Important Components of Communication – In order for the communication process to work as it should, there are several important components that must be met in order to support the communication process. Communication occurs in various contexts, such as interpersonal, interpersonal, group or mass.
Whatever the context of the field of communication, in the process communication involves receiving messages and understanding the messages conveyed. In order for the message conveyed to be well received without any misinterpretation, it is necessary to have a communication component to support the ongoing communication activities. Here’s an explanation.
Important Components of Communication
The communication process is a combination that occurs from various stages of communication, each of which has communication barriers to achieve more effective communication. The communication process and the components that are present to support the process have been explained by experts through various communication models.
The communication model itself is a graphic that has been designed to be able to explain the workings of the various variables present in the communication process. Several models of communication such as the classical model from Aristotle, Lassweel to Berlo have also explained the components in communication which are the supporting elements.
In accordance with the opinions of experts, the communication process can work because it always involves several components or stages. The following describes the components of the communication.
1. Communicator or sender of the message or source (Communicator/sender/source)
There are several factors in the communicator that can determine the effectiveness of the communication process, namely the attitude of the communicator and the selection of various symbols that have meaning.
The attitude of the communicator means that the communicator must have a positive attitude. Meanwhile, the selection of various kinds of symbols that are meaningful can be interpreted as the choice of symbols that depends on who is the target audience and how the situation in the communication environment is.
Of the two factors that must exist within the communicator, there are several things that must be considered in carrying out the communication process, namely as follows.
- Individuals involved in communication need to identify who is the communicator or recipient of the message and the target audience.
- The message to be sent by the communicator must be clear and unambiguous.
- Individuals involved in the communication process need to understand the reasons for the communicator sending messages to recipients of messages or target audiences.
- What is the expected result of the communicator as the sender of the message.
If the communicator fulfills these factors, then the communication process too
will be prone to failure.
2. Message or message
In order for the message to be able to reach the recipient effectively, the communicator must understand the nature and profile, needs of the target audience, expectations and the possibility of the response being given by the recipient of the message to the message sent by the communicator.
Knowing the profile and needs of the recipient of the message is very important, especially when the communication process is face to face. The message component in the communication process is the reason for the communication to take place. If the message conveyed by the communicator is not packaged properly, it means that the communicator is not ready to start the communication process to the recipient of the message.
A message must also be able to be sent in a form in which the recipient of the message is able to decode it, otherwise the message will not be sent properly.
In order for the recipient of the message to be able to encode the message from the communicator, the communicator needs to think about what is needed by the recipient of the message or the audience.
The goal is of course that the recipient of the message is able to understand and decode a message. Communicators should use language that is easy to understand and use contexts that are well known to the recipient of the message. The individual who encodes is called an encoder.
4. Channels or Communication Channels or Media
The type of message that is owned can help the communicator to be able to determine what media and communication channels are appropriate to use. Included in the selection of good words that are spoken, written, printed, non-verbal symbols, electronic media and so on.
In modern communication, the media component in question is mostly focused on mass communication media, for example television, radio and the internet. The selection of the media or communication channel must be appropriate, so that the communicator is able to determine whether the message delivery process can be successful or not.
To perform encoding, the recipient of the message needs good communication skills, such as the ability to read the message as a whole, listen to the message actively, to ask or confirm when needed.
If the communicator experiences difficulties or weaknesses in terms of communication skills, then the recipient of the message needs to resend the message in a different way.
If you encounter these errors, the communicator can also solve them by helping the recipient of the message to understand the message. An example is by giving additional messages whose nature of the additional messages is to explain or provide clarification.
If the person doing the encoding is called the encoder, then the person doing the decoding is called the decoder.
6. Message Recipient or Communicate (Receiver or Communicatee)
The recipient of the message has a role, namely to receive a message, interpret a message and give meaning to the message he receives from the communicator. The communication process will only succeed if the recipient of the message or the communicant receives the message according to what was conveyed or intended by the communicator.
If in the process, the communicator fails to understand the meaning of the communicator’s message, then the communication process does not run successfully. So that additional solutions are needed to improve the communication process, for example the communicator must provide clarification or additional messages.
7. Feedback, Feedback (Feedback)
Feedback can be obtained directly, if the communicator communicates face to face with the recipient of the message. When the communication process is face to face, feedback can be given by the recipient of the message with facial expressions, body language and others. However, if the communication process is established in writing, then the communicator can obtain feedback by means of a response or reply given by the recipient of the message when responding to the message.
In some cases when the communication process occurs, feedback has an invaluable role to help communicators improve their communication skills. These cases can occur in professional communicators, for example in the field of advertising where the communicator is an institution or company that wants to convey messages through advertisements to the general public.
In this case, feedback from the recipient of the message, namely the general public, becomes very important. Because, companies that advertise their products can find out whether the message given can arrive successfully and provide good feedback for the company.
8. Communication Context
The context that is present can be in the form of environment, socio-cultural background, time, to the elements and background of the communicator and communicator. An example is when communication is carried out by colleagues will have a different communication context, when compared to the communication process that occurs with superiors. The context of communication can help the communicator determine the style of language and the right way to carry out the communication process.
9. Communication Interruption or Noise
Interference in the communication process can be in the form of physical disturbances, such as unusual behavior from the recipient of the message or communicator or loud noises that interfere with the communication process.
In addition to physical disorders, communication disorders can also be in the form of psychological disorders, semantic disturbances, mental disorders experienced by communicators and communicators. In addition to some of the disturbances mentioned, communication disorders can be anything that interferes with the interpretation process, providing feedback to the process of receiving messages.
10. Effects or Consequences of Communication
Effects can be a benchmark whether communication is successful or not. Communication can be considered successful if the recipient of the message gives the effect or attitude and behavior expected by the communicator. If the communicator does not have the effect expected by the communicator, it can be said that the communication process is not going well.
According to the expert, namely Soeganda Priyatna, the effect that can be generated in the communication process can be seen through public opinion, personal opinion, or majority opinion. The following is an explanation of the effects of the communication process.
- Personal opinion is the impact that can arise from the communication process and can be in the form of attitudes or opinions given by the recipient of the message regarding certain issues.
- Public opinion can be defined as a social assessment of important matters and things that have meaning as a form or result of an exchange of ideas carried out by each individual consciously and rationally. This effect in the form of public opinion is generally intended to mobilize the masses or the general public.
- Majority opinion, is the most opinion obtained by communicators in the public or the general public.
One of the components in the communication process is a communication barrier. Barriers can interfere with the communication process, thus hindering the message from getting to the communicant properly.
The communication process can be considered successful if there is no distortion in the process. However, interference is a component of communication that occurs and cannot be avoided. There are several communication barriers that need to be known, along with an explanation.
1. Physical barriers
Obstacles or physical disturbances can occur if the communicator is unable to see the communicant physically, for example, because the communicator and the communicant are in a distant place. Thus, the communication process must be established by utilizing a medium such as the internet.
2. Psychological barriers
This psychological disorder will occur if the communicator and communicant have different attitudes, interests and motivations. The differences between communicators and communicants make each individual involved in the communication process see things in a different way according to their respective perspectives. These differences can create barriers in communication.
3. Social and cultural barriers
This disturbance will occur if each individual involved in the communication process has a different cultural background. Thus, each individual has a different view or perspective in receiving or interpreting the message.
An example is that every culture has its own regional language, it is not uncommon for a regional language to have the same words as other regions, but the meaning is different. These differences can become obstacles, if the communicator or communicant does not explain the original meaning of the message conveyed.
4. Linguistic barriers
Linguistic disturbances can occur when the communicator or communicant does not give the right expression or response. This disorder can be triggered by messages that are ambiguous, have multiple meanings, or do not use clear and easy-to-understand language. So, the communicant will find it difficult to interpret the message conveyed by the communicator.
5. Technical barriers
Occurs when the communicator uses the medium of technology to convey messages. For example, because the communicator and the communicant are far away, the communicator will convey messages using the internet medium. However, it is constrained by technical obstacles such as an internet signal that is not smooth, weak, bad sound or too busy and others.
6. Barriers to the amount of information
The final barrier to communication can occur when there is too much information that the communicator wants to convey. However, the communicator has limitations in absorbing or interpreting the information conveyed.
That is an explanation of the components in communication that must be known. There are several communication components that support or become a benchmark for whether the communication process is going well or not.
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