Communication Media: Functions, Types, Understanding According to Experts

Communication Media – Humans are social beings who need to interact with other humans. In interacting, humans communicate. So that communication has an important role in human life as a means to obtain information or to achieve other goals.

In communicating, there are several types of communication medium or communication platforms that can be used by humans, both in everyday life and for business purposes.

This communication medium can be applied in accordance with the objectives and functions of each. Choosing a communication medium is important, because each communication medium has different strengths and weaknesses and needs to be adapted to each function. Want to know what types of communication medium? Check out this article until the end!

Definition of Communication

Before discussing the media of communication, it is better if Sinaumed’s also knows the meaning of communication.

Communication can be interpreted as a basic human activity that takes an important part and cannot be separated from human life as social beings. By communicating, humans can relate to one another. Whether it’s in everyday life, at work, or in special places. Basically, there is no human who will not be involved in communication.

Etymologically, communication comes from the Latin “communicare” which means to convey. If interpreted etymologically, then communication is a process of conveying meaning from one entity or group to another by using signs, symbols or semiotic rules that can be understood together.

Definition of Communication Media

Communication is a way for a message to reach the recipient delivered by the sender or messenger. When communicating, one needs to use the right communication media so that the message to be conveyed can reach the recipient of the message.

To be clearer, here is the definition of communication media according to some experts.

  1. Harold Lasswell (1948), according to Lasswell communication is an effort to be able to answer a question, namely what, who through what channel, to whom and what impact will it have.
  2. Blake and Horalsen, according to both of them, communication media can be interpreted as a channel that is used to be able to deliver messages from the messenger to the recipient of the message.
  3. Cangara, communication media is a means used to convey messages from communicators to audiences. Cangara argues that the media that is often used for communication is the five senses that are owned by every human being.
    Where, messages will be captured by each of the five human senses such as eyes, ears and then messages that arrive will be processed to serve as a basis for action.
  4. National Education Association, communication media is defined by this institution as a suggestion in print, audio and visual form to be used as a means of communication.
  5. Leslie J Briggs, according to Briggs, communication media is a tool that has a physical form to be used in conveying material. Communication media according to Briggs can be in the form of television, computers, pictures, videos, graphics and so on.
  6. Badusah, argues that communication media is an intermediary that can be used to communicate with each other by using various kinds of media, such as media images, news and other media that are useful for conveying messages and the views of the sender of the message.

From several opinions of experts regarding communication media, it can be concluded that communication media is a means or intermediary or tool that can be used to convey a message originating from the messenger to the recipient of the message.

Types of Communication Media

1. Types of Communication Media Based on Channels

From the understanding of several experts regarding communication media, this communication media can be divided into two types when viewed based on the type of media channel, namely nonverbal communication media and verbal communication media. Here’s an explanation.

a. Verbal Communication Media

Verbal communication media is a message conveyed by using sound or conveying spoken messages. There are two forms of verbal communication media, the following explanation.

  • Oral Communication, the first form of verbal communication media is oral communication. With this form of oral communication, the message is conveyed through the messenger to the recipient of the message by using spoken words. That is, the information conveyed is not in written or printed form that can be read by the recipient of the message, but can only be heard.
  • Written Communication, whereas in the form of written communication messages are conveyed in written form and conveyed by the messenger to the recipient of the message, written communication can be done in two ways, namely by reading or writing.
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b. Nonverbal Communication Media

Nonverbal communication media is a way of conveying messages without the need to convey messages by sound or even in the form of written messages. There are several forms of nonverbal communication, which can be in the form of body language, facial expressions, touch, body movements, appearance, attitudes and so on.

Types of Communication Media Based on the Method of Dissemination

When viewed based on how it is spread, the communication media can be divided into four types of media, along with the explanation.

a. Audio or Voice Communication Media

Audio media is when the recipient of the message can capture the message by using one of the human senses, namely the ear. Meanwhile, messages are conveyed through voice or verbal media using tools that can emit a certain frequency. Examples of audio communication media include CDs, radios and other audio players.

b. Audio Visual Communication Media

As is the case with audio communication media, audio visual communication media is the delivery of messages by using sound and visual forms such as videos and images which are then combined into one. At present, there has been a lot of communication using audio-visual media because the message the messenger wants to convey can be easily conveyed.

An example is like an advertisement that appears on television. Apart from television, now audio-visual communication media has also developed. Currently audio visual communication media can also be conveyed through social media on smart phones, such as YouTube, TikTok, Instagram and other platforms that can display audio visual or video.

c. Print Communication Media

In print communication media, the channel used to convey messages is by using printed forms of writing, for example books, brochures, magazines, newspapers, bulletins and so on.

However, print communication media has been increasingly eroded, due to technological developments that are now increasingly advanced. Now, audio-visual communication media is more in demand, because it is considered easier to reach the recipient of the message.

Types of Communication Media Based on Physical Presence

The type of communication media based on physical presence is face-to-face communication that is private or personal, so that it involves the physical presence of the messenger and the recipient of the message. With this physical presence, the interlocutor can know the tone of the speaker’s voice and facial expressions that help the recipient of the message to be able to interpret the information according to the wishes of the messenger.

When viewed from its definition, communication media based on physical presence is the best communication medium to be able to convey information. This is because there is an interaction between the messenger and the recipient of the message. Thus, the message conveyed can be well received without any misunderstanding.

a. Broadcast Communication Media

Broadcast communication media is the same as audio media and audio visual media, but this broadcast communication media is distinguished by the type of media and not the form. That is, this communication medium is used to convey messages by utilizing broadcast facilities such as television, loudspeakers to radio. Broadcast communication media is also included in the form of audio-visual communication media which has a very wide reach. Generally, this broadcast communication media is used by companies as one of the promotional suggestions to inform products to customers.

b. Mobile Communication Media

As with communication based on physical presence, this mobile communication medium is personal. Cellular communication media is used when someone wants to convey a personal message or other information that must be forwarded to a small group. Examples of cellular communication media are Whatsapp, Line, SMS, telephone and other chat platforms.

When using cellular communication media, there is interaction between the messenger and the recipient of the message. As technology develops, more and more people choose to use cellular communication media because it is more practical and easy. Especially during a pandemic when people are advised not to meet other people. However, cellular communication media has drawbacks, namely the carrier and recipient of the message cannot know the expression or tone of the message, so that the information conveyed can be more ambiguous.

c. Electronic Communication Media

This electronic communication media includes various platforms such as the internet, e-mail, social media and so on. Electronic communication media can be used to communicate between individuals, masses and groups. This communication media is considered less personal compared to other communication media but still efficient.

Sometimes the message to be conveyed can be ambiguous, therefore by using electronic communication media, the messenger needs to compose sentences that do not cause double or ambiguous meanings.

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d. Written Communication Media

Written communication media is almost the same as printed communication media. However, this written communication medium is generally used by groups of individuals and individuals without the need for direct interaction.

If in print communication media, messages must be printed, then in written communication the message is in the form of writing. An example is such as notifications or announcements given by the company to employees. As with print communication media, written communication media has been increasingly eroded along with technological developments.

Communication Media Functions

Communication media is an intermediary or tool between the messenger and the recipient of the message. Each of the types of communication media presented above, has its own function, along with an explanation.

1. Effectiveness

Communication media functions as effectiveness, meaning that with the existence of communication media, communication becomes more effective. This effectiveness is then used by communicators and communicants in communicating.

2. Efficient

By using communication media, communication becomes more efficient. That is, by using communication media, the time to convey messages becomes faster to reach the recipient of the message. Especially if the message you want to convey is addressed to many people at once, communication media such as cellular, print, written, electronic and even broadcast can make it easier to spread the message.

The communication process requires more efficient time, the goal is that the communication can run quickly. Therefore, the communication media has a big role to be able to make communication run as efficiently as possible.

3. Concrete

The message or information that will be conveyed to the recipient of the message is an original or concrete message. Because, the message will go through several processes and one of the processes is editing which has a function to test the feasibility of a message information before the message can reach the recipient of the message.

In this case, the function of the communication media is as a tool or means of communication that can be tested for the authenticity of the information. With the presence of communication media, messages and information that arrive can be said to be true and valid messages.

4. Motivating

The function of motivating communication media means that the communication media is a means that is able to encourage the recipient of the message to do something.

Not only does it encourage the sender of the message to be motivated, but the communication media also encourages the messenger to deliver the message in a motivational way.

5. Productive

Communication media can cause the presence of a communication process so as to produce information that has value for both the carrier and the recipient of the message. Therefore, the information media has a production function because it produces the communication process.

6. Reproduction

Another function of the communication media is to reproduce what has been received or produced before. An example is when an audio tape recorder can record a sound that contains information or a message, then the recording can be used at any time by the messenger by reproducing the voice recording.

7. Conveyor of Information

Communication media is an accurate tool for conveying messages and information to the recipient of the message. With the presence of communication media, the messenger can convey a message or information. In other words, communication media can be a trusted medium to convey information or messages to the recipient of the message.

8. Bringing Attractiveness to the Message You Want to Convey

Communication media can bring up an appeal to the message that will be conveyed by the messenger to the recipient of the message. This function can be seen when there is a company that wants to advertise a product using communication media such as electronics or broadcasts.

In order for the target of the messenger to arrive, the company as the messenger needs to make the information to be conveyed attractive. So, the message recipients or targets from these companies can see advertisements containing complete product information.

Another example is when a feature is present in communication media, such as electronic and cellular communication media that presents interesting features, such as stickers, emoji, voice notes and others that make the contents of the message more interesting to read or listen to.

9. Clarify Information

Finally, the communication media has a function to clarify communication. With communication media, the recipient of the message can repeat to read, hear or see the contents of the message. So that the recipient of the message who is initially confused can clarify the intent of the message the messenger wants to convey. Thus, the communication media can clarify the information to be conveyed.

That is the meaning, function, and types of communication media that Sinaumed’s needs to know. Well, Sinaumed’s can find out more about this medium or communication media by reading related books available at because as #FriendsWithoutLimits, sinaumedia always provides a variety of quality books with complete information. What are you waiting for? Buy and read the book right now!