Getting to Know the Nature Reserve as a Preservation of Flora and Fauna

Nature reserves – The area of ​​open and natural areas in the world is decreasing. Fields, forests, rice fields and other natural lands have turned into concrete forests, industrial areas, toll roads, houses and so on. As a result, homes for some animals and plants were lost.

They moved settlements to human villages. It is not uncommon for them to die during the deforestation process. They are also often the target of human hunting for body parts such as fangs, skin, fur, and other parts.

Therefore, to maintain the survival of animals and plants as well as their ecosystems, a conservation area was created. By building nature reserves, wildlife reserves, national parks, and so on.

In the following, we will discuss about nature reserves and the things that surround them.

 

Definition of Nature Reserve

According to the Ministry of Forestry of the Republic of Indonesia (2013), a nature reserve is defined as an area described as a forest with regulations related to legal protection because it has a unique ecosystem of plants and animals.

As for in Law no. 5 of 1990, a nature reserve is a form of nature reserve area because its natural conditions have specific plants, animals and certain ecosystems that need to be protected or preserved so that their development can take place naturally continuously.

In the Government Regulation of the Republic of Indonesia Number 28 of 2011 concerning the Management of Nature Reserve Areas and Nature Conservation Areas, nature reserves are KSAs which because of their natural conditions have specific/unique plant species and/or plant diversity along with natural phenomena and their ecosystems that require protection and preservation efforts so that its existence and development can take place naturally.

In the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), a nature reserve is a regional legal term in which the preservation of the flora and fauna contained therein is protected by law from the danger of extinction; nature reserve.

A nature reserve can be analogized as a container or place that contains relics of natural resources that are almost extinct, so they need to be protected and preserved.

From some of the explanations above, it can be concluded that nature reserves are protected forest areas because they have unique animals, plants and ecosystems so that their survival will continue to be sustainable.

Nature Reserve Criteria

The criteria for an area to be designated and designated as a nature reserve according to the Government Regulation of the Republic of Indonesia Number 28 of 2011 concerning Management of Nature Reserve Areas and Nature Conservation Areas in Article 6 are as follows.

  1. Having a diversity of plant and/or wild animal species incorporated in an ecosystem type.
  2. Having natural conditions, both plants and/or wild animals that are physically pristine and undisturbed.
  3. There are communities of plants and/or animals and their ecosystems that are rare and/or endangered.
  4. Having certain biota formations and/or constituent units.
  5. Having a sufficient area and a certain shape that can support effective management and ensure the ongoing natural ecological processes.
  6. And/or has potential characteristics and can be an example of an ecosystem whose existence requires conservation efforts.

 

Purpose of Establishing a Nature Reserve

Nature reserves are not established without reason, in general they exist to maintain the sustainability of ecosystems, plants and animals that are on the verge of extinction. Here’s Daric’s goal for nature.

1. Plant Preservation

Environmental damage is the background for the establishment of nature reserves so that plants that are almost rare and close to extinction can be preserved. This preservation is important to maintain its survival forever.

2. Set the Water Circulation Process

Plants are one of the important actors in the sustainability and maintenance of water on earth. Plants have natural properties, namely binding water in the soil. The water will be processed into oxygen through the process of photosynthesis.

Photosynthesis is included in the category of evaporation forms in which water evaporates into air. The air will become a cloud that is lowered again to earth. The nature of the roots that bind water is also useful for keeping the soil from sliding.

3. Maintain Soil Fertility and Test Soil Nutrients

Fertility of the soil layers, especially nutrients can be seen from the fertility of plants. The more fertile the plant, the higher the nutrient content in it.

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Not only that, the existence of nature reserves can also maintain the fertility of the soil layer. Soil planted with several types of plants will maintain its fertility because the soil will continue to work to support the plants naturally.

4. Used as a Research Place

The natural state of the nature reserve is suitable for research. Researchers can conduct research on various things such as nutrient content, animals that exist in it, plants, ecosystems, and other things. So that it can develop a theory or formulate a theory.

5. Used as a Tourist Place

The naturalness and beauty of nature reserves can attract people to visit and enjoy them. Both domestic and foreign tourists.

6. As State Income

The large number of foreign tourists who come to Indonesia to enjoy nature reserves makes the state treasury more and more. Not only that, the country’s foreign exchange also rose from the difference in tariffs to enter nature reserves which were different from local tourists. Usually foreign tourists are charged a higher rate than local tourists.

List of Forest Hierarchies in Indonesia

Indonesia has a fairly large forest. These forests have the following hierarchical levels.

1. Production Forest Area

A production forest area is a forest area developed to meet the production of forest products as commodities that meet the needs of the community, particularly for industry, development and exports.

In Indonesia, most production forests are part of natural forests which are used as forest concessions and artificial forests or plantation forests. For example, tusam forest, teak, mahogany, jabon. bamboo, resin, and so on. As for the characteristics of production forests, namely intensive processing refers to the principles of sustainability, the majority are of age, and the tree species are pure.

The following are the types of production forest.

  1. Limited Production Forest (HPT) is a forest that can only be exploited by selective logging. Limited Production Forests are forests allocated for low-intensity timber production. These limited production forests are generally located in mountainous areas where steep slopes make logging activities difficult.
  2. Permanent Production Forest (HP) is a forest that can be exploited by selective logging or clear cutting.
  3. Convertible Production Forest (HPK) whose forest area is determined by the slope type, soil and rainfall intensity class factors after each multiplied by the weighing number has a value of 124 or less outside of nature reserve forest and nature conservation forest. Not only that, forest areas are spatially reserved for use for the development of transmigration, agricultural settlements and plantations.

The characteristics of production forests are as follows.

  • In one area there is only one type of plant or tree, such as teak, rubber, and so on.
  • Intended for consumer needs.
  • The area that is utilized is relatively wide because it is indeed to meet human needs.
  • Usually owned by large private companies or local government.
  • Utilization and use is strictly controlled.

2. Protected Forest Area

Protected forest area is a forest area that has the main function of protecting life support systems to regulate water management, control erosion, prevent flooding, prevent sea water intrusion, and maintain soil fertility. Indonesia regulates protected forest areas in the Law of the Republic of Indonesia No. 5 of 1990 concerning the Conservation of Biological Natural Resources and their Ecosystems. The law contains the protection of life support systems in a special chapter, namely Chapter II.

3. Conservation Forest Area

According to Law Number 41 of 1999 concerning Forestry, conservation forest is a forest area with certain characteristics which has the main function of preserving the diversity of plants and animals and their ecosystems. Conservation forests have several types of them.

  1. Natural reserve areas (KSA) are state-owned forest areas with certain characteristics. The area is designated as an area for the protection and preservation of the diversity of animals, plants and their ecosystems. In these areas, manipulation by humans is permitted with the aim of maintaining the characteristics of the community and supporting certain species. The nature reserve area is divided into two areas. Here’s an explanation.
    • A nature reserve (CA) is a KSA which, due to its natural conditions, has specific/unique plant species and/or plant diversity along with natural phenomena and their ecosystems that require protection and preservation efforts so that their existence and development can take place naturally.
    • A wildlife reserve is a nature reserve area that has distinctive characteristics in the form of diversity and/or uniqueness of animal species whose habitat can be developed for their survival.
  2. A nature conservation forest area (KPA) is a forest area with certain characteristics that functions to protect life support systems, preserve the diversity of plant and animal species, and make sustainable use of living natural resources and their ecosystems. In Law no. 5 of 1990, a nature conservation area is defined as an area with certain characteristics both on land and water. The nature conservation area is divided into three areas. Here’s the distribution.
    • A national park (TN) is defined as an area intended to preserve nature so that natural ecosystems are maintained or improved (if damaged). Not only preserving nature, national parks also function as places for scientific research, preservation of cultivation, improvement of knowledge, places of recreation and tourism. The national park management system is based on a zoning system for spatial arrangements within the national park area into management zones.
    • Natural tourism parks (TWA) are forest areas designated as natural recreation areas that can be used as tourist attractions or tourism activities. Even though it is allowed for tourism activities, it must adhere to the principles of nature conservation and protection. The establishment of a nature tourism park must go through a Natural Tourism Exploitation Permit (IPPA). For example permits for conservation areas for wildlife reserves, national parks, and large forests. Until now, there have been 118 units of nature tourism parks in Indonesia. this number includes areas in forests, land and sea.
    • Grand forest park (Tahura) is a forest area established to protect nature and preserve biodiversity. The flora and fauna that live in it come from their original habitat or other areas. Therefore, the habitat in Tahura can be formed naturally or formed into an artificial ecosystem. In Indonesia, there are approximately 22 forest park areas. Such as the Raja Lelo Grand Forest Park in Bengkulu with an area of ​​1,122 ha which was stipulated based on the Decree of the Minister of Forestry of the Republic of Indonesia Number: 21/Kpts/VI/1998 on January 7, 1988.
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3. The new park is a forest area designated for hunting tourism. Its function is to accommodate activities related to hunting and facilitate community hobbies. In the new park is not allowed to do activities haphazardly.

There are a number of rules that must be obeyed. These include permits for weapons, time and season for hunting, types of animals to be hunted, and other regulations. Until now, Indonesia has 12 hunting park locations. One of them is Mount Tambora Selatan Hunting Park, West Nusa Tenggara.

Nature Reserves in Indonesia

The following is a list of nature reserves in Indonesia.

1. Maninjau Nature Reserve in Agam, West Sumatra

Inside the Maninjau Nature Reserve there is a habitat for Sumatran tigers and sun bears. Not only that, the nature reserve area is also inhabited by several wild animals and rare flowers. The rafflesia arnoldi flower once grew to a diameter of 107 cm. The main attraction of the area is Lake Maninjau with an area of ​​99.5 km2.

2. Ijen Crater Nature Reserve in Banyuwangi, East Java

The Ijen Crater Nature Reserve has an area of ​​2,468 ha, of which 92 ha is used as a nature tourism area. Biodiversity in nature reserves is grouped based on altitude above sea level. in areas with an altitude of 700-1,000 meters above sea level are categorized as Mountain Rain Forest with protected forest area coverage.

As for areas with an altitude of 1,000-2,500 meters above sea level, it is referred to as High Mountain Rain Forest which has the dominant type of vegetation in the form of edelweiss. Areas with an altitude of 2,500-4,000 meters above sea level are called Sub Alpine Rain Forests which are dominated by shrubs and shrubs.

The animals that live in it consist of panthers, forest cats, Javan langurs, mongooses, and 107 species of birds (including 21 endemic bird species such as the Javan Cekakak and Gunung Cucak).

3. West Waigeo Nature Reserve in Raja Ampat, West Papua

Weigo is north of Raja Ampat in the form of an island with an area of ​​301,127 ha. Actually, in the Waigeo Nature Reserve there are two nature reserves separated by Mayalibit Bay, namely West Waigeo with an area of ​​95,200 ha. And East Waigeo with an area of ​​119,500 ha.

The typical animal in it is Maleo Waigeo. Maleo Waigeo is a maleo bird that is sensitive to sound and hard to find. The number is estimated at only about 980 mature individuals. Therefore, this bird species is included in the endangered status on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) red list . To preserve the flora and fauna in the nature reserve area, conservation activities are carried out in the form of area protection.

4. Anak Krakatau Nature Reserve in the Sunda Strait, Lampung

When visiting Mount Krakatau, tourists can learn about the awesomeness of the eruption of Mount Krakatau in 1883. This area is also the largest natural laboratory with an area of ​​13 thousand hectares.

The main attraction of Mount Krakatau is the ascent to the Anak Krakatau with beautiful and exotic ocean views. There are also 206 species of fungi, 61 ferns, 13 types of lichens and 257 types of spermatophytes that grow in this area.

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