List of Traditional Weapons for 34 Provinces in Indonesia – Sinaumed’s, have you ever seen traditional weapons? Usually, traditional weapons can be seen in museums or when someone wears traditional clothes. The existence of this traditional weapon is a legacy from our ancestors that are spread throughout Indonesia.
The territory of Indonesia is divided into several islands, namely Sumatra Island, Java Island, Kalimantan Island, Sulawesi Island, Bali Island, Papua Island, Nusa Tenggara Islands and the Maluku Islands. Each of these islands consists of various provinces that have a variety of traditional weapons. Traditional weapons are characteristic of the culture of each province.
Before having separate traditional weapons in each region, our ancestors used to make weapons for hunting or protecting themselves from animals. In primitive times, the traditional weapons used were wooden or bamboo hunting tools. Furthermore, during the Stone Age, traditional wooden-stemmed stone weapons were used.
Traditional weapons are used by people from various regions in Indonesia. Its function is to protect oneself, face challenges, attack enemies, fight, hunt and so on. Studying traditional weapons from Indonesia’s 34 provinces is a great way to get to know Indonesia’s cultural heritage.
Each province develops weapons with manufacturing techniques passed down from generation to generation. A province may have more than one weapon, depending on the needs of the local community. This article will discuss one Indonesian traditional weapon from each province which is summarized from the book Introduction to Traditional Weapons written by Rahmat M.
Indonesian Traditional Weapons
Indonesia is divided into 34 provinces with various traditional weapons as follows.
1. Rencong from Aceh
Rencong is a traditional weapon from Aceh province. The shape resembles the letter L and is similar to a dagger. The handle is in the form of Arabic letters and is taken from the equivalent of the word bismillah. This bismillah sentence is a symbol that shows the characteristics of the Acehnese people who strongly adhere to the glory of Islamic teachings. Rencong began to be used in 1514-1528, namely during the time of Sultan Ali Mughayat Syah ruled the kingdom of Aceh.
2. Hujor from North Sumatra
Hujor traditional weapons come from North Sumatra. This weapon is a spear found in the Batak tribe. Hujors were made of metal and were used for hunting and war. The shape of the hujor resembles a flat leaf and is about 25 centimeters long and 5.5 centimeters wide. The stalk of this traditional weapon is made of wood with a length of two meters.
3. Jenawi Sword from Riau
According to the book Immortalizing Riau: Book II Anthology of Cultural Essays , the Jenawi sword is the most popular traditional weapon in Riau. The Jenawi sword was used by commanders during the royal war. In ancient times, only powerful, respected, and intelligent people could possess this sword. At first glance, the Jenawi sword is similar to the katana sword used by samurai in Japan.
4. Badik Tumbuk Lada from the Riau Archipelago
Pepper-mashed badik is a traditional keris type weapon found in the Riau Archipelago. This weapon is used for stabbing, slicing, and colonizing in short-range combat. According to Riau custom, if the pepper-mashed badik has been pulled from the scabbard, something must be stabbed, such as an object or an animal. The length of this traditional weapon is around 27-29 centimeters. The width of the blade is about 3.5-4 centimeters. At the base of the back of the sarong there is a translucent carving of a flat round shape.
5. Career from West Sumatra
The traditional weapon of West Sumatra is a karih or keris. Karih is usually worn by men and placed in front of the waist. Karih includes stabbing or sharp weapons used for self-defense.
6. Arrowhead Spear from Jambi
The arrowhead spear in terms of the Kerinci area is called Kuju. This weapon was made in the Sungai Full area and is still being produced today. The arrowhead spear consists of arrowheads, nipples, ears, stalks, and manau coating iron. The size of the handle of this weapon is about one meter and the head is 20 centimeters long. The color of the stalk is yellow and the head is black. The material for making arrowheads is selected iron which is burned to a certain degree of heat. The stalk is made of bamboo or manau. Traditionally, the pike is bathed twice a year for treatment and smoked with incense.
7. Kerambi from Bengkulu
Kerambit is a traditional Bengkulu weapon that has a special form and use. The curved shape of the kerambit can only be used by people who are good at martial arts. The kerambit is made to order by a skilled blacksmith. Its main ingredient is iron containing steel. The length is 12 centimeters with a base width of 2 centimeters, while the upper part is 8 centimeters long and the skeleton is 13 centimeters.
8. Siwar from South Sumatra
The traditional siwar weapon comes from Lahat Regency, South Sumatra Province. This weapon is also known as badik. The difference lies in the back of the eye. Badik is usually called straight back siwar. Siwar is an heirloom weapon and is currently no longer mass-produced. Only a few heirs and public figures can make this weapon.
9. Parang from the Bangka Belitung Islands
Based on the book The Beautiful Island of Bangka Belitung , the traditional weapon of the people of the Bangka Belitung Islands is in the form of a machete. This weapon is used for short range fights. The tip of the machete is made wide and heavy to increase the weight so that the target can be cut quickly. Medium-sized machetes are used for felling trees because the tips are bigger and heavier.
10. Spear or Payan from Lampung
The spear according to the Lampung language is called payan. Based on its shape, spears are divided into long and short spears. The long spear is a spear that has a wooden hilt measuring more than 150 centimeters, while the short spear is a spear whose handle is no more than 90 centimeters. Both types of spears have spearheads measuring 34 to 40 centimeters. Spears are classified into four categories, namely heirlooms, hunting tools, ceremonial tools, and religious objects.
11. Mandau from West Kalimantan
Mandau is a traditional machete-type weapon that comes from the culture of the Dayak tribe in Kalimantan. The traditional mandau weapon is carried by the owner wherever he goes because this serves as a person’s honor and identity. In ancient times, the saber was considered to have magical powers so it was only used in certain events, such as war, traditional dance equipment, and ceremonies. The mandau section consists of a blade, handle and sheath.
12. Chopsticks from East Kalimantan
Traditional weapons from East Kalimantan are not much different from West Kalimantan. Mandau is also used by the Dayak tribe in East Kalimantan. There are also chopsticks as traditional weapons. Chopsticks are usually used for hunting and war, as well as traditional Dayak ceremonies or weddings. How to use this traditional weapon by blowing.
According to Dayak beliefs, chopsticks should not be used to kill others. This traditional weapon has a length of 1.9-2.1 meters. Meanwhile, the diameter of the chopsticks is around 2-3 centimeters with a hole in the middle with a hole diameter of about 1 centimeter. This hole serves to insert the chopsticks.
13. The Bujak Beliung Keris from South Kalimantan
The bujak beliung keris is a traditional weapon from South Kalimantan that is up to 30 centimeters long. Its distinctive feature lies in the typical South Kalimantan carving motifs because in it there will be its own philosophy.
14. Dohong from Central Kalimantan
Dohong is a traditional weapon of the Dayak people in Kalimantan. Dohong is shaped like a dagger, but bigger and sharper. Hulu dohong is made of horns. Meanwhile, the scabbard is made of wood. This traditional weapon is only used by tribal chiefs, demang, and basir.
15. Ciomas machete from Banten
The ciomas machete is a typical traditional weapon from Banten, especially in the Ciomas area. This machete is very famous for its sharpness and the mystique contained in it. According to the book Overview of Banten Culture , during the colonial era warriors used this machete to expel invaders. The ciomas machete is only made in the month of birth of the Prophet Muhammad and must go through a special ritual and placement of iron. This traditional weapon is noted for its balance of shape, sharpness, and smooth forging.
16. Machete from DKI Jakarta
Golok is a traditional weapon of the Betawi people in DKI Jakarta. In the past, the Betawi people used machetes to decorate their waists, both inside and outside the home to protect themselves from attacks by criminals. In the Betawi community, the existence of the machete is strongly influenced by the culture of West Java which surrounds it. The difference between the two can be seen from the shape model and the name. The Betawi people divide the golok into four, namely the gobang gobang, the betok golok, the badik badik, and the tip down golok.
17. Kujang from West Java
The traditional cleaver weapon comes from West Java. This weapon has a unique shape with a bulge at the base, jagged on one side and curved at the end. The cleaver is about 20-30 centimeters long and 5 centimeters wide. In the eyes there are 1-5 holes. Kujang weighs approximately 300 grams.
19. Central Java Keris
Keris is a traditional weapon that can be found in Central Java. Kerises come in various forms, for example, some have curved blades and some have straight blades. The procedure for using a keris varies in each region. For example, in the area of Java, a keris is placed at the back of the waist during times of peace, but is placed at the front during times of war.
20. Keris from DI Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta’s traditional weapon is the keris. Keris is a kind of sharp weapon made of metal. The parts of the keris include the wilah (blade), warangka (sheath), and carving (handle of the keris).
21. Celurit from East Java
Celurit is a traditional weapon of the Madurese people in East Java. Celurit has the shape of a curved blade. In the past, celurit was just a sickle that was often used by farmers to mow the grass in the fields and make fences for their houses. Later, the sickle was turned into a self-defense tool used by the people when facing enemies. Curved sickle shape resembling a crescent moon. Celurit made of iron or steel. The sickle blade was tightly tied to the hilt. While the handle is made of wood.
22. Keris from Bali
Balinese people use traditional keris weapons to defend themselves and represent someone to attend a wedding invitation. In addition, they have a belief that the keris can cure someone from the bites of venomous animals by soaking the keris in water. Various Balinese keris carvings. Some have the form of statues of gods, statues of pedanda, dancers, giants, horse heads, and so on. The handle of the keris is made of wood, but some are decorated with gems. Usually the handle of the keris is rather large and long.
23. Sundu from East Nusa Tenggara
Sundu is a traditional weapon from East Nusa Tenggara that resembles a dagger. The people of East Nusa Tenggara consider weapons as sacred objects. Sundu is straight. The shape of the handle or hilt resembles the shape of a bird’s wing. Meanwhile, the sundu sarong has a circular horizontal motif. Also Read Komodo Island, Exotic Tourist Attractions in East Nusa Tenggara
24. Sampari from West Nusa Tenggara
Sampari is a kind of keris from West Nusa Tenggara. This traditional weapon comes from the eastern part of Sumbawa Island.
25. Wamilo from Gorontalo
Wamilo is a traditional weapon from Gorontalo which is shaped like a machete. The difference is that the wamilo has a slightly downward curved tip.
26. Badik from West Sulawesi
Badik is a traditional weapon originating from West Sulawesi and South Sulawesi. This weapon is used by the Malay community. The shape resembles a knife but has a deep curvature at the tip.
27. Pasatimpo from Central Sulawesi
Pasatimpo is a traditional machete-type weapon originating from Central Sulawesi. Pasatimpo has a length of approximately 40 centimeters and is made of copper or brass. The hilt was crooked and the scabbard was tied with a rope.
28. Peda from North Sulawesi
Peda is a traditional weapon originating from North Sulawesi. Peda is a type of machete used for farming or tapping palm sugar. The peda is short with a size of 50 centimeters and is made of iron.
29. Javelin from Southeast Sulawesi
The spear or javelin is a traditional weapon from Southeast Sulawesi which is also used in other areas. The javelin was used for hunting animals, for war, for ceremonial purposes and as a hereditary heirloom.
30. Badik from South Sulawesi
Badik is a traditional weapon originating from Malay, Makassar, Bugis and Mandar in South Sulawesi and West Sulawesi which is short in size. This traditional weapon is shaped like a dagger. Badik is made of iron, steel and prestige. The length of the blade is between 20-30 centimeters, not including the hilt.
31. Parang Sawalaku from North Maluku
The sawalaku machete is a traditional weapon typical of the Maluku region in the form of a machete and shield. The machete is 90-100 centimeters long. The machete is made of special iron. The head of the machete is made of iron wood or gapusa wood. Meanwhile, my sawala (shield) is decorated with motifs that symbolize courage. Sawalaku is made of hard wood. The sawalaku machete is used for war purposes and for hunting animals.
32. Spear from the Moluccas
Spear is a traditional weapon found in Maluku. Spears are used to catch fish. The spear section consists of a stick as a handle and a sharp eye (spear head). Spearheads are made of iron or steel. The spearhead is straight, sharp on both sides, and pointed at the end.
33. Dagger from Papua
The dagger is a traditional weapon in Papua which is made from the leg bone of the cassowary bird. The hilt of the dagger is also decorated with cassowary bird feathers. Daggers are used for hunting or war.
34. Bow and Arrow from West Papua
Similar to Papua, daggers are also used as traditional weapons in West Papua. In addition, there are also traditional bow and arrow weapons. Bows are made of bamboo or wood. While the bowstring is made of rattan. The arrows are made of bamboo, wood or bone.
So, that’s a brief explanation of the List of Traditional Weapons for 34 Provinces in Indonesia . sinaumedia can also visit sinaumedia’s book collection at www.sinaumedia.com to obtain references about other traditional weapons in Indonesia. The following are recommendations for sinaumedia books that Sinaumed’s can read to study them in full. Happy reading.
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