Types of Communication – As is well known, that humans are social beings who need other humans to live, in establishing relationships, humans need to interact by communicating. Communication has an important role so that humans can establish a good relationship with one another.
Communication has become a part of human life, without realizing it every human being has ever communicated. This is because communication is a way to convey a message or information. To convey information, humans need to choose the right type of communication. The goal is that the information or message to be conveyed can reach the other person properly without any misunderstanding or misinterpretation.
Types of Communication
Before discussing the types of communication, it is better if Sinaumed’s knows the meaning of communication. According to KBBI, communication is the sending and receiving of messages and news that occurs between two or more people. So that the intended message can be understood by the interlocutor.
There are several types of communication, each of which has more or less the same goal, namely conveying information. The following are the types of communication and their explanations.
1. Verbal Communication
Verbal communication is communication that is used by using verbal symbols and using words from one or more languages. Verbal communication is not only in the form of oral, but also includes oral communication and written communication.
An example of spoken verbal communication is when two people interact more in the form of chatting using an intermediary or communication media such as cellular communication media and others. In addition, verbal communication can also be carried out without using an intermediary, meaning that the communication activity occurs directly, face to face between the messenger and the recipient of the message.
In addition, an example of written verbal communication can be in the form of sending messages to each other through various communication media such as letters, e-mails and other chat platforms.
2. Nonverbal Communication
Non-verbal communication is communication that is carried out by using non-verbal messages to convey information. The way to do this non-verbal communication is without using words or issuing sentences from the mouth. However, by taking an action to convey information. Here are some examples of non-verbal communication.
- Facial expressions, in non-verbal communication the use of facial expressions is important. Because someone can convey information by using facial expressions without having to utter a single word. An example is when someone shows a facial expression of fear and others.
- Body language is one way to use non-verbal communication. By doing body language, someone will know the message you want to convey. For example, when someone gives certain body gestures that can convey the message that the person wants to convey a message.
- Touch, through touch a person can perform non-verbal communication. An example that is often encountered is when someone laughs and then reflexively or spontaneously that person taps the other person’s shoulder which means that the person respects the other person or vice versa.
- Appearance, through appearances such as hairstyles and even how to dress or makeup, a person conveys a special message such as being attracted to the other person and so on.
3. Formal Communication
Formal communication is communication that occurs between organizations and companies in a prearranged manner according to the organizational structure. In formal communication, a person generally uses place, grammar which looks more standardized and formal than in non-formal communication. An example is during a seminar, speakers will generally use standard language that is easy to understand and is within a formal scope or layout as well. Such as seating arrangement, speaker arrangement and others.
4. Informal Communication
In contrast to formal communication, informal communication occurs when there is one person or more in an organization or a company who is not predetermined in an organizational structure or does not receive official testimony. If informal communication occurs, it is unlikely that it will affect the interests of an organization or the company. Examples include rumours, gossip or rumours.
5. Informal Communication
Informal communication is when communication occurs between communication that has a formal and informal nature. That is when the communication is related to the implementation of a task or job from the organization and company with activities that are personal in nature from members of the organization or company. Examples are company birthdays, organization anniversaries and so on.
6. Live Communication
The next type of communication is direct communication which can be interpreted as a communication process that is carried out directly without the help of third party intermediaries or existing communication media and is not limited by distance. For example when someone meets somewhere and communicates.
Direct communication has several advantages, because by meeting in person, the other person can see the expression and tone of the other person’s speech which can reduce the risk of misunderstanding or ambiguity.
7. Indirect Communication
Indirect communication is the opposite of direct communication, namely the process of communication occurs or is carried out with the help of third parties or tools as a medium of communication. An example is communication using a cell phone through social media platforms and other chat platforms.
8. Communication Based on Purpose
Types of communication based on their intent can be divided into four, namely speeches, giving lectures, interviews and giving orders or assignments. Of the four types of communication based on these intentions, it can be seen that the communicator’s initiative is decisive. Likewise with the ability of the communicator who plays a role when the communication process can run successfully or not.
9. Internal Communications
Internal communication can be divided into three forms, namely vertical communication, horizontal communication and diagonal communication. Here’s an explanation.
- Vertical communication occurs in one form of communication between leaders and members, vertical communication can be in the form of reprimands, orders, praise and others.
- Horizontal communication can occur when the scope of the organization or company is between people who have equal positions. Examples are communication between employees, communication between students, communication between teachers and so on.
- Diagonal communication is communication that can occur within the scope of the organization or company between people who have a different position in a position that is not in line or vertical. An example is when there are employees from the creative division or technical division in a company communicating.
10. External Communications
External communication is communication that occurs between organizations and companies with several parties from the public who are outside the organization or company. External communication can have the intention of gaining understanding, assistance, trust, and establishing cooperation with the community. External communication can take the form of press conferences, exhibitions, expositions, promotions, radio broadcasts, television broadcasts, social services and so on.
11. Communication Based on the Number of Communicators or Communicators
Types of communication based on the number of people communicating or the number of communicants and communicators can be divided into two types, namely as follows.
- Individual communication, is communication that can occur individually or individually with other individuals regarding issues that are personal in nature. So, in general, personal communication can be done with people or individuals who are well known.
- Group communication, is communication that can occur in a group regarding an issue that concerns the interests of the group. Group communication can be distinguished from individual communication through the topics or themes discussed. If in individual communication the discussion or topic of communication is more private and closed, then group communication is more open than individual communication.
12. Communication Based on Individual Roles
The role of the individual has an important role in the communication process. There are three types of communication that are distinguished based on the role of the individual, the following explanation.
- Communication between individuals with other individuals, this type of communication can occur in a formal, non-formal and even informal manner. In this type of communication between individuals with other individuals, each individual can act as a communicator who is able to influence other individuals.
- Communication between individuals with a wider environmental coverage. This second type of communication based on the individual’s role occurs because an individual has a high ability to be able to make contact with a wider environment, even outside the scope of his environment.
- Communication between individuals with a group or more. In this type of communication, individuals have a role as intermediaries between two or more groups. So that the individual who becomes the intermediary is required to have excellent ability to become a harmonizer who presents a harmonious situation.
13. Network Communication
Network communication can occur within a company or organization. This type of communication can be carried out according to the system that has been set in the network. According to its shape, network communication can be divided into three forms as follows.
- Chain network communication is communication that can occur in accordance with the hierarchical channels of the organization with the command network, so that this chain network communication occurs by following the pattern of formal communication.
- Circle network communication is communication that can occur through a communication channel with a shape that resembles a circle pattern.
- Star network communication, the form of star network communication is communication that occurs through one central and the channels that are traversed are generally shorter.
14. Information Teaching Communication
Types of information teaching communication can be divided into five forms, along with an explanation.
- One-way communication, is a communication that only works with one party or can also be called one-way communication.
- Two-way communication is communication that has a reciprocal nature between the communicant and the communicator, this type of communication can also be called two-way communication.
- Upward communication is communication that can occur between superiors and subordinates in an organization or company.
- Sideways communication is communication that can occur between people who have equal positions, for example communication that occurs between fellow employees, fellow students, fellow teachers and others who do not have a horizontal level.
15. Visual Communication
The last type of communication is visual communication, this type of communication is a process of non-verbal communication that uses visuals to convey messages and information, such as hairstyles, make-up styles and even dress styles. As with non-verbal communication, this visual communication is carried out without uttering a single word or sentence. However, the difference is that visual communication is carried out without gestures or facial expressions which are commonly used in non-verbal communication.
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As explained earlier, that communication is a basic human need that cannot be avoided. Every human being as a social being needs to carry out communication that aims to establish relationships and convey messages to other individuals. Apart from being a basic need, communication also has other functions, namely as follows.
- Conveying information, communication has the main function of being able to convey information. In addition to personal information between individuals, communication can also convey a variety of information such as knowledge, news and even announcements addressed to many people at once to achieve certain interests.
- Educate, communication has a function to educate because as a human being communication is a basic need. However, humans cannot directly communicate. Therefore, by communicating, humans become educated to convey information in the right and good way.
- Entertaining, apart from being a way to convey information, communication can also be a tool to be able to entertain someone. Examples include conveying sympathy for entertaining television shows, as well as the lyrics of songs that can be encouraging. Well, entertaining things are included in the form of communication.
- Influence, communication has the function of being able to influence one’s thoughts and actions. So that a new thought emerged from an individual. An example is the sentence you don’t know then you don’t love, which can influence a person to get to know one individual with another by communicating to get to know the figure or nature of the individual better.
Apart from its function, communication also has a purpose. The purpose of communication is to be able to express opinions, show a behavior, change attitudes and as a social goal to form relationships and others.
Communication can change the social community according to the information conveyed by the communicant or information provider. Therefore, the dissemination of information by communication needs attention. Especially, given the easy dissemination of information with the development of technology.
In essence, communication has the goal of conveying information that is easily understood by other individuals. The information conveyed is expected to generate a feedback that is in the form of positive changes from the side of the recipient of the information.
That is an explanation of the types of communication complete with the function and purpose of communication. Sinaumed’s can find out more about the basics of communication science by reading books that have related topics and discussions. Some of these communication books, Sinaumed’s can buy at sinaumedia online, you know! Because as #ShabatUnlimits, sinaumedia always provides a variety of interesting, original books that contain complete information for Sinaumed’s, so what are you waiting for? Buy and read the book right now!