Diachronic Ways of Thinking – Have you ever complained while studying history because you have to understand many events and their full dates? Apparently, this is part of the concept of historical thinking. The concept of historical thinking is an approach to understanding and analyzing past events. So, there are two concepts of historical thinking, namely synchronic and diachronic.
Synchronic and diachronic are two concepts used to study history. Synchronic means the concept of studying history which is very broad with space, but has limitations in terms of time, while diachronic means the concept of studying history based on the time sequence of these historical events or according to the chronological order in which the events occurred.
Synchronic research in linguistics is used to compare one language with another by focusing on one period of time or one period horizontally, according to the time when learning the language, while diachronic research in linguistics is used to see comparisons or language development in two periods. decreasingly different.
In the concept of thinking, someone certainly has their own way of thinking. One of them is a diachronic and synchronic way of thinking or thinking method. The diachronic thinking method itself is usually a method of thinking that is needed by someone in relation to understanding the science of history.
This is because in understanding the science of history, one needs the power to memorize the times, names and places contained in a science of history. Then, it invites you to feel how the experience is in learning and understanding past events.
However, what is the meaning of diachronic and what are the ins and outs of the diachronic concept, the concept of diachronic thinking, what are the characteristics of diachronic, how to think diachronically, and so on? Below will be explained in full about the diachronic.
Previously, we already understood the concept of synchronic thinking. So, understand before proceeding to the discussion below in the article getting to know the concept of synchronous thinking .
Understanding the Concept of Diachronic Thinking
Diachronic in the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI) has a meaning, which is related to the language approach by looking at historical developments over time. Etymologically, the word “diachronic” is taken from the Greek, namely he which means through or beyond and also chronicus which means time. Means diachronic or dia chronicus is something that has passed or has exceeded its time.
In addition, according to Wahyu Iryana in his book, namely Historiography of the West (2014), he said that diachronic is lengthening in time and also narrowing in space. Furthermore, according to Krisanjaya in Comparative Linguistic Nature (1996) states that in the context of linguistic studies, diachronic nature can mean that this study is oriented and focuses on the dimensions of two different time periods in descending order, following the fragments of two different times.
For example, an assessment of the mapping and distribution of language vocabulary in Jabodetabek can be carried out diachronically, following two different timelines. This characteristic is contained by historical comparative linguistics and area or geographical comparative linguistics.
From the various definitions above, it can be concluded that diachronic is a chronological way of thinking or the order that occurs from various records regarding several events which are sorted according to the events that took place. The chronology of the events in question helps to reconstruct an event based on the correct time sequence.
Usually this diachronic way of thinking is used in reconstructing historical events or it can also be used to compare historical events at the same time in different places. This diachronic process is a science that emphasizes process, so it is usually used by historians or historians.
These experts use diachronic science as a diachronic approach when speaking or analyzing a matter related to history because by using this approach, history will attempt to make evolution or change from one period to the next.
With this diachronic approach, it is possible for historians to postulate why under certain circumstances arose from previous circumstances, or why certain circumstances can continue to develop and also be sustainable, for example regarding the history of the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence and so on.
In looking at historical events, the concept of diachronic thinking has two elements, namely chronological elements and periodization elements. The chronological element is analyzing historical events in sequence according to the time they occurred, while the periodization element is analyzing historical events by classifying past events such as political, ethnic, religious, social and cultural systems.
Both are very important for reconstructing past events and finding possible connections and causalities. Because it is coherent and explains cause and effect, applying the concept of diachronic thinking can prevent someone from being exposed to hoaxes. So, when a rumor spreads, one doesn’t immediately believe it and can find causes and effects between events.
Diachronic Thinking Character
Synchronic and diachronic have their own characteristics. The synchronic approach has characteristics, such as the study is horizontal, this study does not have a comparative concept, this study focuses on examining historical events at a certain time, this study has a narrower scope, this study is more structured and systematic, and this study is deeply and seriously.
The diachronic approach has characteristics, such as this study is vertical in nature, this study has a comparative concept, this study has a broader and deeper scope of study. This study focuses on studying one event with its history, and this study can be used to examine the period of one event with another.
Then how can one think diachronically in studying historical events? In fact, diachronic thinking in studying a historical event is divided into two elements, the first is the periodization element and the second is the chronological element.
1. Periodization elements
The periodization element in diachronic thinking is an element that analyzes a historical event that took place sequentially or sequentially from certain events in the past.
2. Chronological Elements
The second element in diachronic thinking is the chronological element. This element means the element that analyzes a historical event that takes place regularly in terms of the process and time of the event.
Diachronic Thinking Concept
After understanding what diachronic is, then you also have to know how to think diachronically. The concept of diachronic thinking in history is the concept of chronological thinking or sequentially used in analyzing an event. In this case, chronological means a record of various events in order according to the time they occurred.
Chronology of historical events can then be used to help reconstruct how these events occurred based on the correct time sequence. In addition, the concept of diachronic thinking can also help compare historical events at the same time in different places but are interrelated.
Through this diachronic thinking concept, you can analyze that history occurs from time to time because of changes from time to time. Thus, this concept can be used to analyze the impact of changes in the variables of something so as to enable historians to know that certain conditions were born and occurred.
The purpose of this diachronic thinking concept is to teach you about the concept of thinking chronologically as well as orderly and sequentially because as previously explained that this diachronic thinking concept is a thinking concept that is very concerned with the process of an event occurring.
Characteristics of Diachronic Thinking
With this understanding and also the concept of diachronic thinking, you can find out what are the characteristics of diachronic. Here are the characteristics or characteristics of the diachronic.
1. Is Vertical
Diachronic is vertical, meaning that in the concept of thinking, this diachronic will describe various processes regarding an event or event from the beginning to the end of the event.
2. The discussion is broader
Because diachronic thinking is concerned with processes which are related to the chronology of an event that occurred, the scope of discussion in the concept of diachronic thinking will be broader, comprehensive, and even detailed. In this way, you or the writers can discuss history more broadly.
3. Have a Comparison Concept
Not only is the discussion broader and more vertical in nature, this diachronic has a comparative concept. That is, there will be a comparison between one event and another. This is done to be able to find out the causes and causes of these historical events.
4. Historical in nature
Because this diachronic emphasizes process and time to time, this concept is very suitable when used to carry out an analysis of a historical nature, one of which is historical events.
Finally, summarized from the various definitions and characteristics that have been expressed, this diachronic will discuss an event from one period to another on an ongoing basis. This is done so that one event and the other become a unity in historical events.
The Diachronic Way of Thinking
As explained clearly above, diachronic is a way of thinking chronologically or in the sequence that occurs from various notes regarding several events which are sorted according to the events that took place.
The chronology of the events in question helps to reconstruct an event based on the correct time sequence. So if it is concluded, in simple terms this diachronic concept is a historical process based on the sequence of events and also the time sequence.
Therefore, with this understanding of the diachronic concept, the basis for thinking is that an event in history that passes through this regular course of time will be more dynamic in nature and also through a process of causality between causes and effects that influence one another.
In addition, the diachronic way of thinking used in studying history has two elements, namely the periodization element and also the chronological element. The following is an example of two concepts of diachronic thinking, namely the periodization element and also the chronological element.
1. Periodization elements
As previously explained, the element of periodization in diachronic thinking is an element that analyzes a historical event that took place sequentially or sequentially from certain events in the past.
Examples are as follows:
- In the prehistoric or prehistoric era, this diachronic concept discussed how events occurred since humans did not know writing until the discovery of script at that time.
- After that, the period of the age of the script or historical era discusses the events when humans have known writing or script until now.
2. Chronological Elements
Meanwhile, the second element in diachronic thinking is the chronological element. This element means the element that analyzes a historical event that takes place regularly in terms of the process and time of the event.
Examples are as follows:
- During the reign of King Hayam Wuruk which lasted from 1350 to 1389.
- During the Diponegoro War or also known as the Java War which took place in 1825 – 1945.
- In the era of Japanese colonialism in Indonesia which occurred in 1942 – 1945.
The Difference Between Synchronic and Diachronic Concepts
After understanding the meaning of diachronic, you must also know what is the difference between the concept of diachronic thinking and the concept of synchronic thinking. In short it can be interpreted that diachronic is something that can cross a certain time limit. Meanwhile, synchronic is a study that is carried out and focuses on research on a wider range of symptoms.
As previously explained, the diachronic concept is a concept of thinking that is arranged sequentially and also in accordance with its chronology which is usually this concept is often used to conduct research on historical science.
Meanwhile, synchronic has a broad meaning in space, but has a time limit. However, as with the diachronic concept, this synchronic concept can also be used to study a history or historical or historical thinking processes.
In the concept of diachronic thinking, historians will analyze the impact on the evolutionary process of a variable that allows certain reasons to emerge regarding the reasons for the occurrence of an event or previous condition and the reasons for developing that condition or event.
In contrast to diachronic, synchronic thinking is a broad way of thinking but limited in time, meaning that the concept of synchronic thinking is used to analyze an incident or event at a certain time or period by using a fixed point, namely regarding time.
This synchronic concept usually only analyzes a condition in an event and has no effort in making conclusions regarding the development of events that participate in a situation.
Examples of Diachronic Thinking
To find out examples of diachronic thinking in discussing history, here are some examples of diachronic when viewed from historical events that have occurred in Indonesia.
Chronology of the History of the Battle of Surabaya (27 October – 20 November 1945)
- On October 25, 1945, the British Army named NICA landed in Surabaya.
- After that, there was an incident where the blue part of the Dutch flag was torn which occurred on October 27, 1945. After that, the first battle broke out between Indonesia and the British Army.
- October 29, 1945 there was a signing of a ceasefire that took place between Indonesia and the British Army.
- October 30, 1945 at 20.30 WIB, the killing of Brigadier General Mallaby (led British troops for East Java) after a ceasefire and various clashes that occurred at that time.
- There was a change in Mallaby, namely Major General Eric Carden Robert Mansergh issued an ultimatum on November 10, 1945 to ask the Indonesian side to surrender their weapons and stop resistance.
- The ultimatum was ignored and in the end on November 10, 1945 in the morning, the British Army launched a massive attack.
In general, the difference between synchronic concepts and diachronic concepts is the depth of the discussion. The diachronic concept only looks at many events broadly and has the weakness of being superficial in looking at many events, without examining these historical events in depth.
Diachronic concepts in studying something can make it easier to understand developments from time to time, relationships between periods, the possibility of repetition of phenomena, and changes in the initial period with the next period.