Factors Causing Diversity in Indonesia – Diversity is inherent in Indonesian society. It is not without reason that Indonesia has various customs, ethnicities, cultures and languages as its own characteristics and characteristics for Indonesian people. Even though they are different, the Indonesian people are still trying to maintain the existing diversity and live side by side in harmony and peace.
The diversity that characterizes Indonesian society is influenced by many factors. Factors causing the diversity of Indonesian society are influenced by strategic location, islands, natural conditions, as well as transportation and communication factors.
Not only that, attitudes towards changes in values and culture are one of the factors causing the diversity of Indonesian society. Unsurprisingly, these different factors created a pluralistic Indonesian nation with its own uniqueness.
Therefore, it is important for Indonesian people to better understand its diversity. With this knowledge, it is hoped that the whole community will be able to respect and value differences more, so that their sense of tolerance will become stronger. This tolerant attitude eventually becomes a reference for all differences in society. Even though they are different, the people of Indonesia can unite to become a peaceful and prosperous nation.
Cultural policy in the context of national integration on the other hand does not mean that it has never been known in the political map of the archipelago. This is because the Dutch East Indies colonial government, when strengthening its power in the archipelago in the past, placed all positions in the most vulnerable areas in their eyes to experts who knew about local society and culture to deal with political and social issues without causing armed rebellion which it will be expensive to destroy.
Indonesian society is very heterogeneous and pluralistic. Therefore, for socio-cultural integration, the elements require values as a collective goal orientation for interactions between elements. In this connection, national ideology, nationalism values, and national culture have a strategic function. The values contained therein can replace traditional and primordial values that are irrelevant to the new society.
Thus, the value of nationalism has a double value, that is, in addition to increasing national integration, it also functions to overcome the effects of capitalism and globalization and can overcome all obstacles to primordial ties. Primordialism and ethnocentrism cannot be simply erased, but they need to be developed into a national identity.
There are three ways that are always offered to strengthen the sense of Indonesian nationalism as an effort to avoid national disintegration, so that the values of Pancasila can be realized, namely: conducting continuous socialization of Indonesian nationalism, increasing economic development, and eliminating discrimination against minority groups.
If you think about integration and nationalism are interrelated. Integration contributes to nationalism and nationalism supports national integration. Therefore, national integration must be continuously fostered and strengthened from time to time. Failure to foster integration can lead to conflict and disintegration of the nation.
National integration is usually associated with national development because a pluralistic Indonesian society is needed to foster a sense of unity and oneness so that national development is not constrained. In this case, the key words that must be considered are maintaining society in a state of harmony and helping each other or in the cross-SARA corridor.
Integration reminds that there is a force that moves each individual to live together as a nation. With strong integration, which is reflected in a sense of love, pride, respect and loyalty to the country, the ideals of nationalism can be realized.
In national integration, people are motivated to be loyal to the state and nation. It contains the aspiration to unite the people to overcome SARA through integral development. Solid national integration will facilitate national development and successful development will have a positive impact on the state and nation as a manifestation of nationalism.
With the success of development as a form of nationalism, conflicts that lead to division or disintegration can be overcome because national integration requires awareness to live together in creating a harmonious society.
The Definition of Cultural Diversity in Indonesia
Cultural diversity is one of the uniqueness that exists on this earth with various ethnic groups that exist throughout the world and the diversity of Indonesian culture. We as citizens of Indonesia cannot deny that the existence of the Indonesian state alone has produced immeasurable diversity starting from the diversity of races, ethnicities and languages.
This diversity has produced the best forms of Indonesian culture, such as traditional houses, traditional ceremonies, traditional clothes, traditional dances, musical instruments and regional songs, traditional weapons, and even various special foods.
Basically, the diversity of Indonesian culture comes from various local cultures that grow and develop in society. The emergence of cultural diversity is the result of visible and widespread influences in society to create culture itself.
From time to time the development of culture has a role and function as a reinforcement of the national spirit. This is because local culture contains social values that must be applied by every Indonesian society.
Factors Causing Diversity in Indonesia
“Bhineka Tunggal Ika”, which means “Different, but still one”. This is a motto that is highly respected by the people of Indonesia. This motto shows that even though the Indonesian nation has various cultures, ethnicities, races, languages and religions, this nation still adheres to the principle of unity and oneness. So what are the factors that cause diversity in Indonesia? Let’s see the explanation!
1. Strategic Location
The first factor causing the diversity of Indonesian society is of course the difference in strategic location. It is said that Indonesia is flanked by two oceans and continents, namely the Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean, as well as the Asian Continent and the Australian Continent.
Because of its strategic location, it is not surprising that Indonesia is involved in other countries’ trade routes. Foreign traders who arrived in Indonesia brought with them different languages and cultures. The arrival of this new language and culture was adapted and developed in Indonesia.
2. Natural Conditions
The next factor that causes the diversity of Indonesian society is natural conditions. Because Indonesia consists of islands, it is not surprising that each island in Indonesia has different natural conditions. These natural conditions then form certain customs in society.
For example, the majority of coastal residents work as fishermen, with the sea as their economic source. At the same time, people who live in the highlands certainly use more land to produce food that can be consumed or sold, from this example there is already a difference. It is not wrong if natural conditions are an important factor in shaping Indonesia’s diversity.
3. Shape of Islands
The next factor that causes the diversity of Indonesian society is the archipelagic nation. As you know, Indonesia is a country consisting of several islands. Human habitat is not only the big islands, but also the small islands that surround them.
Each of these islands has and develops a different culture. Starting from the language, customs, to the values shared by the people of each region. Not surprisingly, every island in Indonesia has its own characteristics and uniqueness that distinguish it from other islands.
4. Transportation and Communication
Transportation and communication are also one of the factors causing the diversity of Indonesian society. First, each region in Indonesia develops its own language. Even the language spoken on an island can have many differences. However, Indonesian as the national language brings together differences in Indonesian language communication.
Though transportation also has a significant impact on diversity in Indonesia. The easier transportation in Indonesia is, the more assisted people’s mobility is, which in turn makes public communication easier and smoother. On the other hand, the dissemination and development of culture becomes even more difficult when transportation and communication are limited.
The fifth factor that causes the diversity of Indonesian society is history. Historically, Indonesia has been a colony of many foreign nations. Starting with the Netherlands, England, Japan, Portugal and Spain. In its time, every foreign nation that came and settled in Indonesia brought with them their original values and culture, which were then developed in Indonesia.
Indirectly, the Indonesian people began to accept and follow the values and culture of the colonial era. But not for values and culture that conflict with the basic rights of the judiciary and the Indonesian state. That is, historical factors greatly influence the development of Indonesian culture, but not all foreign cultures can survive and deserve to be adopted by Indonesian people.
6. Attitudes towards Change
The next factor that causes the diversity of Indonesian society is the attitude towards change. In this case, Indonesians are very open to the differences in values and culture brought by foreigners who come to Indonesia. It turns out that many languages, cultures, values and even religions brought by foreign traders and fishermen are well accepted and assimilated in Indonesia.
This acceptance is certainly in line with the core values of the Indonesian nation. As long as it does not conflict with Pancasila which is the basis of the state, then all related cultural currents and values can be accepted. However, this also depends on the open attitude of society.
7. Climatic Conditions
In general, Indonesia has a tropical climate. However, whether you realize it or not, there are several areas in the vast territory of Indonesia that have slightly different climatic conditions. For example, western Indonesia tends to have a long and regular rainy season compared to eastern Indonesia, which has a longer dry season. These differences also greatly affect the actions and habits of the Indonesian people.
8. Racial Diversity
One of the diversity of Indonesia is the diversity of races. Yes, Indonesia is indeed a multi-ethnic country. Some of the races in Indonesia include the Malayo-Mongoloid race which is spread across Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Java and Bali. Melanesoid race spreads to Papua, NTT and Maluku.
Apart from immigrants such as Caucasians, namely India, the Middle East, Australia, Europe and America. And Asian Mongoloid races such as Chinese, Korean, and Japanese. Every race that lives and resides in Indonesia produces its own culture. In fact, it is not uncommon for cultural acculturation to occur which makes Indonesian culture more diverse. Therefore, race is one of the factors that creates diversity in Indonesian society.
The diversity of Indonesian society is also reflected in the differences in the religions adopted and adhered to by the people. In fact, because of this diversity, Indonesia is known as a country with many religious adherents. Of course we all understand that every religion has its own set of values which are often reflected in the daily behavior of its adherents. In addition, the harmonious and tolerant life of religious communities gives its own color to Indonesia’s diversity.
10. Foreign Cultural Influence
Factors causing the diversity of Indonesian society are not only internal, but can also be influenced from the outside. It is even believed that foreign cultural influences can accelerate the process of change and add value to diversity. Apparently Indonesians have been practicing a culture that is different from the local culture with foreigners until now. For example, Javanese Islamic culture is influenced by Arabic culture.
Examples of Cultural Diversity in Indonesia
1. Traditional Clothing
Traditional clothing is a hallmark of several Indonesian ethnic groups. Generally, traditional clothing is worn in connection with traditional ceremonies, such as weddings, where regional customs are applied. This diversity of Indonesian culture has been preserved and the rapid development of fashion or modern clothing. In fact, some members of the current generation are modifying traditional clothing to look trendy, even when worn at informal events.
Indonesian traditional clothing has become a symbol in every region. Of course, each province has the characteristics of traditional clothing as a form of regional uniqueness. The colors and patterns of Indonesian traditional clothing vary from light to dark color combinations. In addition, traditional clothing from each region in Indonesia has its own name.
Language is a human communication tool in the form of a sound symbol system originating from the human speech organ or mouth. Language is also a tool that connects humans. The role of language in human life is very large, almost all human actions require language. Language can help obtain information, expand knowledge and communicate.
There are so many kinds of languages in this world, only in Indonesia there are 718 kinds of languages. Even though there are many types, the function and purpose of language remains the same, namely as a means of communication. The diversity of the Indonesian language is caused by differences in cultural background, history and geographical location of Indonesia. Because Indonesia is an archipelagic country consisting of many tribes, provinces and regions, Indonesia has many regional languages.
3. Traditional House
A traditional traditional house is a building or structure that is deliberately built and made exactly the same for each generation without modification. Traditional houses are still maintained in terms of usability, social and cultural activities that are the background of the style or design of the building.
Each traditional house owned by 34 provinces in Indonesia certainly has its own characteristics. The traditional house itself can be used as a residence or residence for certain tribes, and can also be a historical place and to perform traditional ceremonies.
4. Traditional Musical Instruments
Indonesian traditional musical instruments are musical instruments that have been passed down from generation to generation and developed in certain areas. Thus, there is evidence that Indonesia has many types of assets.
Customary traditional musical instruments generally have three functions, including:
- Traditional musical instruments are used as media or sources in traditional ceremonies which are actually held from generation to generation.
- Traditional musical instruments can become background music for regional art performances.
- Traditional musical instruments can be a means of expression, creation and even communication.
Indonesia has a variety of traditional and unique musical instruments that are not found in other countries. It should be noted that many Indonesian traditional musical instruments are well-known internationally.
Indonesia is a country with many ethnic groups. As quoted from the website Indonesia.go.id , according to the 2010 census conducted by Statistics Finland, there are more than 300 ethnic groups in Indonesia, of which there are approximately 1,340 ethnic groups.
Several names of Indonesian ethnic groups such as Javanese, Sundanese, Batak, Betawi, Madurese, Bugit, Malay and others. So what causes Indonesia’s ethnic and cultural diversity? Various sources state that there are several factors that cause ethnic and cultural diversity in Indonesia.
One of them is that ethnic cultural units in an ethnographic context also include community units that inhabit a certain territory or administrative area. In an ethnographic context, historical elements are also alluded to to determine the origin of ethnic groups. Ethnicity can also be identified by approaching the place of residence or ethnic area, for example the Batak tribe who historically came from Sumatra.
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