What is Flora and Fauna? – Flora and fauna are one of the inhabitants of this earth. Besides humans, flora and fauna have a role in balancing the earth’s ecosystem. However, what are flora and fauna?
In a broad view, flora and fauna are only animals and plants. However, there is a lot of interesting information related to flora and fauna. This article will discuss the meaning, characteristics and impact factors of flora and fauna.
Definition of Flora and Fauna
1. Definition of Flora
Flora has many and varied types. Even the number is countless. Various plants and animals spread all over the earth. Both on land and at sea.
The term flora comes from Latin. Namely from the word flora which means “plant and vegetable address”. Flora can be interpreted as a group of plants or herbs. In the plant world, there are so-called endemic flora.
Endemic flora is a group of plant species that live in a particular area. Such as Sumatran flora, Javanese flora, Kalimantan endemic flora and others. Endemic flora in an area has certain types. Sometimes, flora in one area cannot be found in other areas.
This is because each region has certain characteristics. Like climate differences or weather differences. In addition, the type of soil also affects the differences in each region. An example is jasmine, which is an endemic flora in Java.
2. Definition of Fauna
Not only flora, fauna also has many diverse groups in each region. An example is the bird of paradise which is an endemic fauna native to Papua. The endemic fauna originating from Java is the one-horned rhinoceros. Fauna has a geographic affix name. Examples include Asian animals, Australian animals, and Transitional animals.
Characteristics of Flora and Fauna
1. Asiatic flora and fauna
Asiatic flora and fauna cover the western part of Indonesia. Its territories include Java, Sumatra, Kalimantan and Bali. This is because the flora and fauna in the region have certain characteristics and characteristics. Its characteristics resemble those of the flora and fauna of the Asian continent. This is also due to its geographical location.
- There are mammals with large sizes. Examples: elephants, tigers, and rhinos
- There are various types of monkeys
- There are various types of reptiles
- There are various types of freshwater fish
- Bird species are more bird species that sing. Birds with striking colors are rarely seen
- No animals found that have a pouch
- Asiatis flora is a tropical forest flora
- Plant species in the Asiatic region include: keruing, meranti, mahogany and camphor
- The vegetation in the Asiatic zone is dominated by plants with dense leaves
2. Transitional flora and fauna
The transition zone is also known as the middle zone. Its territory covers the central part of Indonesia. Namely Sulawesi and the Nusa Tenggara islands. It is called a transition because the flora and fauna in this region are transitional. Transition between Asiatic flora and fauna and Australis flora and fauna.
So that the flora and fauna in central Indonesia have mixed characteristics. The characteristics and characteristics of the mixture due to being in the transition area. There are many endemic animals that can only be found in Indonesia.
3. Flora and fauna of Australia
The Australian zone covers the eastern part of Indonesia. Like the Maluku Islands and Papua. The flora and fauna in these areas have characteristics and characteristics similar to those on the Australian continent. This is due to its geographical location adjacent to the Australian continent.
- There are animals that have pouches
- There are mammals, but they tend to be small in size
- Fewer freshwater fish species
- Bird species have beautiful plumage, as well as striking colors
- Flora Australis has parallel leaves that are elongated in shape
Examples of Flora and Fauna
1. Asiatic flora and fauna
An example of flora in the Asiatic region is Rafflesia Arnoldi. Apart from that, carrion flowers and semar sacs are also examples of fauna in the Asiatic region.
2. Transitional flora and fauna (Central)
Flora found in this area include ebony, longusei and gofasa. Apart from that, there are also Fiber and Ampupu orchids. Coarse forest cempaka and clove are also examples of flora in the transition area.
3. Flora and fauna of Australia
The flora in the Australis zone are ebony and ferns. In addition, matoa and siwalan are also plants in the Australis zone.
Factors Distribution of Flora and Fauna
However, the distribution of living things is often uneven. There are several factors that influence this distribution. Are as follows:
1. Abiotic Factors
Regions that have extreme climates certainly complicate the life of an organism. For example, the polar regions are always covered in snow. Apart from that, the eternal lapises or arid deserts are also areas with extreme weather.
This causes a minimum distribution of flora and fauna in areas like the two examples above. Both in terms of type, and in terms of quantity. The opposite is true in the tropics. The tropics are the optimal place for flora and fauna to live life.
Climatic factors that affect the distribution of living things are humidity, wind, temperature and rainfall levels.
Earth gets a heat energy that comes from solar radiation. The intensity of the irradiation varies in each region. Areas that are in the tropical climate latitude zone will receive more sunlight. Each year, the area will get more sunlight than other areas.
In addition to latitude position, factors that affect the intensity of solar radiation are the slope of the angle of arrival of sunlight, the distance of an area from sea level, altitude, sea depth and density of land cover with plants.
The difference in the intensity of sunlight will cause the air temperature to vary. Air temperature conditions greatly affect the life of flora and fauna. That’s because some species require special temperatures to stay alive. An example is flora and fauna which have a higher level of resistance and tolerance to sharply identical temperatures during the day and night. This will be different when compared to the flora and fauna in the tropics.
In areas with temperatures that are not too cold and hot, is a good or optimal habitat. That applies to most organisms in the world. Both humans, animals and plants.
The reason is that excessive temperatures such as too cold or too hot are obstacles for living things. In flora or plant habitats, air temperature conditions are one of the factors that can control the distribution of vegetation. The distribution is in accordance with the altitude, latitude and topographical conditions.
Therefore, the naming system for flora habitats is often named the same as the climatic conditions. Examples include tropical forest vegetation, desert vegetation, high mountain vegetation and temperate latitude vegetation.
Based on the temperature factor, there are two groups of vegetation. Namely annual vegetation and perennial vegetation. Here is the explanation:
1.) Manual vegetation group
This group is a group whose development is only at certain moments. Especially during summer. If in winter, this type of plant will sleep.
That’s because it is under a layer of ice that varies in thickness. Generally, this annual plant is a small plant. In addition, flowers that are in cold climates also belong to this group.
2.) Perennial vegetation groups
This group is a group of plants that have mechanisms to protect themselves. They will protect themselves from very low temperatures in winter. This will happen alternately. It will make it grow continuously. This ability causes the perennial vegetation group to have a lifespan of more than one year.
Another factor besides temperature is air humidity. Air humidity also has an influence on the distribution of living things. Air humidity is the amount of water vapor contained in the air mass.
The level of air humidity will directly affect the pattern of distribution of flora and fauna on earth. There are several types of plants that are suitable to live in humid areas. But on the contrary, there are several types of plants that can only grow in dry areas.
Wind functions as a means of transportation in the hydrologic cycle. Wind will move water vapor or clouds from one place to another. This natural phenomenon will certainly be beneficial for the life of living things on earth.
This is because the distribution of water vapor from the atmosphere will reach the entire region. So naturally, organisms that need water will be fulfilled.
Wind movement will also help move the seeds. In addition, the wind will also help plants. During the process of pollinating certain types of plants, the wind can help them.
The next factor is rainfall. Water is a necessity for all living things. It can be said that this includes vital needs. Without water, there would be no life forms on this earth.
For living things whose homes are in the terrestrial biocycle, the main source of water to meet their life needs is from rain. Through rain, the process of distributing water on the surface of the earth will take place in a sustainable manner.
2. Biotic Factors
a. Seen from the cause of the spread
Population Pressure. If the population increases, it causes the need for food to increase as well. As a result, food supplies will be dwindling, even hard to find. This will result in difficulty meeting daily needs. Then there will be a migration.
Competition. There are several fauna that are unable to compete for their place of residence. In addition to the lost territory, food ingredients needed also experienced migration to other areas.
Habitat change. Changing the environment or place of residence can also cause inability to adapt. Living things cannot experience these changes. This made him feel that he was no longer fit to live in the area he came from.
b. Viewed from the means of distribution
Air. Through the medium of air, fauna can migrate. In addition, flora can also use the wind to migrate. Through the weight or lightness of the seeds of these plants.
Water. The ability of fauna to swim causes easy movement. Especially in animals that can swim. Apart from fauna, flora can also migrate. Plant seeds can be transported, then moved. This can be done with the media of river water flow or ocean currents.
Land. land is where it matters. Almost all fauna that live on land need land. the land is a means for them to move places.
Human transport. Intentionally or unintentionally, humans can also cause displacement between flora and fauna.
with the medium of air, fauna can migrate from the power of flying, while flora can use the wind to migrate from the lightness of seeds.
c. Judging from the barriers (barrier) distribution
Climate Barriers. If the climatic conditions are extreme, it can inhibit the spread of flora and fauna. Such as during conditions of very high rainfall, disruption of air humidity or related to temperature conditions.
Edaphic or ground barriers. Soil is one thing that has a major influence on plants. That’s because there are many important elements in the soil. Such as elements of air, nutrients, and sufficient water content. The thin and hard layer of soil will make the fauna accustomed to digging the ground. Thus making them live underground. It also causes them to seek loose, thick soil.
Geographical barriers. The landscape of the earth’s surface can also become an obstacle to the spread of flora and fauna. Examples include deserts, oceans, mountains and rivers.
Biological barriers. This factor is also the cause of the distribution of flora and fauna. Environmental conditions suitable for life, as well as abundant food supplies are the reasons for migrating flora and fauna. This is also related to the suitability of natural conditions.
That’s some information about flora and fauna. There is still a lot of other interesting information that you can find at www.sinaumedia.com. sinaumedia as #FriendsWithoutLimits will always help Sinaumed’s to find the best recommended articles and books.
Source: from various sources