What Happened at Rengasdengklok – Sinaumed’s must be no stranger to the historical events of Rengasdengklok? Yep, the Rengasdengklok incident was touted as the first milestone of Indonesian independence after years of being colonized by the Dutch and Japanese. Thanks to this independence, Indonesia can become the country it is today, which is able to be on par with other countries.
Then actually, what happened in Rengasdengklok? Why can it be the first milestone of Indonesian independence? Apart from that, why is it also called the Rengasdengklok Incident?
So, so that Sinaumed’s can understand and answer these questions, let’s look at the following review!
What happened at Rengasdengklok?
In general, the incident that occurred at Rengasdengklok was a kidnapping carried out by a number of youth groups against Soekarno and Hatta. It is called the Rengasdengklok incident because when the two big figures were kidnapped, they were taken to a place called Rengasdengklok, which is located in Karawang Regency.
So, it can be concluded that Rengasdengklok is the name of a city that became a silent witness to the kidnapping of these two great Indonesian figures.
The kidnapping action was the idea of young people, including Soekarni, Wikana, Sayuti Melik, and Chaerul Saleh. Even though it is called kidnapping which has a bad connotation, it turns out that the action turned out to be a good idea. The purpose of the kidnapping carried out by the youth group was so that Soekarno and Hatta, as representatives of Indonesian leaders, immediately accelerated the proclamation of Indonesian independence.
What Happens If the Rengasdengklok Event Never Exists?
Try to think about it again, what would have happened if the Rengasdengklok Incident, which was the first milestone of Indonesian independence, had never existed?
The answer is that there are five possibilities and the biggest possibility is that Indonesia also may not be able to carry out its independence until it becomes the country it is today. The five possibilities are:
- Indonesia may not necessarily be independent.
- The older classes will be increasingly influenced by the Japanese.
- Japan will continue to colonize Indonesia, even though at that time their country was being bombed by the Allies.
- The suffering of the Indonesian people will increase because their country does not immediately achieve independence.
- Japan will get stronger especially in the eyes of the world.
What is the Chronology of the Rengasdengklok Event?
1. Japan Unconditionally Surrenders to the Allies
At the end of 1943, Japan’s position in the Asia Pacific war began to be pushed. Several times the Japanese army had to lose to the Allied troops. Until finally, the United States military succeeded in bombing two cities in Japan namely in Hiroshima (on August 6, 1945) and Nagasaki (9 August 1945) which are located in Japan.
As a result of the bombing, the political and economic conditions in Japan of course paralyzed immediately. This finally forced the Japanese to surrender unconditionally to the Allies on August 14, 1945.
With Japan’s unconditional surrender it also affected the Indonesian nation in the form of a power vacuum (Indonesia was previously controlled by the Japanese).
2. Opinion of the Old Group VS Opinion of the Young Group
The news about Japan’s defeat against the Allies finally reached the ears of Indonesian youths in the city of Bandung. They heard the news of the defeat through BBC ( British Broadcasting Corporation ) radio broadcasts.
The Indonesian youth or what is often referred to as the youth group consists of Wikana, Sukarni, Sayuti Melik, Yusuf Kunto, Iwa Kusuma, Chaerul Saleh, and Singgih.
After hearing the news, they immediately met Bung Karno and Bung Hatta at Jalan Pegangsaan Timur No. 56. There, the youth group appointed Sutan Syahrir as the representative for the youth group by requesting that Bung Karno and Bung Hatta immediately make the proclamation of independence.
However, Bung Karno did not approve of this idea. He thought that the proclamation of Indonesia needed to be discussed in advance at the PPKI (Committee for Indonesian Independence) meeting.
The young people who were on fire with heroism finally had a discussion with some of their members. The discussion resulted in a decision in the form of the need to exile Bung Karno and Bung Hatta out of town so that they would avoid any influence from the Japanese.
On August 16, 1945 at 04.30 in the morning, the youth group together with a PETA member succeeded in kidnapping Bung Karno and Bung Hatta to the Rengasdengklok area. Not only these two big figures, but the younger group also brought Bung Karno’s wife, Fatmawati, and their son, Guntur, along with them.
At Rengasdengklok, Bung Karno and Bung Hatta were guarded by the PETA Company Commander, namely Cudanco Subeno. There, young groups tried to convince Bung Karno to immediately declare independence because there was still a power vacuum. Young people have also been prepared for any risks, including fighting the Japanese.
Meanwhile, in Jakarta there were also discussions between the young and the old. In the old group there are several big figures, including Ahmad Subardjo with several BPUPKI and PPKI members.
In the negotiations between the young and old groups, an agreement was reached that the proclamation of independence would and must be carried out in Jakarta. Finally, after the negotiation process between these big and formidable figures, Bung Karno and Bung Hatta were ready to declare independence when they returned to Jakarta.
So after the negotiations got the desired result, Yusuf Kunto from the youth group accompanied Ahmad Soebardjo to Rengasdengklok. Then, together they picked up Bung Karno and Bung Hatta to return to Jakarta. Ahmad Soebardjo even guaranteed that the proclamation of Indonesian independence would be announced the following day, namely August 17, 1945.
3. Preparation of the Text of the Proclamation
After the Rengasdengklok incident occurred and Bung Karno was prepared to declare independence on August 17, 1945, when the group was in Jakarta, the proclamation text was prepared. In the evening of August 16, 1945, the drafting of the proclamation was carried out. The deliberation was held at the house of Admiral Maeda, a chief representative of the Japanese Navy, which is located at Jalan Imam Bonjol No.1 Jakarta.
Sinaumed’s , you must be confused why Admiral Maeda, a head of the Japanese Navy allowed his house to be used as a headquarters in preparing the text of the proclamation?
This is because Admiral Maeda happened to be close to Indonesian youths and was friendly with Ahmad Soebardjo. In addition, Admiral Maeda deeply sympathized with the struggle of the Indonesian people to achieve independence.
The choice of Admiral Maeda’s house was a pretty brilliant idea because the house was guaranteed to be safe because Admiral Maeda had a high position and was highly respected by the Japanese Army around him. Now, the house has been used as the Museum of the Proclamation Manuscript Formulation.
That same night, deliberations were immediately held between the young and old groups in order to draft the text of the proclamation. The preparation of the text of the proclamation went smoothly with the first sentence in the text being the result of the ideas of Bung Karno and Ahmad Soebardjo and the last sentence being the idea of Bung Hatta.
After the draft of the proclamation text was finished, written by Bung Karno, it was immediately read in front of the audience. Bung Karno and Bung Hatta suggested that the manuscript should be signed by all those present. However, Sukarni made a suggestion that it would be better if only Bung Karno and Bung Hatta signed the text, on behalf of the Indonesian nation.
The proposal from Sukarni was approved by the audience and then the text of the proclamation was typed by Sayuti Melik using his typewriter.
So, it was decided that the proclamation of Indonesian independence would be read at Bung Karno’s residence, located at Jalan Pegangsaan Timur No. 56 Jakarta, at exactly 10.00 WIB.
4. Reading the Text of the Proclamation
Before the text of the proclamation was read, Bung Karno first made a speech about how the struggle of the Indonesian nation to achieve its independence. After that, the Saka Merah Putih was hoisted by Suhud and Latief. Then, the last event was the remarks by the Mayor of Jakarta, namely Suwirjo and Dr. Muwardi.
Things That Happened After the Rengasdengklok Incident
After the kidnapping of Soekarno and Hatta by young people in Rengasdengklok, Karawang Regency, the proclamation of Indonesian independence was finally realized. Even though they only used makeshift facilities and places, through the support of the people, Indonesia finally succeeded in being free from foreign colonialism.
Unfortunately, after the proclamation of independence was declared, there were even rebellions in several areas which could actually threaten the integrity of the country. So, here are some things that happened after the Proclamation of Independence of the Republic of Indonesia.
1. Linggarjati Negotiations
This negotiation was named that because it took place in Linggarjati, Kuningan, West Java. These negotiations took place between the Indonesian and Dutch parties, which then resulted in an agreement regarding the status of Indonesian independence. The Linggajati Agreement was finally legally signed at the Merdeka Palace, Jakarta, on March 25, 1947.
Unfortunately, this agreement actually caused serious conflict between the two countries, because at that time AFNEI (Allied Forces Netherlands East Indies) was backed by NICA to Indonesia.
It should be noted that AFNEI is the designation for the Allied forces whose job is to bring home and disarm the Japanese soldiers. Well, indirectly this caused the Allies to “enter” back into Indonesia.
2. The Westerling Incident
This event is actually history for the Indonesian people, because at that time the Dutch troops carried out a large-scale massacre of thousands of civilians in South Sulawesi.
The Westerling Affair is so called because the attempted massacre was led by Raymond Pierre Paul Westerling from December 1946 to February 1747, during the Counter Insurgency military operation.
As a result, the total number of people in South Sulawesi who were slaughtered in this inhumane event is not known. However, the Delegation of the Republic of Indonesia in 1947 conveyed to the UN Security Council that the number of victims of the massacre reached 40,000 people.
The reason for this incident was due to the arrival of Allied troops to clear the South Sulawesi region from Republican fighters and quell popular resistance against the formation of the State of East Indonesia.
3. Battle of Puputan Margarana
The Puputan Margarana battle also took place between the Indonesian and Dutch sides, on November 20, 1946. The battle was led by Colonel I Gusti Ngurah Rai.
Troops from the Indonesian side desperately drove out the Allied troops who had the guise of wanting to re-colonize Indonesia and re-establish the Dutch East Indies, after Japan lost in World War II.
The Battle of Puputan Margarana killed all of Colonel I Gusti Ngurah Rai’s troops. As a result of the death of Colonel I Gusti Ngurah Rai and his troops, the Dutch succeeded in establishing the State of East Indonesia (NIT). Then, in the State of East Indonesia, Tjokorda Gedhe Raka Soekawati was appointed as its president through a Denpasar Conference, on 18-24 December 1946.
It should be noted that the reason for the Dutch ” ngoyo ” to establish the State of East Indonesia was to compete with and force the Republic of Indonesia to accept the form of a federated state. The State of East Indonesia is one of the many “puppet” countries created by the Dutch.
This battle is remembered as the Puputan Incident. In Balinese, “Puputan” means an effort to fight for victory to the last drop of blood which is done during war, rather than having to surrender to the enemy.
4. Proclamation of the Pasundan State
After establishing NIT, the Dutch continued to launch their actions in creating this puppet state. The next target is Pasundan. The Dutch succeeded in persuading Soeria Kartalegawa, Chairperson of the Pasundan People’s Party, to proclaim the State of Pasundan on 4 May 1947.
This Pasundan country can be said to be very weak in its military, so it is very dependent on the Dutch for strength. When the Netherlands carried out Military Aggression, then this country existed in the eyes of the people.
5. Military Aggression I
Military Aggression I was a military operation carried out by the Dutch in Java and Sumatra, from 21 July 1947 – 5 August 1947. The term Military Aggression I was coined by Lieutenant Governor General Johannes van Mook, who emphasized that the results of the Linggarjati Negotiations were no longer valid. happen again. The Indonesian side considers this action to be a form of violation of the Linggajati Negotiations.
Indonesia then complained about this action to the United Nations because it was considered to have violated an international agreement, namely the Linggajati Negotiations. With assistance from Australia and India who also requested that the issue of military aggression be put on the agenda of the UN Security Council, it was approved, on 31 July 1947.
The United Nations passed a resolution calling for the armed conflict to end. Not only that, the United Nations also recognizes the existence of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia by calling it “Indonesia” not “Netherlands Indies” or “Dutch East Indies” anymore.
The Action of Military Aggression I was stopped on August 15, 1947 due to pressure from the UN to the Dutch Government.
6. Appointment of Amir Syarifudin as Prime Minister
After the first Military Aggression action, a political figure named Amir Syarifudin who previously served as Minister of Defense, was appointed to the post of Prime Minister to replace Sutan Sjahrir.
Amir Syarifudin offered Kartosoewirjo the position of second deputy defense minister, but the offer was rejected. Kartosoewirjo had the desire to withdraw from politics, because he had witnessed that Indonesia’s political conditions were very unfavorable, due to the agreements previously made with the Dutch.
Not only that, Kartosoewirjo also did not like Amir Syarifudin’s political direction which tended towards communism. It should be noted that the end of Amir Syarifudin’s life was by being executed. This was because he was considered involved in the 1948 Madiun incident.
7. Renville Agreement
Again, Indonesia made an agreement with the Dutch called the Renville Agreement, on January 17, 1948. This agreement was intended to resolve disputes over the Linggarjati Agreement that had been made previously. In this Renville agreement, the boundary between Indonesia and the Netherlands was created, which is known as the Van Mook Line.
8. Mohammad Hatta Appointed as Prime Minister
Previously, it was explained that Amir Syarifudin was appointed Prime Minister. So, after the Amir’s Cabinet collapsed, especially after the Renville Agreement was signed, President Soekarno appointed Moh. Hatta to become Prime Minister.
Moh. Hatta was asked to lead an emergency “presidential cabinet” from 1948 to 1949, for which all accountability was reported to President Soekarno.
9. Dutch Military Aggression II
Again, the Dutch launched Military Aggression II. This action was preceded by an attack on Yogyakarta, which at that time was the capital of Indonesia. Military Aggression II occurred on December 19, 1948 and was accompanied by the arrest of several major figures, for example Soekarno, Moh. Hatta, Sjahrir, and others.
This caused Indonesia to experience a power vacuum, which eventually led to the formation of the Emergency Government of the Republic of Indonesia in Bukittinggi, Sumatra, led by Sjafruddin Prawiranegara. It should be noted that Sjafruddin Prawiranegara is also a national hero who must be remembered, because without his services, Indonesian power could have fallen back into the hands of the Dutch.
10. March 1st General Offensive
As the name implies, this massive attack took place on March 1, 1949. This attack was planned by the Indonesian side, primarily based on the instructions of the Commander in Chief Sudirman. The March 1 General Offensive was carried out to prove that the Indonesian military still exists and is strong enough, so that it can indirectly strengthen Indonesia’s position, especially when the UN Security Council negotiations are in progress.
So, that’s an explanation of what happened in Rengasdengklok and what events occurred when Indonesia succeeded in proclaiming its independence on August 17, 1945.