8 Kinds of Indonesian Cultural Diversity & Examples of Indonesian Cultural Diversity
Bhinneka Tunggal Ika
Different, but still the same.
That is the motto that is firmly held by the Indonesian people. The motto illustrates that even though the Indonesian nation has various cultures, ethnicities, races, languages and religions, this nation still adheres to the principle of unity and oneness.
We as Indonesians certainly know that this country has a myriad of cultural diversity with various characteristics and characteristics of each, even this diversity of Indonesian culture is widely known by foreigners.
Then, what does cultural diversity actually mean? And what are the cultural diversity in Indonesia?
This article will discuss various kinds of cultural diversity in Indonesia. Check out the explanation until the end!
What Does Indonesia’s Cultural Diversity Mean?
Cultural diversity is one of the uniqueness that exists on this earth with various ethnic groups that exist throughout the world, as well as the diversity of Indonesian culture. We, as Indonesian citizens, cannot deny that the existence of the Indonesian state itself has resulted in immeasurable diversity, ranging from diversity of races, ethnicities to languages.
From this diversity, various forms of Indonesian culture have emerged which are unparalleled, such as traditional houses, traditional ceremonies, traditional clothing, traditional dances, musical instruments and traditional songs, traditional weapons, and even a variety of special foods.
In essence, the diversity of Indonesian culture comes from various local cultures that continue to grow and develop in the community. The emergence of cultural diversity is a result of visible and widespread influences in society so as to create culture itself.
Over time from era to era, cultural developments have a role and function to increase the nationalist spirit. This is because local culture contains social values that need to be applied by every Indonesian society itself.
As Adimihardja wrote in his book entitled Culture and Environment, he said that Indonesia’s diverse culture would be a matter of pride for its people, but also a challenge to fortify and inherit from generation to generation.
With the publication of the book “Wayang As Cool Cultural Acculturation” compiled by Prof. Dr. Paiman Raharjo, M.Sc., will provide enlightenment and a clear understanding of the history of wayang and the stories that are raised in wayang contain very meaningful life values, that truth will defeat untruth and justice will defeat injustice.
Various Kinds of Indonesian Cultural Diversity
1. Traditional Ceremonies
Traditional ceremonies are a form of customs or habits of traditional communities which are thought to still have relevant values for the lives and needs of the surrounding community. This is felt as a form of human effort to be able to relate to the spirits or spirits of the ancestors and a form of the ability of the surrounding community to harmonize themselves with nature and the wider environment.
Traditional ceremonies are known as one of the ancestral legacies of each region which have been guarded and preserved for generations. Even though the times are getting more advanced and sophisticated, traditional ceremonies are not forgotten by some people, especially people who are thick with adat. This is because the traditional ceremony is felt to have its own philosophical value and power by some local people.
In Indonesia itself, many traditional ceremonial traditions are carried out by people from various regions, in which of course each region has its own traditional ceremonies. The following describes briefly the traditional ceremonies performed by people from various regions in Indonesia.
Traditional Ceremonies in Aceh
The traditional ceremony in Aceh, namely Peusijuk. Peusijuk is known as a hereditary tradition carried out by the people of Aceh as a manifestation of gratitude for the gifts given by God. Generally, Peusijuk traditional ceremonies are held during births, pilgrimages, weddings, and so on
Various other knowledge related to the people of Aceh which are described in detail and in detail in the Acehnese book below.
Traditional Ceremonies in Sumatra
The traditional ceremony in North Sumatra is the Mangokkal Holi Tradition. This tradition is known as a ritual of taking the bones of the community’s ancestors from the cemetery, then storing them in crates and placing them in one of the specially provided monument buildings.
While the traditional ceremony in West Sumatra is the Tabuik Celebration. This celebration is held by the people of Pariaman (West Sumatra) to commemorate the leaving of the Prophet Muhammad’s grandchildren, namely Hasan and Husein.
Furthermore, the traditional ceremony in South Sumatra is Sedekah Rame. This ceremony is carried out by the Lahat tribe and held by local farmers related to agricultural activities as well.
Traditional Ceremonies in the Riau Islands and Riau
The traditional ceremony in the Riau Archipelago is known as Tepuk Tepung Tawar. The intent and purpose of holding this ceremony is to provide blessings for the sake of safety and prosperity, and to erase the bad luck of the person who performs this traditional ceremony.
Then, the traditional ceremony in Riau was named the Balimau Kasai ceremony. This traditional ceremony is carried out to welcome the month of Ramadan. Balimau itself means bathing with water mixed with limes.
Jambi Traditional Ceremony
The Jambi traditional ceremony, namely the Besale Ceremony. The Besale ceremony is a form of traditional medicine to exorcise spirits or evil spirits that are believed to be the origin of the disease in the Anak Dalam tribe.
Bangka Belitung Islands Traditional Ceremony
The traditional ceremony from the Bangka Belitung Islands is the Ketupat War. The Ketupat War is held every 1 Muharram or Islamic New Year on Tempilang beach, West Bangka Regency to be exact.
Bengkulu and Lampung Traditional Ceremonies
The traditional ceremony in Bengkulu is named as Bakar Gunung Api. This ceremony is held by piling coconut shells to resemble a mountain, then burning them. It is an expression of gratitude to God.
Then, the traditional ceremony in Lampung is the Ngebabali ceremony which is carried out by residents when they want to open a new field, build a new house, and clean a place that is felt to have a negative or supernatural aura .
DKI Jakarta Traditional Ceremony
The traditional ceremony in DKI Jakarta, namely Mapas. Mapas is carried out by the Betawi people when there is a mother who has just given birth to a child. During the ceremony, mothers are required to eat papasan vegetables so that mothers and babies are always healthy.
West Java, Central Java and East Java Traditional Ceremonies
The traditional ceremony of West Java, namely Sisingaan which is carried out by parading the child the day before circumcision. Usually, this ceremony is more often carried out by the people of Subang.
Traditional ceremonies in Central Java, namely Ruwatan. Ruwatan is done by purifying (cleaning or purifying) a person from various bad luck and providing welfare in life.
While the ceremony in East Java is called Kasada. Kasada is a traditional celebration of the Tengger Tribe which is held every 14th day of the Kasada month (according to Javanese dates). The method used is by throwing various offerings towards the crater of Mount Bromo.
Banten, Yogyakarta and Bali Traditional Ceremonies
The traditional ceremony in Banten is named Seren Raun which is held as a form of gratitude to God Almighty for various agricultural products.
The traditional ceremony in Yogyakarta is called the Sekaten Ceremony. The Sekaten ceremony was held as a commemoration of the birth of the Prophet Muhammad which he carried out in the main square of Yogyakarta and north of Surakarta.
The famous traditional ceremony in Bali is Ngaben. The Ngaben ceremony is carried out by cremating or burning the bodies in Bali. The purpose and intent of the Ngaben ceremony is to take the corpse to the next life.
NTB and NTT Traditional Ceremonies
The traditional ceremony in West Nusa Tenggara is U’a Pua. This tradition lasts for seven consecutive days and is related to the commemoration of the Prophet Muhammad’s Birthday. This tradition is carried out with various attractions from the Bima and Mbojo people.
The traditional ceremony of East Nusa Tenggara is the Reba Traditional Festival which is held to welcome the new year. The hallmark of this tradition is eating sweet potatoes together accompanied by local traditional music and dances.
Traditional Ceremonies in Kalimantan
The traditional ceremony in West Kalimantan is named Naik Dango. This traditional ceremony is indeed an annual activity held by the Dayak people as thanksgiving to the Creator or they call it Nek Jubata for the rice harvest.
The traditional ceremony in Central Kalimantan is Uluh Matei which is held to escort the souls of people who have died to areas that are in the seventh heaven.
Next, the traditional ceremony in South Kalimantan is Aruh Bahari which is carried out after the Dayak people of Dusun Halong have finished the harvest season. Then, the East Kalimantan traditional ceremony is Dahau. Dahau is known as a tradition of naming children of noble descent which lasts for one month accompanied by traditional rituals.
The traditional ceremony of North Kalimantan is Nyadar, which is a tradition of the salt farming community of Pinggir Papas Village. Generally, it is done around the ancestral grave area.
Traditional Ceremonies in Sulawesi and Gorontalo
The traditional ceremony in North Sulawesi is known as Mekikuwa which is held by the Minahasa tribe as a form of prayer as well as gratitude to God. Then, in Central Sulawesi it is known as the Mora’akeke ritual as a form of requesting that God reduce the sun’s rays. In Southeast Sulawesi it is known as the Posuo traditional ceremony which is indeed carried out regarding the sanctity of a woman.
In South Sulawesi, the Mappalili traditional ceremony is known, which is held to start the planting season in the rice fields. Then, in West Sulawesi it was named Sayyang Pattu’du which was held as a form of gratitude for the children’s success in reading the Al-Qur’an. Meanwhile in Gorontalo there is the Momondo traditional ceremony which means the validation of the two bride and groom who want to get married.
Traditional Ceremonies in Maluku and Papua
The traditional ceremony in Maluku is known as Sapu Punch which is held a week after Eid al-Fitr or every 7 Shawwal by men, while in North Maluku it is known as the Abdau Tradition, namely welcoming Eid al-Adha.
The traditional ceremony in Papua, namely the Stone Burning Festival which consists of 3 stages, including preparation, roasting the pork, and finally eating together. Then, in West Papua there is Tanam Sasi, which is a series of traditional death ceremonies by planting Sasi or a type of wood.
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With the development of tourism activities, heritage tourism is becoming increasingly popular and in great demand. Indonesia is very rich in heritage tourism potential. Each heritage tourism site will have its uniqueness, and is a track record of the history and culture of the Indonesian nation. This book contains 12 tours of the archipelago’s cultural heritage as a whole.
2. Traditional clothing
Traditional clothing is one of the characteristics of certain tribes in Indonesia. Generally, traditional clothes are worn during traditional ceremonial processes, for example, weddings that do apply the customs of the area.
This variety of Indonesian culture has survived and the rapid development of fashion or modern clothing. In fact, some of the current generation have modified traditional clothing to make it look trendy, even though it is worn during informal events.
Indonesian traditional clothing has indeed become a symbol in each region. Of course, each province has the characteristics of traditional clothing as a unique form of the area. As for the colors and patterns of each traditional clothing in Indonesia, they have diversity, ranging from bright color combinations to tend to be dark. Not only that, traditional clothing from each region in Indonesia also has its own name.
Names of Traditional Clothing in Each Province in Indonesia
- Aceh Province, namely the Ulee Balang Traditional Clothing
- North Sumatra Province, namely Ulos Traditional Clothing
- West Sumatra Province, namely the Bundo Kanduang Traditional Clothing, Limpapeh Rumah Nan Gadang
- Riau Province, namely the Traditional Clothing of Teluk Belanga and Kebaya Labuh
- Riau Archipelago, namely Traditional Clothing of Kebaya Labuh and Belanga Bay
- Jambi Province, namely the Baju Kurung
- Bengkulu Province, namely Rejang Lebong Traditional Clothing
- South Sumatra Province, namely Aesan Gede Traditional Clothing
- Bangka Belitung Province, namely Paksian Traditional Clothing
- Lampung Province, namely the Tulang Bawang Traditional Clothing
- Banten Province, namely Pangsi Traditional Clothing
- West Java Province, namely Surgical Traditional Clothing
- DKI Jakarta Province, namely Sadariah Traditional Clothing
- Central Java Province, namely Kebaya
- DI Yogyakarta Province, namely Kebaya Kesatrian
- East Java Province, namely Pesa’an Traditional Clothing
- Province of Bali, namely Payas Agung Traditional Clothing
- West Nusa Tenggara Province, namely Rimpu Traditional Clothing
- East Nusa Tenggara Province, namely East Nusa Tenggara Traditional Clothing
- West Kalimantan Province, namely King Baba or King Tompang Traditional Clothing
- Central Kalimantan Province, namely Sangkarut Traditional Clothing
- East Kalimantan Province, namely Kustin Traditional Clothing
- North Kalimantan Province, namely Ta’a Traditional Clothing and Sapei Sapaq
- Province of South Kalimantan, namely Babaju Kun Galung Pacinan
- West Sulawesi Province, namely Pattuqduq Towaine Traditional Clothing
- North Sulawesi Province, namely Laku Tepu Traditional Clothing
- Central Sulawesi Province, namely Nggembe Traditional Clothing
- South Sulawesi Province, namely Bodo Traditional Clothing
- Southeast Sulawesi Province, namely Babu Nggawi Traditional Clothing
- Gorontalo Province, namely Biliu and Makuta Traditional Clothing
- Maluku Province, namely Cele Traditional Clothing
- North Maluku Province, namely Manteren Lamo and Kimun Gia Traditional Clothing
- West Papua Province, namely Ewer Traditional Clothing
- Papua Province, namely Koteka and Rumbai Skirt
3. Traditional Traditional Houses
A traditional traditional house is a building or construction that is intentionally built and made exactly the same for each generation, without any modifications. The traditional house is still maintained, both in terms of usability, social function, and culture behind the style or design of the building.
Each traditional house owned by 34 provinces in Indonesia certainly has its own characteristics. The traditional house itself can be used as a residence or residence of a certain ethnic group and can also be a historical place, as well as being used for carrying out traditional ceremonies.
In addition, traditional houses in each province in Indonesia have their own names. The following is a list of the names of traditional houses and their province of origin.
List of Names of Traditional Houses and their Provinces
|No.||Traditional House Names||Province|
|2||Bolon traditional house||North Sumatra|
|3||Gadang Traditional House||West Sumatra|
|4||Selaso Malay Traditional House Falls Twins||Riau and Riau Islands|
|5||Stage Traditional House||Jambi|
|6||Bubungan Lima Traditional House||Bengkulu|
|7||Limas Traditional House||South Sumatra|
|8||Nuwou Sesat Traditional House||Lampung|
|9||Bentar Temple Gate Traditional House||Bali|
|10||Traditional Kebaya House||DKI Jakarta|
|11||The Elder Traditional House||West Java|
|12||Joglo Traditional House||East Java and Central Java|
|13||Ward Kencono Traditional House||In Yogyakarta|
|14||Traditional Houses in Samawa Loka||West Nusa Tenggara|
|15||Traditional House of Sao Ata Mosa Lakitana||East Nusa Tenggara|
|16||Long Traditional House||West Kalimantan|
|17||Betang Traditional House||Central Kalimantan|
|18||Banjar Traditional House||South Kalimantan|
|19||Lamin Traditional House||East Kalimantan|
|20||Bolaang Mongondow Traditional House||North Sulawesi|
|21||Souraja Traditional House / King’s House||Central Sulawesi|
|22||Laikas Traditional House||Southeast Sulawesi|
|23||Tongkonan Traditional House||South Sulawesi|
|24||Baileo Traditional House||Maluku|
|25||Dulohupa Traditional House||Gorontalo|
|26||Honai Traditional House||Papuan|
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4. Traditional Musical Instruments
Indonesian traditional musical instruments are musical instruments that have been passed down from generation to generation and developed in certain areas. That way, it is proof that Indonesia has various assets.
In indigenous peoples, traditional musical instruments usually have 3 functions, including:
- Traditional musical instruments are used as one of the media or means of traditional ceremonies which are indeed held from generation to generation.
- Traditional musical instruments can serve as background music for local art performances.
- Traditional musical instruments can be a means of expression, creation, and even communication.
Indonesia has a variety of distinctive and unique traditional musical instruments which will not be found in other countries. Remarkably, several Indonesian traditional musical instruments have been known to the international realm. What are the musical instruments? The following will describe some of the typical Indonesian musical instruments that have spread and are well-known throughout the world.
Worldwide Indonesian Traditional Musical Instruments
Angklung is one of the traditional musical instruments from West Java which is well known to the international realm. Angklung is a musical instrument made of split bamboo which is strung and arranged so that when shaken it creates a distinctive tone.
Angklung is part of Indonesian culture which has become an attraction for foreign tourists. As it is known that the angklung has been recognized by UNESCO as a “World Cultural Heritage.”
Gamelan is a combination of several Indonesian traditional musical instruments that are played together, consisting of a gong, xylophone, saron, kenong, and several other musical instruments.
Since 2014, this traditional Javanese, Sundanese, Balinese and Lombok musical instrument has been recognized by The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). Moreover, in several countries, such as the United States, Australia, Canada, as well as the UK, they have held gamelan arts education.
Tifa’s traditional musical instrument comes from Maluku and Papua. It is shaped like a tube which she plays by being beaten. Typically, tifa is played during traditional ceremonies, accompanying Indonesian traditional dances, as well as traditional music performances. Based on its type, tifa is divided into jekir, basic, bass, and cut tifa.
Since the 7th century, Sasando has been used in Rote, East Nusa Tenggara to be precise. This NTT traditional musical instrument is in the form of a wire which he plays by picking. Sasando is unique, namely in the main part with the shape of a long tube made of split bamboo. This uniqueness has led the sasando to become a traditional Indonesian musical instrument which received an award from The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).
Kolintang is a traditional musical instrument from North Sulawesi which is usually used to accompany traditional ceremonies to honor ancestral spirits. In 2019, kolintang was played by 1,223 people until it finally managed to break the world record. As the times progressed, the function of the kolintang shifted to the realm of the creative industry, such as being an accompaniment to traditional songs, accompaniment to traditional dances, and even orchestras.
5. Traditional Indigenous Dances
Traditional customary dances are dances that are developed and of course preserved by certain regions from generation to generation. Traditional dances usually have characteristics that show local culture and wisdom.
Traditional dances are one of Indonesia’s well-known cultural diversity and are shown in many important international events. Various provinces in Indonesia have their own traditional dances, even one province can have more than one variety of dances. To find out the names of various traditional dances, you can read 25 names of regional dances and their origins
6. Traditional Weapons
Traditional weapons are cultural products that are closely related to a particular regional community. Traditional weapons serve to protect from enemy attacks, then hunting and farming activities. Over time, traditional weapons have become the identity of a nation as a form of Indonesian cultural asset.
Each province in Indonesia certainly has traditional weapons that are different from one another, and have regulatory values in line with the cultural norms that are enforced.
As for several traditional Indonesian weapons, including Keris from Java, Kawali or Badik from Sulawesi, Mandau from Kalimantan province, sickles from Madura (East Java), Rencong from Aceh, Parang Salawaku from Maluku, and so on.
Sinaumed’s can also find various traditional weapons made of materials from those around the area at that time in the Encyclopedia of My Country of Traditional Weapons.
7. Regional Song
Regional songs are a kind of chant sung by the people of a region. In a way, folk anthems resemble national anthems which are ‘regional’ in nature.
Because Indonesia is a country with various ethnic groups as well as culture, this makes there a lot of regional songs in Indonesia and of course each region has its own songs. Usually, folk songs use the local language.
Regional songs in Indonesia which are quite popular, including Kicir-Kicir and Jali-Jali from DKI Jakarta, Ampar-Ampar Pisang from South Kalimantan, Apuse from Papua, Ayam Den Lapeh from West Sumatra, Bubuy Bulan from West Java, Bungong Jeumpa from Aceh, Gundul Pacul comes from Central Java, Indung-Indung from East Kalimantan, and of course there are many more.
Sinaumed’s can also get a complete collection of Regional & National Compulsory Songs at sinaumedia which contains various collections of folk songs that you must know!
Regarding the diversity of Indonesian culture on this one, you can read in the List of Regional Songs & Traditional Regional Musical Instruments in Indonesia
Basically this book is an idea at the conceptual level about how to respond to the abundance of information in today’s global era. The discussion in this simple book begins by discussing the concept of data, information and knowledge which includes conceptual data and information, as well as the value of information. and types of information, characteristics of information, benefits and sources of information.
At the end of this book, globalization and information institutions will be discussed, which includes discussions related to all aspects of globalization.
8. Typical Food
As explained earlier, the diversity of races and ethnic groups in Indonesia has given birth to various forms of cultural diversity, one of which is regional specialties.
As an archipelagic country with fertile soil and can grow various types of plants, Indonesia is rich in spices.
From there, Indonesia was able to create special food with a taste of spices inherent in every dish. Thus, Indonesia is able to become one of the countries with culinary tourism that is appreciated by foreign countries.
Some of the regional specialties in Indonesia which are quite famous, among others.
Typical Food of Sumatra Island
- Rendang (Padang, West Sumatra)
- Sate Padang (West Sumatra)
- Pempek (Palembang, South Sumatra)
- Tekwan (Palembang, South Sumatra)
- Pop Chicken (West Sumatra)
- Bika Ambon (Medan, North Sumatra)
- Curry or Kare (North Sumatra)
- Aceh Noodles (Aceh)
- Savory Rice (Aceh)
- Mie Jalak Sabang (Aceh)
- Tasak Egg (Aceh)
- Acehnese Goat Curry (Aceh)
- Catching Chicken (Aceh)
Find a variety of North Sumatran specialties that are also very varied in the book Culinary North Sumatra – Harmony of the Taste of Being Hit by Strains of Gondang – In the Beauty of the Universe.
Typical Javanese Food
- Rawon (East Java)
- Lontong Balap (East Java)
- Rujak Cingur (East Java)
- Soto Lamongan (East Java)
- Malang Meatballs (East Java)
- Soto Kudus (Central Java)
- Garang Asem (Central Java)
- Lumpia Semarang (Central Java)
- Gudeg (Yogyakarta)
- Cenil (Yogyakarta)
- Krecek (Yogyakarta)
- Mangut Lele (Yogyakarta)
- Lead Rice (West Java)
- Shake Noodle (West Java)
- Kupat Tahu (West Java)
- Karedok (West Java)
- Betawi Asinan (Jakarta)
- Vegetable Lontong (Jakarta)
- Nasi Uduk (Jakarta)
- Egg Crust (Jakarta)
Jakarta, which has now become a metropolis, also has various Betawi historical and cultural heritages and one of them is culinary as we can see above. Find various other Betawi foods in the Betawi Typical Food book.
Food from Bali
- Betutu Duck
- Jinggo Rice
- Sate Lilit
- Pentul satay
- Bengil Duck
- Chicken betutu
- Rujak Buleleng
- Siobak Khe Lok
- Balinese Mixed Rice
- Sambal Matah Smoked Fish
- Rujak Kuah Pindang
Typical Food of Borneo Island
- Soto Banjar (South Kalimantan)
- Baubar Catfish (South Kalimantan)
- Ketupat Kandangan (South Kalimantan)
- Iwak Pakasam (South Kalimantan)
- Sauteed Kapah (North Kalimantan)
- Richa Salted Fish (North Kalimantan)
- Stingray Fish Satay (North Kalimantan)
- Soka Crab (North Kalimantan)
- Spicy Porridge (West Kalimantan)
- Sago Noodles (West Kalimantan)
- Wet Crackers (West Kalimantan)
- Tempoyak Spicy Tamarind (West Kalimantan)
- Haruan Fish Yellow Rice (East Kalimantan)
- Sate Payau (East Kalimantan)
- Jelawat Fish (Central Kalimantan)
- Kalumpe (Central Kalimantan)
- Mapui eggplant (Central Kalimantan)
Typical Food of Sulawesi Island
- Coto Makassar (South Sulawesi)
- Konro (South Sulawesi)
- Green Banana (South Sulawesi)
- Bolu Peca’ (South Sulawesi)
- Jaha Rice (North Sulawesi)
- Cakalang Fufu (North Sulawesi)
- Sambal Roa (North Sulawesi)
- Manado Porridge (North Sulawesi)
- Skipjack Noodles (North Sulawesi)
- Toppa Tuna (West Sulawesi)
- Cucur Cake (West Sulawesi)
- Sambusa (West Sulawesi)
- Dole Fish (Southeast Sulawesi)
- Sate Gogos Pokea (Southeast Sulawesi)
- Kabuto (Southeast Sulawesi)
Papua Island Typical Food
- Lontar cake
- Manokwari Grilled Fish
- Plate Sago
- Wrap Fish
- Cheating Shrimp
- Bagea Cake
- Sambal Colo-Colo
That is information about Indonesia’s Cultural Diversity which should be preserved. If Sinaumed’s is interested and wants to broaden his knowledge regarding Indonesia’s cultural diversity, of course you can find, buy, and read his books at sinaumedia.com and sinaumedia Digital because sinaumedia has always been #FriendsWithoutLimits for those of you who want to gain knowledge.
Hopefully this article can add insight and increase our sense of nationalism towards the Indonesian people!
This book explains that ‘Indonesian nationalism’ is currently being debated. Globalization is accused of external causes because it results in liberalization and domination of free markets. However, no less important are internal factors, particularly the misdirected decentralization/regional autonomy, and the destruction of the nation’s social, legal and political order due to the weakening of the integrity of citizens and state administrators.
Fading nationalism and weakening cultural resilience have the potential to undermine the building of a multi-ethnic and multicultural ‘Indonesian house’. Therefore, this book tries to contribute to efforts to find solutions in answering these two contemporary problems through political, sociological and cultural approaches.
Author: Tasya Talitha Nur Aurellia
Source: from various sources