The Concept of Historical Thinking, A Complete Review of How to Analyze the Past

The Concept of Thinking History – Learning history is so exciting. Even in learning history, you can use a thinking approach, you know. Many historians apply the concept of historical thinking to the analysis of events that have occurred in the past.

Of course, using a historical thinking approach to analyzing events that occurred in the past provides many advantages. Some of them are getting more complete information to a more coherent time sequence.

Now, if we look at the two advantages of using a historical thinking approach. Of course, it will be even more fun if we learn together about everything related to the concept of historical thinking using the information in this article.

The concept of historical thinking is easily divided into two approaches, namely the synchronous thinking approach and the diachronic thinking approach. Both have different concepts, but are very useful to help analyze an event that has occurred in the past.

You can learn from the definition, characteristics, meaning to examples of these two approaches to historical thinking. Check out the full review of the two below.

 

Historical Thinking Concept Approach

Synchronic Thinking

First, we will learn about what the synchronous thinking approach is. The word synchronic is taken from the Greek words “syn” which means with and “kronos” which means time. Thus thinking synchronically on events that occurred in the past is a way of thinking that extends to a space, but is limited in time.

Simply put, synchronic thinking is an analysis that can be done on an event that has occurred at a certain time. Synchronic thinking also has an emphasis on structure while analyzing events at a certain time.

The Meaning of Synchronic Thinking

By using the concept of the synchronous thinking approach, we can find out what impacts or changes have occurred in an event at that particular time. However, it should also be noted that the synchronic thinking approach does not try to reach a conclusion.

But more on the analysis of what has happened as a result of these events. An example is when analyzing the historical events of the proclamation of August 17, 1945. Of course, you can get a description related to social, political, economic and international relations aspects.

You could say that the synchronic thinking approach is a typical way of thinking from the social sciences.

Characteristics of Synchronic Thinking

The synchronic thinking approach also has several features in it. These characteristics will make it easier for us to learn what exactly synchronic thinking is. Here are some of the characteristics possessed by synchronous thinking that you can read in full.

  • Review events that have occurred in the past

The first feature of the synchronic thinking approach is an analysis or study of an event in the past. This means that the concept of the synchronous thinking approach can only be applied to an event that has occurred in the past.

By thinking synchronously you can go deeper into what has happened in the past but for a predetermined time.

An example of this first characteristic is the activity of analyzing the events of the proclamation of August 17, 1945. The specified time for the incident was set on August 17, 1945. However, the information obtained can be widened to what really influenced the occurrence of the incident.

  • Horizontal

The second is that it is horizontal. Where the analysis is carried out even though it is limited in time. However, the results obtained can be widened according to what has happened. Starting from events that affect these important events to the effects or impacts that have arisen from various sectors.

At this point usually an incident can occur due to the influence of economic, social, political as well as cultural aspects. Then when the incident actually occurs, of course there will be several aspects that are affected.

By using a synchronous thinking approach to an event that occurred in the past. You can get complete information starting from the factors that influenced an event to the impact that occurred when the event was over. You can get everything in full.

  • Narrower study

Next is the characteristic of a narrower study. This means that you will only be limited by one time in one event when doing the analysis. Of course, this approach will also shorten your time and make it easier for you to do an analysis of past events.

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An example is when there are two events that have occurred in the past at different times. Where one event occurs on one day and another event occurs with a duration of 7 days.

Of course, if you use a synchronous thinking approach. Then you will choose an analysis of an event that has occurred with a duration of one day.

  • Serious and more difficult

Because there is a time limit in the analysis process carried out. So the analysis process as well as the results obtained can be assumed to be both more serious and more difficult. You will be able to do deeper analysis on only one event that occurs at a certain time.

Even the information you produce can cover all aspects from influence to being affected by events that have occurred in the past.

  • Focus on the structure part

The focus on the synchronic thinking approach is on its structure. Where you will do an analysis starting from social structure, society, politics. Economy to culture.

Of course, the results of the analysis information will also be more complete. Apart from that, focusing on the structure will make it easier for you to understand events that happened in the past.

How to Approach Synchronic Thinking

In the synchronous thinking approach, it turns out that several ways are needed first so that you can make it easier to apply. Actually, you have learned this method since you were in elementary school. This method is 5W + 1H consisting of  What, Who, When, Why, Where and How.

Even so, so that you can better understand the use of 5W + 1H, the explanation below can help you more.

  • What?

Using what or what will later make it easier for you to find out as a whole what happened to the past events that are being analyzed.

  • Who ?

The use of who in the analysis of an event that occurred in the past will help you find out who was involved or took part in the incident.

  • when ?

When or when this will help you find out when these past events occurred. This time is also one of the focal points of the synchronous thinking approach.

  • why ?

Why or why will help you find out the causes of events that occurred in the past or you can also say what things can influence these events.

  • Where?

Where will help you to find out the place or location of the event being analyzed.

  • How?

How or how this will be able to help you find out the course of events that occurred in the past. This means that the process of the incident will be explained clearly in this how-to point.

Synchronic Thinking Approach Example

Judging from an event in 1950 to 1959 even though Indonesia was already independent. However, Indonesia’s economic situation entered into a bad condition.

The several aspects that influenced the occurrence of events in the past are as follows.

  1. Agricultural products are the mainstay of export activities carried out by Indonesia.
  2. The round table conference determined that Indonesia must bear the economic and financial burden.
  3. At that time, the deficit that had to be borne by Indonesia was around Rp. 5.1 billion.
  4. The Dutch government did not pass down enough values ​​to transform the colonial economic system into a national economic system.
  5. The unstable domestic political situation made it easier for unplanned spending to occur.
  6. The existing security in the country is not so profitable.
  7. Domestic growth was so great at that time.

From the example questions or cases, an economic event that occurred in Indonesia from 1950 to 1959 can be analyzed using a synchronous thinking approach. Of course the results of the analysis carried out will be so easy to help in today’s life.

Synchronic Thinking Conclusion

The conclusion from the synchronic thinking approach to events that occurred in the past is an event analysis that focuses on one moment. Even though it has a focus on one time, the results of the analysis can widen from things that influenced the incident to things that were affected after the incident.

In this synchronous thinking approach, you can use the 5W + 1H implementation to make it easier to use.

Diachronic Thinking

As previously explained, the historical thinking approach can also be through diachronic thinking. Of course, the explanation related to diachronic thinking will be very different from synchronic thinking. To make it even clearer for you, here is a review of diachronic thinking.

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Definition of Diachronic Thinking

Simply put, diachronic thinking is a way of analyzing several events that are interrelated and sequentially sequenced as they should. With a diachronic approach to events that occurred in the past, it will make it easier for you to find out every event related to a major event, of course the results will be based on time sequence.

The Meaning of Diachronic Thinking

With a diachronic thinking approach to an event, you can easily find out the sequential time sequence of every event that has occurred in the past. Of course these events must also be connected between one another.

Characteristics of Diachronic Thinking

Like the synchronic thinking approach, diachronic thinking also has several characteristics in it. There are at least 6 characteristics possessed by the diachronic thinking approach. So that it is also easier for you to understand what are the characteristics of the diachronic thinking approach.

The following is an explanation regarding some of the characteristics of the diachronic thinking approach.

  • Vertical

The first feature of the diachronic thinking approach is that it is vertical. This means that every event related to a major event that is being analyzed will be sequenced sequentially with reference to the time of the incident.

  • Emphasized on the duration of the incident

The diachronic thinking approach will study more if an event that occurred in the past is a time process.

  • The scope is wider

Previously, the synchronous approach had a narrower scope. So the approach to diachronic thinking is the opposite or has a wider scope.

  • Can provide a description of an incident

Because it has a wider scope, of course, the results obtained from the analysis process can also be said to be in the form of a fairly complete description. Now this is also one of the important points that can only be provided by the diachronic thinking approach when used in the process of analyzing an event in the past.

  • Methods of checking the continuity of events

Because every event that is being analyzed will be emphasized in the time part. Then the analysis process that is being carried out can be one of the methods to check the continuity between one incident and another.

  • There is a comparison

If the synchronous approach will not be able to get a comparison result. Then the results given by the visa diachronic thinking approach are in the form of a comparison. Comparison here can be a cause and effect of an event. Then it can also be like the triumph and fall of the event being analyzed.

 

Examples of Diachronic Thinking

An event of the proclamation that occurred in 1945 could not just happen. Of course there were several other events that could lead to the 1945 proclamation. Using a diachronic thinking approach can make it easier for you to find out what could have caused the 1945 proclamation to occur. This is the sequence that could make the 1945 proclamation happen.

  1. On August 6, 1945, America bombed the city of Hiroshima. Hiroshima City is an important city in Japan.
  2. Then on August 9, 1945, America bombed Nagasaki City. Nagasaki City is also one of the important cities in Japan.
  3. On August 15, 1945, Japan surrendered to the American bloc.
  4. On August 15, 1945, Sutan Syahrir learned the news of Japan’s surrender
  5. On August 16, 1945, the Young Group forced Bung Karno to carry out Indonesian independence. This situation is known as the Rengasdengklok event.
  6. On August 17, 1945, the text of the proclamation was read.

Diachronic Thinking Conclusion

The conclusion of diachronic thinking is an approach that can be taken in the analysis of past events where later the results obtained can be in the form of a time sequence between one event and other related events.

Of course, the results of the sequence of events will be arranged in a very orderly manner. Apart from that, as explained in the point about the characteristics of diachronic thinking, the results of the analysis will be wider and also more complete.

Meanwhile, the conclusion from the concept of historical thinking itself is an approach that can be used in the analysis of past events. However, the concept of historical thinking itself consists of two methods, namely the synchronic and diachronic approaches.

The two methods of thinking approach have been described above. Although they differ from one another, the two approaches are indeed very important and very useful for obtaining information on past events.

Although all explanations are related to the two methods of analysis approach to past events. But you also need to know history books that you can use as case studies. One of the recommended history books that you can buy at sinaumedia..com is a book entitled “The Origins of European Civilization and History” created by Amir Ubaidillah.

This book was just published in June 2021 yesterday. And for the publisher of the book “The Origin of Civilization and European History” was published by “C-KLICK MEDIA”. The book is sold at a price of Rp. 57,000.