Indonesia became independent on August 17, 1945. After being colonized by the Netherlands and Japan. Indonesian people from various regions tried to expel the invaders. They struggle in their own way. Everything has been done, starting from a ceasefire to diplomatic efforts.
Dutch colonialism had positive and negative impacts on the Indonesian people. They provide learning on how to garden, build infrastructure, to education. However, with the presence of colonialism, the Indonesian people became slaves in their own country.
Living in anxiety, deprivation, and poverty, it is not uncommon for many to die of hunger and malnutrition. Heroes and all Indonesian people struggle to get out of this complicated situation.
Various events have been passed, for example the Youth Pledge, the PPKI meeting, the BPUPKI meeting, and so on. Japan made promises of independence for Indonesia, but they were never delivered. Therefore, when two Japanese territories were bombed by the allies, Indonesian youth took quick steps to liberate Indonesia.
For more details regarding the events of Indonesian independence, the following will discuss the journey of Indonesian independence. Sinaumed’s can listen to it.
Sound of the Proclamation Text
The following reads the text of the proclamation of the Republic of Indonesia.
We, the Indonesian nation, hereby declare Indonesia’s independence. Matters concerning the transfer of power, etc., were carried out in a thorough manner and in the shortest possible time.
Djakarta, day 17 Boelan 8 Tahun 05.
On behalf of the Indonesian nation.
Before being typed and read out on Indonesian independence, August 17, 1945. National leaders discussed to compile the text of the proclamation. The following is the handwritten text of the Indonesian proclamation.
When finished, the handwriting of the text of the proclamation was typed, along with the appearance of the text of the proclamation that had been typed.
History of the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence
The text of the Indonesian proclamation was successfully formulated and heard after going through a long process. The proclamation of Indonesian independence began with the establishment of the Investigating Agency for Indonesian Independence Preparatory Efforts (BPUPKI) and the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence (PPKI), the phenomenon of the government vacuum due to the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings, to the Rengasdengklok incident.
On August 6, 1945, the city of Hiroshima, Japan was bombed by the United States troops. With this incident, BPUPKI changed to PPKI to provide confirmation that Indonesia wanted to achieve independence soon. Then, on August 9, 1945, Japan was bombed again in the city of Nagasaki. The second bomb caused Japan to surrender to the allies.
On August 12, 1945, three national figures, namely Radjiman Wedyodiningrat, Soekarno, and Mohammad Hatta visited Dalat, Vietnam to fulfill an invitation from General Terauchi. The meeting was an effort to prepare for Indonesian independence.
Two days later, the three figures returned to Indonesia. On the same day, British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) radio announced that Japan had officially surrendered to the allies. The young people (Sutan Sjahrir, Wikana and Darwis) used this momentum to continue urging Soekano and Hatta to immediately proclaim independence.
However, the wishes of the younger group were not welcomed by the older group. The reason, the old group did not want bloodshed when the proclamation was made. This refusal became the impetus for young people to kidnap Soekarno and Hatta on August 16, 1945. The kidnapping was carried out to urge Soekarno and Hatta to immediately declare independence.
Soekarno and Hatta were taken to Rengasdengklok so they would not be persuaded and influenced by the promises made by the Japanese. Sukarno and Hatta were forced to quickly proclaim independence via radio. Not long after that, at night, Soekarno and Hatta returned to Jakarta and headed to the house of Admiral Maeda with other national figures to discuss the text of the proclamation.
In the morning, on August 17, 1945 at 10.00 WIB in Sukarno’s yard located at Jalan Pegangsaan Timur Number 56 Jakarta Indonesia succeeded in proclaiming independence. Indonesia was free from Japanese colonialism. The independence ceremony was carried out by reading the text of the proclamation of independence, raising the red and white flag accompanied by the Indonesian Raya anthem, and rows of youth and people who also witnessed Indonesia’s independence.
The news of the proclamation of Indonesian independence was broadcast through the mass media, radio, and distributed through leaflets. Since then, Indonesia was free from colonialism and began to build a sovereign nation. In simple terms, the chronology of Indonesian independence can be known through the following explanation which has been reported from the Kompas.com page.
- August 6, 1945: The Japanese city of Hiroshima was dropped by the United States’ first atomic bomb.
- August 7, 1945: BPUPKI was disbanded and PPKI was formed.
- August 9, 1945: The Japanese city of Nagasaki was dropped by the United States’ second atomic bomb.
- 9 August 1945: General Terauchi summons Soekarno, Moh Hatta and Radjiman Wedyodiningrat to Dalat, Saigon (Vietnam).
- August 12, 1945: Soekarno, Moh Hatta and Radjiman Wedyodiningrat went to Dalat to meet Marshal Terauchi who confirmed that Japan would hand over independence to the Indonesian people.
- August 14, 1945: Soekarno, Moh Hatta, Radjiman Wedyodiningrat returned to Indonesia. Sutan Syahrir urged Soekarno Hatta to declare Indonesian independence.
- August 15, 1945: Japan surrendered unconditionally to the Allies and there was a vacuum of power in Indonesia.
- August 15, 1945: Young people urge Soekarno to immediately declare independence at the latest
- August 16, 1945. Soekarno refused because he wanted to ask the opinion of PPKI members.
- 16 August 1945: Early in the morning, Soekarno and Moh Hatta were kidnapped by young people to Rengasdengklok Karawang and forced to immediately proclaim Indonesian independence via radio.
- August 16, 1945: Evening, Soekarno and Moh Hatta returned to Jakarta. At the house of Admiral Maeda Tadashi, national figures gathered to negotiate preparations for the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence.
- 16 August 1945-17 August 1945: Evening until morning Soekarno and Moh Hatta with the young and old groups discussed the formulation of the text of the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence.
- 17 August 1945: At 10 am Soekarno and Moh Hatta read the texts of the Proclamation of Independence of the Republic of Indonesia at Jalan Pegangsaan Timur 56, Jakarta.
- August 18, 1945: PPKI ratified the 1945 Constitution as the basis of the Indonesian state.
Important Figures in Indonesian Independence
The proclamation of Indonesian independence involved not only one or two people, but many people who were involved in the event. According to the National.tempo.co page, the following are figures who were involved in the preparation of Indonesia’s proclamation.
Soekarno became a reader of the text of the proclamation of Indonesian independence. Soekarno’s full name was Koesno Sosrodihardjo. He is a descendant of Raden Soekami and Ida Ayu Nyoman Rai—aristocrats from Bali. When he was young, Soekarno was educated at the Technische Hoogeschool te Bandoeng (currently the Bandung Institute of Technology). The degree of civil engineering engineer was earned at the college on 25 May 1926.
After graduating from college, he expressed his ideas about nationalism, Islam and Marxism, especially regarding the importance of unity. This idea became the beginning of the development of his political thought.
He became an important figure in the proclamation of Indonesian independence. When Japan surrendered to the allies, Sukarno was kidnapped by youths to Rengasdengklok. The goal is to be urged to immediately proclaim Indonesia’s independence.
2. Mohammad Hatta
Moh. Hatta in the preparations for the proclamation of Indonesian independence played a role as formulator and gave signatures on the text of the proclamation. Hatta studied at the Fort de Kock Malay School, Padang.
In addition to being an important figure in the proclamation of Indonesian independence. He contributed ideas in the writing and form of sentences in the text of the proclamation, namely “matters concerning the transfer of power and other matters were carried out in a thorough manner and in the shortest possible time”.
3 Sayuti Melik
Sayuti Melik’s role in preparing for Indonesian independence was as a text editor who changed the sentence “representatives of the Indonesian people” to “on behalf of the Indonesian people”. Sayuti Melik also typed the text of the proclamation.
In the proclamation of Indonesian independence, Fatmawati played the role of tailoring the red and white flag. The flag was sewn using a Singer brand hand sewing machine. When sewing the flag, Fatmawati was pregnant, but still gave full dedication to Indonesian independence.
5. Sutan Sjahrir
Sutan Sjahrir became someone who was considered highly intellectual and revolutionary. He was the initiator of the formation of Jong Indonesie, a nationalist youth group. Jong Indonesie was formed on February 20, 1927. Sutan Sjahrir had studied at the University of Amsterdam, but decided to return to Indonesia in 1931.
6. Johannes Latuharhahy
Johannes Latuharhahy was born in Central Maluku and became the driving force for Maluku to enter the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia (NKRI). When the announcement of Indonesian independence was in Jakarta, Latuharhahy became a news anchor to the people of Maluku. Thanks to his role, he was appointed as the first governor in Maluku until 1954.
Soekarni became one of the pioneers to kidnap Soekarno and Moh. Hatta. Soekarni’s full name is Soekarni Mardisiswo. He was born on July 14, 1946. He graduated from the Mardisiswo School, Blitar.
Because of his education, Soekarno knew the term nationalism from Moh. Anwar. In 1967, Soekarno was appointed as a member of the Supreme Advisory Council (DPA).
8. Ahmad Subardjo
Ahmad Subardjo became the go-between to convince the youth to bring Soekarno and Hatta back to Jakarta when the kidnapping incident took place in Rengasdengklok. Raden Achmad Soebardjo Djojoadisoerjo is the youngest son of Teuku Muhammad Yusuf and the Acehnese priyayi.
9. Chaerul Saleh
Chaerul Saleh demanded Soekarno and Hatta to immediately proclaim Indonesian independence. He urged Soekarno and Hatta to join Wikana, Soekarni, and 31 Menteng youths. Chaerul Saleh was entrusted with holding important positions such as minister, deputy prime minister, and chairman of the Provisional People’s Consultative Assembly (MPRS).
10. Otto Iskandar Dinata
Otto Iskandar Dinata played the role of proposing Soekarno and Hatta to become president and vice president of the Republic of Indonesia. He got the nickname as Jalak Harupat because of his brave attitude in facing Dutch policies. Otto Iskandar Dinata had served as a representative for the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence and Minister of State for the first cabinet of the Republic of Indonesia in 1945
11. Martoatmodjo Roundabout
Buntaran Martoatmodjo is active as a Pioneer Front. Buntaran became the originator of the Indonesian Red Cross (PMI), which was commissioned by Soekarno on September 5, 1945. He had also made Indonesia proud when he led the Indonesian Tennis Opponents Association (PELTI).
12. Sam Ratulangi
Sam Ratulangi’s full name is Gerungan Saul Samuel Jacob Ratulangi. He comes from Tondano, North Sulawesi. After the proclamation, Sam Ratulangi was asked to become a leader in Sulawesi. In the independence of the Republic of Indonesia, Sam Ratulangi became a proponent of the attitude of the United Nations (UN) which would separate Sulawesi from Indonesia.
13. Admiral Maeda
Admiral Maeda became a figure who gave rides to freedom fighters. Even though he is not an Indonesian, he opened his house to formulate the text of the proclamation. Admiral Maeda strongly supports Indonesian activists to be loud and active in voicing independence. He also set up special forces just in case.
14. Latif Hendradiningrat
Latif Hendradiningrat joined the Defender of the Homeland organization (PETA). When reading the text of the proclamation, Latif accompanied Soekarno and Hatta when they were about to go to the front porch. He also became the first flag-raising officer.
15. Suhad Sastro Kusumo
Suhud was the one who raised the red and white flag along with the latif. When he was young, Suhud was involved in the Pioneer Front, a group formed by Japan. Since August 14 before the proclamation, Suhud played the role of security guard for the Soekarno family. Then, he also prepared a flagpole made of bamboo on the terrace of Sukarno’s house.
16. Surastri Karma Trimurti
Surastri Karma Trimurti, a person who pursues the world of journalism and expresses her thoughts through writing. SK Trimurti was born into a family that still has a close relationship with the Keraton Kasunan Surakarta. After independence, SK Trimurti served as Minister of Manpower.
Moewardi is a graduate of ear, nose and ear specialist (ENT) from Geneeskundig Hooge School (GHS) in Salemba. When the proclamation took place, Moewardi’s job was as a security officer who guarded the situation to avoid the threat of riots. He was also appointed as the leader of the Pioneer Front for the Java region.
Exemplary Values from the Struggle of Indonesian Independence Heroes
The struggle of the Independence figures can be emulated as an effort to increase love for the motherland. Summarizing from the Liputan6.com page, the following are the exemplary values of the struggle for Indonesian independence heroes.
1. High Spirit of Patriotism and Nationalism
The attitudes of nationalism and patriotism are shared by the heroes in defending Indonesia’s independence. As the next generation of the nation, they must have a sense of pride and love for the motherland. Indonesian heroes when fighting for independence also fostered a sense of patriotism and nationalism.
When a sense of patriotism and nationalism has been nurtured in the heart, the spirit and love for the motherland as well as the attitude of being willing to sacrifice and never giving up will be nurtured. These attitudes are fostered in order to achieve the prosperity and glory of the nation and state. Not only that, nationalism can be shown with a sense of enthusiasm and love for their country.
When inside a person already has a sense of courage then any obstacles will be passed. Indonesian freedom fighter heroes have a high sense of courage so they never give up and stick to their convictions. Proud successors should also have this sense of courage so they have the courage to take risks for the betterment of themselves and the nation.
3. Defending Truth and Justice
Many injustices are seen in front of us. They need to be defended to get justice and give the truth to everyone. Indonesian independence heroes fought for justice for Indonesian independence. This fair attitude is also one of the ways to maintain national unity.
4. Uphold Unity and Unity
Indonesia is a country with a lot of diversity. Therefore, the national motto of Indonesia is “Unity in Diversity” which means that differences are still one. Despite the ethnic background, religion, race and other differences among the heroes.
However, they remained united and maintained unity for Indonesian independence. They put aside their interests, ego and other differences in order to fight together to become a strong nation.
5. Willing to Sacrifice for the Common Interest
Indonesian independence heroes fought, risked their lives for Indonesian independence. They suppressed personal ambitions for the independence of the Indonesian nation.