Contents of the agreement Roem Royen – The struggle of the Indonesian nation in the early days of independence was not easy. Since the reading of the text of the proclamation by Ir. Soekarno, who later became Indonesia’s first president, the people still had to work hard so that this independence would be recognized by foreign countries and freed from the clutches of the Dutch.
Even the nation’s leaders are still struggling with all their might so that the Netherlands can free its influence on Indonesia through diplomacy. One of the ways taken by national figures was to enter into an agreement with the Dutch. Of the many agreements created after democracy, the Roem Royen agreement became one of Indonesia’s forms of struggle.
Have you ever heard of the Roem Royen agreement? Do you know the contents of the Roem Royen agreement?
The Roem Royen Agreement became one of the many series of agreements and negotiations conducted between Indonesia and the Netherlands in post-independence history in 1945. Previously, Indonesia had actually taken this path of diplomacy twice through the Linggarjati Agreement which occurred in 1946 and the Renville Agreement in 1946. in 1948. However, betraying the agreement and often causing new losses for the Indonesian nation.
The Roem Royen negotiations were one of the negotiations that took a long time to formulate. These negotiations began on April 14 1949 and were only completed and agreed upon and signed on May 7 1949. This agreement was carried out at the Des Indes Hotel, Jakarta.
The name of the Roem Royen agreement was taken from the names of two figures who were the leaders of the delegations of the two parties, namely Indonesia and the Netherlands. At that time, Indonesia was represented by Mohamad Roem as the head of the delegation, while the Netherlands sent Herman van Roijen as a delegate for the negotiations.
The purpose of carrying out these negotiations and agreements is to resolve several issues regarding Indonesian independence diplomatically prior to the implementation of the Round Table Conference in the same year in The Hague. Negotiations proceeded with a lot. In fact, they had to present Mohammad Hatta and Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX.
At that time, Mohammad Hatta was in exile in Bangka and Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX was in Yogyakarta, he had to attend the agreement that took place in Jakarta. The presence of Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX was intended to reinforce his authority over the Government of the Republic of Indonesia in Yogyakarta. At that time Sri Sultan said, ‘Jogjakarta is de Republiek Indonesie’ or which means Yogyakarta is part of the Republic of Indonesia.
After that, finally Indonesia was able to return to running the wheels of its government which had previously been stopped due to the Dutch Military Aggression II. Government leaders who were held captive by the Dutch were finally released and returned to Yogyakarta.
At that time, Yogyakarta became the temporary capital of the government of the Republic of Indonesia. The Roem Royen Agreement also opened opportunities for Indonesia to hold the Round Table Conference (KMB) as one of the efforts to acknowledge Indonesian sovereignty from the Netherlands.
Then, what is the contents of the Roem Royen agreement? Does this benefit Indonesia? Or is it the other way around?
To answer the curiosity and questions above, let’s take a look at the explanation below regarding the contents of the Roem Royen agreement, background, characters, and after the agreement. Read on, ok!
Background to the Roem Royen Agreement
Even though they had proclaimed their independence on August 17, 1945, Indonesia’s situation at that time was still not safe. This is because the allied forces that are in one alliance, the Allied Forces Netherlands East Indies or AFNEI, under the leadership of Sir Philip Christisson came shortly after independence was proclaimed.
One of the aims of the arrival of the allies was to disarm the Japanese army and uphold and maintain a state of peace before handing over government to a civilian government. But apparently, the allied troops were piggybacked by the Netherlands using the name Netherlands Indies Civil Administration or NICA.
The Dutch government’s participation in the allied army had other intentions. The Dutch wanted to return to control of Indonesia which they had long controlled before the Second World War against Japan.
After this event, there were various struggles of the Indonesian people to maintain independence, including carrying out a series of negotiations or agreements with the Dutch which were violated several times.
One of the first agreements after the arrival of the Dutch back to Indonesia was the Linggajati agreement. The agreement and negotiations lasted a long time, carried out on November 15 1946, finally the agreement was ratified and signed by both parties on March 25 1947. However, the agreement did not last long, because the Netherlands violated the contents of the agreement by carrying out Dutch Military Aggression I on July 20, 1947.
The international world also condemned the Dutch action for violating the ceasefire sponsored by the UN Security Council and the Three Nations Commission (Belgium, the United States and Australia). America finally urged Indonesia and the Netherlands to hold serious negotiations.
After that, the Renville negotiations were finally held on December 8, 1947. Dutch Military Aggression I stopped. However, the Netherlands again violated the agreement. This time the Dutch Military Aggression II was carried out on December 19, 1948. The main target of the attack this time was the city of Yogyakarta, which at that time was the temporary capital of the Republic of Indonesia.
During the Dutch Military Aggression II, high-ranking Indonesian government officials were exiled outside Java. The high-ranking officials who were detained by the Dutch included the President of Indonesia, Soekarno, Vice President of Indonesia, Mohammad Hatta, along with several ministers.
However, Indonesia is not finished yet. Government control was temporarily transferred to the Emergency Government of the Republic of Indonesia or PDRI, which at that time was based in Bukittinggi, West Sumatra.
On the other hand, on March 1, 1949, there was a massive general attack by the Indonesian military against the Dutch. The city of Yogyakarta, which had previously been occupied by the Dutch, was finally able to be retaken by the Indonesian military. The city of Yogyakarta was also able to be defended for 6 hours as one of the proofs of Indonesia’s existence.
Dutch Military Aggression II which was then replied with a General Offensive on March 1, 1949 certainly harmed the name and position of the Netherlands in the eyes of international politics. The United Nations (UN), including many other countries, condemned the Dutch action.
Based on historical records which are also written on the official website of the Indonesian Ministry of Education and Culture, the background to the Roem Royen agreement was when the Dutch began to realize that their Military Aggression had no benefits whatsoever. This actually happened in reverse, because the Dutch military attack only made the resistance of the Indonesian people stronger and wider.
Apart from that, the international community also carried out and put pressure on the Netherlands for its attack on Indonesia which had proclaimed its independence. Thus, the Dutch also had no other choice but to follow the recommendations and directions of the United Nations or the United Nations to return to making agreements at the negotiating table.
Finally, negotiations were carried out by the Indonesian side and the Dutch side. The negotiations led by Merle Cochran were also held at the Des Indes Hotel, Jakarta. As the head of the delegation, the government of the Republic of Indonesia sent Mr. Mohammad Roem as his representative and the Netherlands sent Dr. Herman van Roijen as his delegate.
On May 7, 1949, the negotiations between the two countries finally ended. From the meeting, the content of Roem Royen’s agreement was that the government of the Republic of Indonesia, including the leaders who were detained, would be returned to Yogyakarta. In addition, the two parties also agreed to resume negotiations by holding the Round Table Conference or KMB in The Hague, Netherlands in the same year.
The decision regarding the participation of the government of the Republic of Indonesia in subsequent negotiations is certainly not without reasons and conditions. Because, the Indonesian government demanded that the Dutch troops who were around the Yogyakarta area withdraw and leave Yogyakarta free from all Dutch Military Aggression II attacks. After negotiations, the Dutch finally agreed and accepted these terms.
One month after the Roem Royen agreement was signed, on June 2, 1949 to be exact, the Yogyakarta area was evacuated from the Dutch army. This discharge is carried out under the supervision of the United Nations Commissioner for Indonesia or UNCI. The city of Yogyakarta was chosen as the location for the evacuation and release of prisoners because at that time Yogyakarta served as the temporary capital of Indonesia.
Figures in the Contents of the Roem Royen Agreement
After the Netherlands launched its Second Military Aggression against Indonesia, the UN Security Council finally again urged the Netherlands to return to negotiations and a ceasefire agreement with Indonesia. In the end the Dutch complied and the Roem Royen negotiations were held. These negotiations were held from 14 April 1949 to 7 May 1949 at the Des Indes Hotel, Jakarta.
Because at that time Indonesian officials were being exiled by the Dutch outside the island of Java, Indonesia finally sent Mohamad Roem as the leader of the delegation. Meanwhile, the Dutch sent Dr. J. Herman van Roijen (Royen) as the leader of the delegation. The negotiations were finally carried out on the initiative of the United Nations Commission for Indonesia (UNCI) or the UN Commission for Indonesia.
Apart from Mohamad Roem who was involved in the negotiations, several national figures also participated in the negotiations at the Des Indes Hotel, Jakarta. National figures as Indonesian delegates at the meeting included Ali Sastroamidjojo, Supomo, AK Pringgodigdo, Johannes Latuharhary, Ir. Juanda, and Johannes Leimena. Apart from that, Mohammad Hatta and Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX from Yogyakarta were suddenly presented.
Meanwhile on the Dutch side, they sent a delegation consisting of Dr. J. Herman van Roijen, dr. Van, Bloom, dr. Gede, Jacob, Dr. PJ Koets, Dr. Dieben, and van Hoogstraten Dan. On the other hand, UNCI was led by Merle Cochran who came from the United States and was assisted by Herremans from Belgium and Critchley from Australia as part of the Three Nations Commission.
During the meeting, UNCI recommended that exchange of statements be carried out from each party. This exchange of statements later became known as the Roem Roijen agreement or van Roijen-Roem Statements . The word Roem Royen itself is taken from the name of each country’s delegation leader.
The contents of the Roem Royen agreement were to discuss the handover of the Indonesian capital, Yogyakarta, to the Government of the Republic of Indonesia. As is known, previously Yogyakarta was controlled by the Dutch through Dutch Military Aggression II.
Contents of the Roem Royen Agreement
The Roem Royen negotiations lasted for almost a month. With quite a long time, there were various tough debates from both sides in defending their statement. However, the final contents of the Roem Royen agreement were successfully agreed upon and signed on May 7, 2949.
The contents of the Roem Royen agreement are about the agreement between the two parties, namely Indonesia and the Netherlands, to reach peace. The contents of the Roem Royen agreement are as follows.
1. Contents of the Roem Royen Agreement from the Indonesian Delegation
– The Indonesian government will order its armed forces and armed forces to stop all forms of guerrilla warfare activities.
– The Indonesian government requests that the Dutch government also attend the Round Table Conference in The Hague, Netherlands.
– The Government of Indonesia and the Government of the Netherlands will cooperate to restore security, order and maintain peace in each country.
2. Contents of the Roem Royen Agreement from the Dutch Delegation
– The Dutch government will agree to the Indonesian government’s request to return to Yogyakarta as the temporary capital.
– The Dutch government will release all Indonesian political prisoners without any conditions.
– The Dutch government will also agree on the matter of the Republic of Indonesia which is part of the United States of Indonesia.
– The Dutch government also agreed regarding the holding of the Round Table Conference which must be held as soon as possible after the government of the Republic of Indonesia returns to Yogyakarta.
- Contents of the Roem Royen Agreement Agreed on by Both Parties
– The Netherlands will stop all activities and military activities and release all Indonesian political and war prisoners unconditionally.
– The Netherlands will hand over the sovereignty of the government of the Republic of Indonesia completely and unconditionally.
– The Government of the Netherlands and the Government of Indonesia will jointly establish an alliance on the basis of equal rights and voluntarily.
– The Netherlands will agree to the existence of the Republic of Indonesia as part of the United States of Indonesia.
– The Netherlands will return the activities of the government of the Republic of Indonesia to the city of Yogyakarta as the temporary national capital.
– The Armed Forces and Armed Forces of the Republic of Indonesia will stop all activities of guerrilla warfare.
– Indonesia and the Netherlands agreed to attend the next negotiations, namely the Round Table Conference which will be held in The Hague, Netherlands.
After the Events of the Roem Royen Agreement
Dutch Military Aggression II gave international pressure which had a serious impact on the Dutch government at that time. Evidently, finally the Netherlands agreed to new negotiations and resulted in the Roem Royen agreement. Apart from that, the Netherlands finally kept all the promises and agreements it had made with the Indonesian government.
In the end, the government of the Republic of Indonesia was returned to Yogyakarta on June 24, 1949. After that, the Dutch troops that had previously occupied Yogyakarta withdrew on July 1, 1949. Discussions regarding the cessation of hostilities between the two parties were discussed after the return of the Indonesian government to the temporary capital, Yogyakarta.
On July 6, 1949, President Soekarno and Mohammad Hatta were finally returned to Yogyakarta after being exiled outside Java. Whereas previously, Mohammad Hatta had appointed Sjafruddin Prawiranegara as President of the Emergency Government of the Republic of Indonesia (PDRI) on December 22, 1948.
After that, on August 3, 1949, a ceasefire between the Netherlands and Indonesia started from Java and Sumatra. Then, the Round Table Conference reached all agreements at the meeting, except for the Papua-Netherlands issue.
The Roem Royen Agreement was one of the results of a series of negotiations conducted between Indonesia and the Netherlands after the proclamation of independence on August 17, 1945. These negotiations were carried out as the aftermath of the Second Dutch Military Aggression attack against Indonesia in Yogyakarta.
Executed on April 14, 1949 and agreed on May 7, 1949, the contents of the Roem Royen agreement were regarding the cessation of war activities between Indonesia and the Netherlands and the complete transfer of sovereignty from the Dutch government to Indonesia. In addition, the contents of the Roem Royen agreement also stated that the Netherlands must release war and political prisoners, establish a joint alliance, and also attend the Round Table Conference in The Hague.
So, that’s a summary of the explanation regarding the contents of the Roem Royen agreement, background, characters, and after the agreement. Hope this is useful and helps #FriendsWithoutLimits to understand the contents of the Roem Royen agreement, ok!
If you want to find books about Indonesian history, then you can get them at sinaumedia.com . To support Sinaumed’s in adding insight, sinaumedia always provides quality and original books so that Sinaumed’s has #MoreWithReading information.
Author Name: Raden Putri
- h ttps://regional.kompas.com/read/2022/02/02/153355978/perjanjanan-roem-royen-latar-back-isi-dan-dampak?page=all