The Dynamics of Unity and Unity of the Indonesian Nation

Dynamics of Unity and Oneness – Did Sinaumed’s know that the dynamics of national unity and integrity are important to learn as part of our efforts as a nation’s generation to protect and defend the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia. Since the proclamation of Indonesian independence on August 17, 1945 there have been many dynamics in maintaining the integrity of Indonesia from time to time until now.

The dynamics of the unity and unity of the Indonesian nation in its manifestation is very strong. There have been various forms of rebellion and all forms of attempts to secede from the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia. the dynamism of the Indonesian nation has started since Indonesia succeeded in proclaiming its independence. So in this event the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence (PPKI), cannot be separated from Indonesian history. 

Then the day after the proclamation of independence, on August 18, 1945 to be precise, the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence (PPKI) began holding meetings to determine three important decisions, namely establishing the 1945 Constitution, electing a president and vice president, and forming the KNIP to assist the president. From there the dynamics of national unity and integrity began and continued from time to time in various forms as follows: 

THE DYNAMICS OF THE UNITEDNESS AND CONSTITUTION OF THE INDONESIAN NATION

Revolution Period for Indonesian Independence (18 August 1945-27 December 1949)

The dynamics of the unity and unity of the Indonesian nation can be said to have started since the independence revolution period until 17 August 1945 to 27 December 1949. The Indonesian nation at this time faced the Dutch Colonial who wanted to return to control, the withdrawal of Japanese prisoners who had lost the war, as well as facing various rebellions. During this period of revolution, there was war between the independent Indonesian state, namely between the Republic of Indonesia and the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

The Dutch who said that Indonesia’s independence was illegal, in fact Indonesia had proclaimed its independence openly to the whole world on August 17, 1945. After Indonesian independence, the Dutch came back to try to argue against independence with the arrival of attacks from abroad through military aggression, so that happened war resumed between the two countries.

Looking at it from Indonesia’s point of view, the war was aimed at defending its independence, which is why it is called the war of independence. The period of the independence war occurred from 1945 to 1949. At the end of 1949, the Netherlands officially recognized the sovereignty of the Republic of Indonesia and based on the term on the results of the Round Table Conference it was called the transfer of sovereignty.

In the war of independence, it was finally the Netherlands that lost based on the Round Table Conference agreement which was successfully held. At this time, the period 1945-1949 was called the “War of Independence” period. During the revolution for independence, there were also rebellions to separate themselves from Indonesia, namely the Madiun Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) rebellion in 1948 and Darul Islam or the Indonesian Islamic Army (DI/TII).

United States of Indonesia Republic (RIS) Period (27 December 1949- 17 August 1950)

Does Sinaumed’s know that Indonesia was once a federal state? This period lasted from 27 December 1949 to 17 August 1950. The 1949 Constitution of the United States of Indonesia became the basis for the formation of a federation of 15 states. The President of the United States of Indonesia (RIS) at this time were Soekarno and Drs. Moh. Hatta as Prime Minister. Currently, ministers are responsible to the Prime Minister.

The president at this time was the head of state who was not accompanied by a vice president based on the RIS constitution. If the president is unable to attend, he will be replaced by the prime minister whose government responsibility rests entirely with the prime minister and cabinet ministers. At this time, Indonesia still used a parliamentary system of government, in which the cabinet would be responsible to the parliament and if the cabinet’s accountability was not accepted by the parliament, the cabinet had to be dissolved or resigned. 

The RIS Constitution recognizes six state institutions, namely the president, council of ministers, senate, the House of Representatives (DPR), the Supreme Court (MA), and the Financial Supervisory Board (DPK). This parliamentary government system did not last long, only about eight months. Then RIS was disbanded and Indonesia returned to using the system as a unitary state. The rebellions that occurred during this period were the rebellion of the Ratu Adil Armed Forces (APRA), the Andi Azis Rebellion and the Rebellion of the Republic of South Maluku (RMS).

Based on the results of negotiations at the Round Table Conference with the Netherlands, Indonesia must change from a unitary state to a union state. During the time of the United Republic of Indonesia, there was a dynamic of national unity and unity colored by various rebellions, such as the Ratu Adil War Force Movement (APRA) in Bandung, the Andi Azis rebellion in Makassar and the rebellion of the South Maluku Republican Movement (RMS).

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Liberal Democracy Period (17 August 1945- 5 July 1959)

The period of Indonesian Liberal Democracy began on 17 August 1950 until 5 July 1959. Indonesia at this time used the 1950 Provisional Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia (UUDS 1950) which took effect on 17 August 1950. This 1950 UUDS was a form of change from the RIS Constitution which was held in accordance with the Charter of Agreement between the RIS government and the Government of the Republic of Indonesia on May 19, 1950 with the form of the unitary state of Indonesia.

Because Indonesia used the Provisional Constitution, a body was formed to formulate the Constitution. However, there were high political dynamics, and the mutual imposition of the interests of groups and groups so that the discussion of the Constitution became complicated and took a very long time.

That is why President Soekarno decided to issue a Presidential Decree dated July 5, 1959 with the following contents:

  • Constituent dissolution
  • Re-enforce the 1945 Constitution and no longer apply the 1950 Constitution
  • Formation of temporary MPR and DPA

During this period there were various rebellions, such as the Darul Islam/Indonesian Islamic Army (DI/TII) Movement in Sulawesi, Aceh, South Kalimantan and the PRRI/Permesta Rebellion.

Old Order Period or Guided Democracy Period (5 July 1959-12 March 1967)

The Presidential Decree on July 5, 1959 then became the beginning of this period, namely July 5, 1959 to March 11, 1966. The President returned to the position of head of state and head of government since the 1945 Constitution was re-enacted and the position of Prime Minister was no longer valid. The implementation of guided democracy begins with democracy led by wisdom with wisdom in deliberations and representation. 

However, over time it shifted to being led by the President or the Great Leader of the Revolution. That is why in the end everything that is based on government leadership is considered as the ruler. During this old order period, West Irian was united in the State of Indonesia through the Trikora agreement. Previously, in the KMB agreement, the Netherlands did not want to hand over the Irian region to the Indonesian state.

The dynamics that occurred during this period were that the leaders of the MPR, DPR, BPK and MA were given positions as ministers, so they were placed as subordinates to the president. The President then dissolved the DPR in 1960 and Law no. 19 of 1964 so that the president has the right to interfere in the judicial process. During the Old Order there was a major rebellion, namely G3OS/PKI. 

Indonesia’s New Order Period (12 March 1967- 21 May 1998)

During the New Order period, it started from March 11 1966 to May 21 1998. The New Order period is the designation for Indonesia’s presidential government with Suharto as its president. President Soekarno was no longer president of Indonesia since 1966 which marked the end of the Old Order and was replaced by a new force, known as the New Order under the leadership of President Soeharto.

Ministers during the New Order era formed seven cabinets with the names Development Cabinet I to Development 7. However, in practice there were fatal deviations for the Indonesian nation, such as limiting people’s political rights, concentration of power in the hands of the president and Corruption, Collusion, and Nepotism ( KKN) in government agencies. Because of these very serious deviations, the New Order’s power finally ended after the people’s resistance to Soeharto’s rule through the reform movement.

Exactly on May 21, 1998, President Soeharto declared his resignation as president of the republic of Indonesia for 30 years of his term of office. BJ Habibie, who at that time served as vice president, was sworn in as the third President of the Republic of Indonesia to replace Suharto. President BJ Habibie’s tenure was very short and ended after his accountability was rejected by the General Assembly of the People’s Consultative Assembly on October 20, 1999. During the New Order era, the integration of the former Portuguese colony on the island of Timor, namely, became Indonesia’s 27th province called Timor-Timur.

Reformation Period (21 May 1998-Present)

During the reform era, there were many changes or amendments to the 1945 Constitution to become a constitutional constitution. This amendment is expected to form a better and more stable government system than in previous times. Amendments to the 1945 Constitution have been made by the MPR four times, namely in 1999, 2000, 2001 and 2002.

Constitutional government has the characteristic that the state constitution contains restrictions on governmental and executive powers and guarantees for human rights and the rights of other citizens. After Suharto resigned as president of Indonesia and began to enter a period of reform, policies related to political freedom emerged. Such as the freedom of the press, the freedom to form political parties, the holding of democratic elections and regional autonomy in 1999. 

Amendments or changes to the 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia were carried out during this reform period, including regarding state administration. One of the main objectives is that the president’s power is not abused so as to achieve a more stable state condition. Indonesia’s reform period experienced five presidential changes, namely BJ Habibie (leading period 1998-1999), Abdurrahman Wahid (leading period 1999-2001), Megawati Soekarno Putri (leading period 2001-2004), Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono (leading period 2004-2014 ) and Joko Widodo (leading period 2004-present).

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Judging from the dynamics of national unity and unity above, there were times when the unity and integrity of the Indonesian nation was so strong, but there were also times when the dynamics of national unity and integrity were tested when faced with various kinds of rebellious movements that wanted to separate themselves from the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia. All forms of terror that can result in the emergence of divisions among Indonesian people have occurred a lot in Indonesian history to date. However, as a nation’s generation, we should be grateful that these threats or disturbances have not weakened the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia, but have grown stronger until now.

Driving Factors in the Dynamics of Unity and National Unity

In its development, there are three factors that can encourage and strengthen the unity and integrity of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia until now. These three factors are a unifying form of the entire Indonesian nation which can unite all the differences and diversity that characterize the life of the Indonesian nation. Starting from differences in ethnicity, religion, language and others, this can be united by carrying out the values ​​contained in these three factors. So that these differences can actually further strengthen the unity and integrity of the Republic of Indonesia. The following are three driving factors in the dynamics of the unity and integrity of the Indonesian nation:

1. Pancasila

The Indonesian nation has Pancasila as the basis of the State with the view of the nation’s life, unifying the nation, national personality, and the nation’s noble agreement. The application of Pancasila values ​​in the daily life of the Indonesian people can be a driving factor for national unity and integrity. Indonesia regardless of differences in ethnicity, religion, culture and language.

2. Youth Pledge

Indonesian youths had pledged the Youth Pledge on October 28, 1928 which was an oath to show the determination of all Indonesian youths to fight for the nation against the colonialists in order to unite all Indonesian people. The content of the formulation of the Youth Pledge has the main value, namely one homeland, one nation and one language, namely Indonesia. The presence of the Youth Pledge then became very important in the midst of the onslaught of various issues that could divide the unity and integrity of the Indonesian nation, even now.

3. Unity in Diversity

Sinaumed’s is certainly no stranger to the motto Bhinneka Tunggal Ika, which is very important for the Indonesian state, which has various ethnicities, nations, cultures, languages ​​and religions. Bhinneka Tunggal Ika has different meanings, although it is still one. Even though the Indonesian state is a plural and multicultural form of country, it is still not divided, that is, it remains united for the sake of the integrity of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia.

Inhibiting Factors in the Dynamics of Unity and National Unity

In addition to the driving factors, there are also factors that can hinder the unity and integrity of the Indonesian nation, such as the following: 

  1. Diversity/diversity in Indonesian society which is not accompanied by mutual respect, respect and tolerance which has become the distinctive character of Indonesian society. This can lead to differences of opinion that get out of control, excessive regional feelings, which can trigger conflicts between regions or between ethnic groups.
  2. The geographical location of Indonesia which consists of islands and archipelagos has different characteristics, so that it has the potential to separate itself. For example, the areas that are farthest from the capital city, or areas that have a large influence from neighboring countries or border areas. Besides that, areas that have a large global influence, such as tourist areas or areas that have very abundant natural wealth
  3. There are symptoms of ethnocentrism which is an attitude that emphasizes the advantages of its culture and despise the culture of other ethnic groups
  4. The weakening of the nation’s cultural values ​​thereby strengthening the influence of foreign cultures that are not in accordance with the national personality, either through direct contact or indirect contact

Well, that’s an explanation of the dynamics of national unity and unity that has occurred in Indonesia since independence until now. Did Sinaumed’s understand it? This dynamic is a historical record of the Indonesian nation which proves that in order to become a great country, it will inevitably face many problems as a form of dynamics. As the younger generation, we need to know and understand the history of the dynamics of the unity and integrity of the Indonesian nation so that we can better understand this national history. 

If Sinaumed’s is interested in studying the dynamics of the unity and integrity of the Indonesian nation, especially in Citizenship Education or PKN lessons, then you can visit the sinaumedia book collection at www.sinaumedia.com . Sinaumed’s can find many book references, ranging from textbooks at the junior high school, junior high school or equivalent levels to books from a broader perspective. The following is a recommendation for sinaumedia books that Sinaumed’s can read about the dynamics of the unity and integrity of the Indonesian nation: Enjoy studying. #Friends Without Limits.