain life that occur in an organism. There are three main goals of metabolic processes, first converting fuel or food to be used as raw material for building proteins, lipids, nucleic acids and several types of carbohydrates. The second converts food into energy to carry out processes at the cellular level, and the third eliminates metabolic waste.
Metabolism can also be said to be the occurrence of all the chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including the movement of substances and digestion within and between different cells. The group of reactions that occur at the cellular level is known as intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism.
There are several metabolic pathways when a chemical reaction, a change occurs in a compound into another compound through several processes facilitated by specific enzymes. Then what is the difference between metabolism and digestion?
The digestive process is defined as the process carried out by the body when it breaks down and processes food into nutrients, and only occurs in the digestive organs in the human body. While the process of metabolism can occur in various cells in the body which are controlled by special proteins.
If the digestive process occurs when food enters the body, it is different from the metabolic process that occurs since the fetus is formed in the womb. This is important to study because it is closely related to various other sciences discussed in Metabolism and Bioenergetics.
Metabolism is a basic process that occurs in every living thing. Humans, animals and plants experience the same process in order to function normally in everyday life. In the human body, metabolism works through two processes, namely catabolism and anabolism and the processes take place simultaneously. Here’s the explanation:
- Catabolism is the process of burning calories from food along with processing and breaking down nutrients that are used by the body as energy. Metabolism will change the substances in food and drink that enter the body. For example, amino acids which were previously contained in protein, carbohydrates became glucose, and fats became fatty acids. Furthermore, these substances are absorbed into the blood and distributed to the body’s cells to be used when the body needs a source of energy.
- Anabolism is the energy burning stage. It is said so, because the existing energy will be used to repair damaged body tissue so that new ones are formed as well as producing various hormones. If you consume more calories from food or drink, your body will automatically store more energy as fat tissue.
To be able to understand the metabolic processes that occur in the body, knowledge of biochemistry is sufficient knowledge about the structure and function of biomolecules, synthesis of nucleic acids, vitamins and coenzymes, mechanisms of action of enzymes, receptors, and control of metabolism and comparative biochemistry discussed in Biochemistry books. Metabolism & Bioenergytics.
Things That Affect Body Metabolism
Everyone is generally different in producing energy through the metabolic rate or the number of calories burned by the body. The following are some of the factors that can affect the metabolic rate:
1. Body Temperature
Naturally, metabolism will increase when body temperature decreases (hypothermia) or when the body is cold. This happens so that the body temperature increases and becomes normal, so the organs in the body can also function properly.
Stimulants such as caffeine contained in beverages and drugs containing stimulants such as methylphenidate or amphetamine can also increase the body’s metabolism.
In the body, there is a thyroid hormone that regulates the body’s metabolism. Therefore, thyroid hormone can decrease or increase the body’s metabolism if it is disturbed. Learn deeply about hormones in the body through the book Women & Hormones.
Metabolism in the body of a pregnant woman will increase and is useful for supporting the process of development and growth of organs and tissues in the fetus’s body. This occurs at the age of 15 weeks of pregnancy to the third trimester, usually the metabolic processes begin to increase.
5. Consumption of Food and Beverages
If you are lacking in consuming food or drink, it can slow down the body’s metabolic processes. Conversely, the body’s metabolism can increase if you eat or drink too much, especially if the food or drink you consume contains too many calories and nutrients (for example protein) as well as antioxidants such as polyphenols.
6. Size and Body Composition
Larger and more muscular bodies are able to burn more energy than smaller bodies, even when not doing anything or resting. This happens because muscle tissue is more active in the process of body metabolism than fat tissue.
The female body burns less energy than the male body. This is because men often have more muscle tissue and less body fat than women.
As we get older, the amount of fat increases but on the contrary, the amount of muscle tends to decrease. This can slow down the burning of calories or metabolic processes to produce energy.
The next factor, which comes from genetics or heredity, can affect the size and growth of muscle tissue. This can affect a person’s metabolism or energy burning in the future.
10. Activity Level
Doing lots of physical activities such as sports can make the body burn more energy, especially if you exercise regularly.
Metabolic disorders will cause the body to have too little or too many important substances to stay healthy, this occurs due to failure in the metabolic process. As a result, several diseases can arise if some of these important substances are less or more. The human body must have several types of protein as well as amino acids to use in order to maximize its function.
If this is not fulfilled, it can cause interference that makes it difficult to move, these disorders occur in various forms. Examples include vitamins or enzymes that inhibit important chemical reactions in the body due to their disappearance, abnormal chemical reactions that can inhibit the body’s metabolic processes, malnutrition, to the emergence of diseases in internal organs related to metabolism (pancreas, liver, endocrine glands, etc.).
There are many possible abnormalities caused by metabolic disorders, therefore many types of diseases can arise. Many disorders related to metabolic processes have been identified and continue to be discovered. Some types of diseases that can occur are as follows:
1. Thyroid Disease
The thyroid gland is a small organ located in the lower part of the neck that is shaped like a butterfly. Its function is to produce the hormone thyroxine which will support metabolic processes to maintain the function of various vital body functions, especially the heart, brain, muscles and skin. Thyroid disease occurs when the work of the thyroid gland is disrupted, it can occur because the thyroid gland becomes underactive (hypothyroid) or overactive (hyperthyroid).
Symptoms in case of hyperthyroidism can be seen when the heart palpitations, protruding eyes, weight loss, swelling of the neck glands or goiter and an increase in blood pressure. While the symptoms of hypothyroidism are a slow heartbeat, constipation, weight gain and a body that gets tired and weak easily.
Diabetes occurs because there is a disturbance when the metabolic process takes time to produce the hormone insulin. This results in a lack of insulin hormone in the body resulting in an increase in excessive or abnormal sugar levels. The production of insufficient amounts of the insulin hormone in the pancreas will lead to type 1 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes occurs because the insulin hormone cannot be properly responded to by the body.
This is known as insulin resistance. As the condition progresses, it can also cause blindness and heart disease, blood vessel problems, kidney problems, and pain caused by nerve damage.
In reducing the risk of this disease, there are various diets that can be done through a form of diet that Sinaumed’s can find in the book Diabetes (can) Cure Without Medication.
3. Congenital Metabolic Disorders
One of the diseases that can occur due to metabolic disorders is an abnormality in the storage of lysosomes. This section is a place that is used to break down waste products that come from metabolism. Metabolic disorders will occur when there is a buildup of toxic substances caused by a lack of lysosomal enzymes.
Galactosemia occurs because there is damage to break down galactose, it can cause jaundice, enlarged liver or vomiting. Examples generally occur in newborns after consuming breast milk or formula milk. How do doctors detect galactosemia?
In newborns, the symptoms of galactosemia are marked by several things, such as vomiting, yellowing of the skin color, and refusal to breastfeed. Other symptoms include fluid buildup and abdominal swelling, enlarged liver, diarrhea, abnormal bleeding, weight loss, and feeling weak.
Galactosemia can be diagnosed with a galactosemia test. Usually the test is carried out directly from birth, this method is used by developed countries such as the United States. The test is carried out by taking a sample of the baby’s blood, the blood test will detect the level of galactose and also the level of the lactose-breaking enzyme in the baby’s body. In addition, a urine test can also detect whether a baby has galactosemia. Diagnosis of galactosemia is very important to prevent complications for infants who suffer from galactosemia.
Some complications of galactosemia if this condition is not treated immediately, namely: liver damage or liver failure, serious bacterial infection, sepsis or complications, shock infection, developmental delays, behavioral problems, speech delays, learning difficulties, cataracts, tremors, fine motor disorders, reproductive problems, premature ovarian insufficiency, and others.
Phenylketonuria is caused by a genetic mutation. When experiencing this condition, the gene disorder will cause the loss or low levels of enzymes needed when digesting amino acids (phenylalanine). As a result, there will be a buildup of phenylalanine in the body and can cause problems when someone with phenylketonuria often eats foods rich in protein, such as nuts, cheese, milk, meat, and others.
The case that most often occurs when a child has phenylketonuria, is caused by heredity from the parents, either from the mother’s side or from the father’s side. This pattern of inheritance is called autosomal recessive. This can happen unnoticed because there is a possibility that both parents who have the gene disorder never show a significant symptom and only act as carriers. If only one of the parents has a gene disorder, generally the risk of passing it on to children will be lower.
Even so, the child still has the possibility of becoming a carrier. Many cases occur in children with phenylketonuria with both parents being carriers, but this condition has never been known before. The risk factor for experiencing phenylketonuria is because both parents have a phenylketonuria gene disorder. If both parents pass on the gene disorder, their child may experience phenylketonuria. Being in a certain racial group, one of the races that is rarely encountered is in individuals with African race.
Children of mothers who have phenylketonuria but do not follow a phenylketonuria diet during pregnancy will be at risk for birth defects, this is due to high levels of phenylalanine in the mother’s bloodstream. Symptoms of Phenylketonuria in newborns with phenylketonuria initially do not show any symptoms. Without monitoring and treatment, symptoms and signs of phenylketonuria may occur in the first few months.
There are several signs and symptoms of phenylketonuria, these symptoms can be mild or severe, such as:
- Intellectual disability (formerly known as mental retardation)
- Slower development process compared to other children his age
- Behavioral, emotional, and social disorders
- Mental disorders
- Neurological disorders, which may include seizures
- Low bone strength
- Rashes on the skin
- Small head size, the most severe form of the disease is classic phenylketonuria.
- Children and adults with less severe types of phenylketonuria, where the enzymes are still functioning although limited, have a lower risk of developing brain damage.
- Most children with phenylketonuria require a special diet to avoid intellectual disability or other complications.
Steps to Increase Body Metabolism
Metabolism and digestion are two different things. Metabolism is related to processing food and then turning it into energy, while digestion is related to the process of breaking down and digesting food substances so as to provide nutrition for the body.
Then why do many want a faster metabolism? The reason is that an effective metabolic process can ensure that what is consumed does not turn into fat, but energy. Here are some steps that can be taken to increase the body’s metabolism, Sinaumed’s:
- Consume lots of protein at meals, the body needs protein to maintain healthy muscles. Consumption of fat-free meat or fish as a daily menu. As much as 35 percent of calories can be burned because of protein.
- Don’t forget to eat breakfast which will boost your metabolism and keep it high throughout the day. If you don’t have breakfast time, replace it by drinking yogurt or breakfast oatmeal mixed with low-fat milk.
- Research proves that if you consume fiber, you can burn fat by up to 30 percent. So it is recommended to consume lots of fruits and vegetables, so that the body gets at least 25 grams of fiber in a day.
- Lifting weights, it turns out lifting heavy weights is also important to maintain and build muscle. The high metabolism of the body is also influenced by the large number of muscles in the body.
- Drink green tea or oolong tea, as they contain caffeine. Caffeine can increase the body’s metabolism five to eight percent, because it is a nervous system stimulant. According to research conducted in Japan, drinking a cup of green tea can increase the body’s metabolism by up to eight and twelve percent. The researchers believe that the caffeine in tea can speed up the body’s metabolism.
- Deep sleep. If you have less sleep, it can lower the number of calories you burn, affect the way you process sugar and interfere with appetite-regulating hormones.
- Drinking coffee. Without realizing it, drinking coffee can help you lose weight while increasing your metabolism.
- Drink lots of water
- Do high-intensity exercise.
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