The Meaning of the Garuda Pancasila Symbol and Its Philosophy – Because Pancasila is not only the foundation of the state but also one of the four pillars of nationality, along with the 1945 Constitution, the Republic of Indonesia and Bhineka Tunggal Ika.
In its formulation, Pancasila took a very long time, and through critical thinking efforts, not to mention the debates that the Founding Fathers went through, when they had to equate their views, assumptions and perceptions.
Pancasila itself has the meaning of a combination of words that make it up, namely Panca which means five and sila which means foundation. So that it can be concluded as a whole that Pancasila means the five foundations of the Indonesian state.
The following reads the five precepts of Pancasila which are very important and must be understood by the Indonesian people:
- Belief in the one and only God
- Just and civilized humanity
- the unity of Indonesia
- Democracy Led by Wisdom Wisdom in Deliberations and Representatives
- Social justice for all the people of Indonesia
The meaning of the Garuda Pancasila symbol
If Pancasila is the foundation of the Indonesian state, then Indonesia also has a State Emblem, namely Garuda, which is often referred to as Garuda Pancasila. Garuda Pancasila is used as a national symbol to show the identity of the strong and big Indonesian nation.
Pancasila is also often referred to as the basis and ideology of the state and is one of the four pillars of nationality, which consists of Pancasila, the 1945 Constitution, the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia, and Unity in Diversity which is explained in the Pancasila book.
The yellow color has the meaning of majesty that belongs to the Indonesian people. The shield on Garuda’s chest shows the symbol of struggle as well as self-protection on the way to achieving goals.
Garuda also shows the existence of the equator through the thick black line on Pancasila, meaning that there is an equator that crosses a strong, independent and sovereign country.
The number of feathers owned by Garuda Pancasila is also a symbol that has special meaning. The number of feathers means the following:
- 17 feathers on each wing means the 17th
- 8 feathers on the tail means the eighth month, namely August
- The 19 feathers at the base of the tail mean the first two digits of the Republic of Indonesia’s independence year, 1945
- The 45 feathers on the neck represent the last two digits of the Republic of Indonesia’s independence year, 1945
If the total number of Garuda Pancasila feathers is combined, it symbolizes the date of Indonesian independence, which falls on August 17, 1945. The day on which Indonesia’s first President Soekarno proclaimed Indonesia as an independent nation.
Garuda Pancasila also gripped a ribbon bearing the inscription Bhineka Tunggal Ika, which has different meanings but is still one. Finally, Garuda Pancasila has five symbols on the shield which have very deep meanings in each symbol.
Pancasila is used for self-development and the realization of ideals in accordance with existing rules. And this is discussed through the values that exist in Pancasila and can be studied in the book Pancasila and Citizenship Education.
The Meaning of the Symbols of the Five Precepts in the Garuda Pancasila Symbol
1. Star symbol
The first Garuda Pancasila symbol is a star with a yellow color on a black background and is placed right in the middle of the shield. The star image itself is used as a symbol for the first precept of Pancasila, namely Belief in One Almighty God.
From the star symbol there are five corners that represent the five major religions in Indonesia. While the black background which is the background for the gold star has a meaning that describes the blessing of the color Ala, the blessing of God Almighty who is the source of everything on Earth.
The shining golden star symbol itself means the light from God Almighty which is emitted to all His creatures on earth.
Overall this first precept symbol symbolizes that the Indonesian people are a nation that has faith and piety to God Almighty in accordance with the variety of beliefs that every citizen has.
2. The Golden Chain Symbol
The symbol for the second precept is represented by a gold chain on a red background. There are 17 links in the chain and all of them are related to one another. The chain with a square shape is a symbol of men and the chain with a round shape symbolizes women.
From this form it can be interpreted that between men and women relate to each other explaining the reciprocal relationship between humans on earth both from the male and female sides, clearly showing equality.
The second precept of Pancasila, namely just and civilized humanity, is symbolized by a gold chain showing that human relations are unbroken. Also explains that the next generation of the nation that is passed down from generation to generation will remain connected,
3. The symbol of the Banyan Tree
The symbol of the third precept of Pancasila is the banyan tree which is interpreted as the Unity of Indonesia. The banyan tree is placed at the top right of the shield, symbolizing a place to take shelter and take shelter. The banyan tree represents the strength and shade of the archipelago with its diversity but has strong unity.
The banyan tree also has protruding roots which increasingly show its shade, making Pancasila the foundation of the state which is a shade and protector for the nation, giving a sense of security to the nation.
The taproot that belongs to Pancasila means the unity of the Indonesian people, while the tendrils inside the banyan tree describe the differences in tribes, descent and different religions in Indonesia. But in line with Bhineka Tunggal Ika, even though Indonesia is different, it remains united as the Indonesian nation right under the Pancasila symbol.
These values form the basis of state philosophy as well as the philosophy of the Indonesian nation that exists today. Understand more deeply through the book Pancasila by Drs. H. Mahpudin Noor.
4. The Bull’s Head Symbol
The bull’s head is the next Pancasila symbol and is located right above the Garuda Pancasila shield. The head of the bull is a symbol of the fourth precept of Pancasila, namely Democracy Led by Wisdom in Representative Deliberations.
Judging from its philosophy, the bull is an animal that lives in groups. Thus the bull symbolizes a pluralistic Indonesian society and likes to gather together, likes to discuss, likes to reach consensus.
By always gathering, the bull becomes a strong animal and is difficult for opponents to attack. Indonesian culture itself is a nation that likes to gather, discuss, and agree. Using the bull as a parable when making decisions is done for the common good and taken firmly.
5. Symbol of Rice and Cotton
The fifth symbol which is also the final symbol of Pancasila is rice and cotton. Rice and cotton both show the prosperity of the Indonesian people and also the welfare of the Indonesian people.
Pada and Kapas are located right at the bottom right of the shield and are symbols for the fifth precept of Pancasila, namely Social Justice for All Indonesian People.
Rice and cotton are the basic and basic needs of humans, namely for food and clothing. If these basic needs are fulfilled, then the people of Indonesia will prosper and prosper.
The rice represents the availability of food, and the cotton represents the availability of clothing. With the complete needs of food and clothing, humans can live comfortably.
The meaning of “Unity in Diversity” in the Garuda Pancasila Symbol
As we have always been taught, we all know that Bhinneka Tunggal Ika means that we are different but still one. Become the motto of the beloved country of Indonesia. With this motto, all Indonesian people know that the Indonesian nation is one unit. Through Bhineka Tunggal Ika, Indonesia is described and reflected as the unity and unity of the nation that is united under the same auspices, namely the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia.
“Bhinneka” means diverse while “single” means “one” and “ika” means that. The existence of the motto Bhineka Tunggal Ika is a way to unite the Indonesian nation, maintain national unity, and also erode conflicts over personal or group interests with the ultimate goal of achieving the ideals of the Indonesian state.
The motto of Bhineka Tunggal Ika comes from Sanskrit, Old Javanese from the book of Kakawin Sutasoma which was written by Empu Tantular during the Majapahit kingdom in the 14th century AD. From the kakawin book, inter-religious tolerance has already been taught, especially among Hindu-Shiva and Buddhist religions.
Mohammad Yamin was the first to propose the motto Bhineka Tunggal Ika. According to him, Bhineka Tunggal Ika will be an inspiration for the Indonesian nation, which has various ethnicities, races, cultures, religions and even languages.
Bhineka Tunggal Ika is an expression that unites the unity and integrity of the nation. Keeping Indonesia in one unit and being an inspiration to other countries, being an inspiration to the world.
History of the Garuda Pancasila Coat of Arms
The Garuda Pancasila symbol itself originated from a government initiative to find a painter who was believed to be able to depict the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia through a mighty symbol in 1947 AD.
In the end the Garuda bird with a shield that has five columns became the choice to symbolize the country of Indonesia, and became a symbol with a history that has its own philosophical meaning.
The process of establishing the Garuda bird as the symbol of Indonesia itself took quite a long time and went through quite tough discussions. At first, during a meeting of the Committee for drafting the 1945 Constitution which was held before independence, precisely on July 13, 1945, a young man named Parada Harahap proposed that Indonesia needed a State Emblem as a symbol of Indonesia.
When the 1945 Constitution was enacted as well as Pancasila which had been established as the state ideology, it was different from the state symbol which had not yet been established. Therefore, as a first step on November 16, 1945, the Indonesia Raya Committee was formed to conduct research on the meaning of the symbols since civilization in Indonesia existed. But unfortunately, the Organizing Committee for Indonesia Raya, which made Ki Hajar Dewantara as chairman, had to postpone his work, because there were problems.
Read more: History and Meaning of Bhinneka Tunggal Ika
The Origins of the Garuda Pancasila Symbol
The competition was then opened by the government. In this competition, the government is looking for painters who can create the best designs to give the best picture for the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia.
However, many of the writers and painters do not understand or do not understand the history of Indonesia, to create national symbols in accordance with civilization. The government itself does not provide specific descriptions and explanations regarding the criteria for the painting to be painted for the state symbol.
Unable to find common ground, in 1950, the government again held a second contest to create and depict a national symbol. This competition was held after the formation of the State Badge Committee, to be exact, was formed on January 10, 1950 and was directly coordinated by Sultan Hamid who was Minister at that time.
As a future national symbol and symbol, discussions and opinions from state officials are needed so that the symbol can reach a point of perfection. Therefore this conversation involves many parties who are state officials. They were Sultan Hamid II, Muhammad Yamin and Soekarno. However, the works of Sultan Hamid II were actually works that were chosen by Soekarno and members of the DPR who were in office at that time.
The reason Muhammad Yamin’s work was not selected in the design of his work was because Muhammad Yamin included several elements that contained elements from the country of Sakura. Muhammad Yamin included elements of sunlight in the design of the state symbol that he designed.
Even though Muhammad Yamin’s work was not selected, he still provided suggestions and input on the paintings made by Sultan Hamid II. Muhammad Yamin firmly gave input to include the national motto, namely “Unity in Diversity” which was carried and gripped by the Garuda Bird through the ribbon at the Garuda Bird’s feet.
In the negotiation process, this state symbol also received criticism from Masyumi, Masyumi itself is a party that has the largest number of Muslim members. Masyumi firmly stated their disagreement and objection to the Garuda bird, which is closely related to the mythological element attached to the Garuda bird.
Garuda is depicted as having human arms and shoulders and holding a shield. Sultan Hamid, who received this criticism, accepted this aspiration positively, and perfected his design, from which it was originally in the form of Rajawali-Garuda Pancasila to be summarized again with Garuda Pancasila.
With the help of Moh. Hatta who was prime minister at the time, Soekarno as president then brought and submitted the draft state emblem to the RIS Cabinet. On February 11, 1950, and finally in the RIS Cabinet meeting, Sultan Hamid’s state symbol was inaugurated.
In the process of refinement, to be precise on February 8, 1950, the final form of Indonesia’s pride symbol, namely Garuda Pancasila, was finally completed and created. In the end, on February 20, 1950, the finished painting was displayed in the courtroom which coincided with the first DPR-RIS meeting held.
Even though the national symbol had been inaugurated, during his journey, Soekarno continued to make improvements to the form of the Garuda Pancasila. According to Soekarno, the inaugurated Bald Eagle symbol bears a resemblance to the Bald Eagle, which is the symbol of the United States.
So Soekarno asked for help from Dullah, who at that time was a court painter, to add a crest to the head of the Garuda bird, which became the national symbol. On March 20, 1950.
Soekarno also continued to make revisions again by changing the position of the eagle’s claws. Previously, the ribbon was gripped in front of the ribbon, so it was gripped behind the ribbon. In the end, the Garuda bird entered the final stage by increasing the size of the Garuda bird and its current color scheme.
After everything was finished and reached the final stage, a masterpiece was formed from the Garuda Pancasila design by making a gold-plated Garuda Pancasila statue. The statue is stored neatly in the Independence Room at Monas (National Monument) with a 3-dimensional shape scale, and afterwards it was determined to be the National Emblem of the Republic of Indonesia which has not undergone any design changes to date.
Read more in: History of the Garuda Pancasila Symbol
If readers want to get to know and know more about Pancasila in more depth and comprehensively, have the book available at sinaumedia.