Garuda Pancasila, the meaning of the symbol and this complete historical information

Sinaumed’s must be familiar with one of the national identities of the Republic of Indonesia, namely the national symbol which we know as the Garuda Pancasila Emblem . This symbol was created through a fairly long process. The originator of Garuda Pancasila was Sultan Hamid II in 1950.

This part of the Garuda Pancasila symbol has quite a deep meaning and in the selection of the Garuda bird, the number of feathers, the color and the symbols have quite a meaningful philosophy. What is the history of making this Garuda Pancasila symbol? The following is an explanation of Garuda Pancasila, starting from the meaning, history, and philosophical meaning of its symbols:

Understanding Pancasila

Pancasila, Tegar is perched on almost every wall of Indonesian citizens’ rooms, buildings and houses. A Garuda bird that has been modified by an artist, becomes a symbol of the state, proudly carrying the ideological pillars that will later be called PANCASILA.

Pancasila is also often defined as the Indonesian nation’s way of life which means that the crystallization of life experiences in the course of the history of the Indonesian people has shaped attitudes, character, behavior, values, philosophical views, morals, ethics that have given birth to them which are discussed in the book Pancasila Democracy System Edition. Both below.

History reveals that on the Morning of 18 August 1945, or Saturday Pahing, 10 Ramadhan 1364, an initial meeting was held to formulate the ideological basis of the nation and state, Pantjasila (Pancasila), as well as the constitution of the 1945 Constitution:

· Wachid Hasjim : Nahdlatul Ulama
· Ki Bagoes Hadikoesoemo : Muhammadiyah Association
· Kasman Singodimedjo : Muhammadiyah Association
· Mohammad Hatta : West Sumatra
· Teoekoe Muhammad Hasan : Aceh

According to the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence, the names of the representatives above were not in the name of an organization, but a meeting of three Muslim representatives from Java and two representatives from Sumatra. (by writer and historian, Ahmad Mansur Suryanegara in his book “Fire of History” Volume 2)

Even though there is a bit of debate on the first precepts, you can make a joint agreement for the sake of winning the common goal, namely the achievement of an independent Indonesia as a sovereign, just, prosperous, calm country in the grace of Allah.

In language, the meaning of Pancasila consists of two Sanskrit words: Panca which means five and sila which means principle or principle. These Five Precepts are actually a formula for all people who are “born” and live in Indonesia which are used as guidelines for the life of the nation and state.

The historical values ​​that have been owned by the Indonesian nation since prehistoric times have become the basic source of philosophy for the formation of Pancasila. Later it will become a unifying ideology of cultural pluralism in the archipelago, becoming a unified Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia.

Pancasila, which forms the basis of the state philosophy and philosophy of life for the Indonesian people, contains values ​​that are systematic, fundamental, and comprehensive, as discussed in the Pancasila book below.

In a book written by Sulastomo, with the title Ideals of the Pancasila State, it is explained indirectly that Pancasila is a unifying tool so that it does not need to be forced into a unified form. Pancasila has elements of the ideology of religious socialism, not materialistic or communist.

It is interesting what Nurcholis Madjid expressed in his book entitled “The Doors to God,” that communism is a Utopian ideology, promising empty dreams of the happiness of worldly life. So they (the communists) are not atheists but polytheists, rejecting theism (religion or gods) in religions, but on the other hand worshiping fellow human beings, this is nothing but a primitive form of worship.

Rayno Dwi Adityo in his article entitled Geneology of Islamic Values ​​in Pancasila and the 1945 Constitution, that the birth of Pancasila was the result of deep digging from sources, a lineage of Islamic religious values ​​as well as the 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia.

History of the Garuda Pancasila Coat of Arms

Starting from being hit by the retreat of Japan by the allies, heavy defeats everywhere to the heart of the strategic city of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were devastated by the allied Atomic Bomb. One by one the Japanese territory was reclaimed by the allies, and Japan was pressed helplessly.

In this urgent situation, Japan tried to attract the sympathy of the Indonesian people to support its interests. This was a Japanese political strategy, but for the Indonesian people or Indonesian struggle movements this was an important opportunity to prepare for Indonesian independence.

So a body was formed to prepare all matters related to Indonesian independence, known as the BPUPKI (Investigating Agency for Preparatory Efforts for Indonesian Independence). This body formulated the basic points of the state which would later become the Pancasila precepts.

After the opportunity to proclaim independence on Friday, the 9th of Ramadan 1364 Hijriyah coincided with 17 August 1945, the Netherlands also recognized Indonesian sovereignty at the Round Table conference in 1949, then felt the need for the United Republic of Indonesia at that time, to have a national symbol.

1. Establishment of the State Badge Committee

Then a Technical Committee was formed under the name Committee for State Badges, on January 10, 1950, under the coordinator of State Minister Zonder Porto Folio Sultan Hamid II. The composition of the technical committee is that the Chair is led by Muhammad Yamin while the members include: Ki Hajar Dewantoro, MA Pellaupessy, Moh. Natsir, and RM Ng Poerbatjaraka. It is they who are in charge of selecting various proposed designs for the state emblem to be further selected and submitted to the government.

Bung Hatta in his book “Bung Hatta Responds” explained that Minister Priyono had held a competition as the executor of the Cabinet Meeting decision.

So the two best designs for the state emblem were chosen, namely the work of the 6th Sultan of Pontianak’s eldest son, Sultan Hamid II and the work of the pioneer of the youth oath, Prof. Mr. Mohammad Yamin, SH

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Then in the next process the draft of Sultan Hamid II was accepted by the government and the DPR, while M. Yamin’s work contains elements of Japanese influence, namely including the sun’s rays in its design.

In order to finalize and refine the selected design concept, RIS President Soekarno and Prime Minister Mohammad Hatta conducted an intensive dialogue with Sultan Hamid II, as the designer. The agreement occurred on a change in the ribbon that was gripped by Garuda, a plain white color with the motto “Unity in Diversity” replacing the previous red and white ribbon design.

Furthermore, Sultan Hamid II, as the designer who also served as Minister of State for RIS, submitted his design to President Soekarno on February 8, 1950.

The Masyumi Party (the party with the largest Muslim membership) criticized the design of this state symbol, they objected because it contained a mythological character in the image of the Garuda bird with human hands and shoulders holding a shield.

Sultan Hamid II accepted this positive aspiration and then perfected his design to become the Rajawali-Garuda Pancasila. Abbreviated as Garuda Pancasila .

Through Moh. Hatta as prime minister, President Soekarno then submitted the draft to the RIS Cabinet. On February 11, 1950, the RIS Cabinet Meeting finally formalized the design of the state emblem by Sultan Hamid II. (“About Pancasila” a book by AG Pringgodigdo published by the Department of Defense, ABRI History Center). President Soekarno for the first time introduced the national symbol, Garuda Pancasila with a “bald” head, to the general public at the Des Indes Hotel Jakarta.

However, Soekarno still continued to improve the shape of this State Emblem, he reasoned that the bald Garuda was considered too similar to the Bald Eagle, the United States’ Symbol. So on March 20, 1950 Soekarno ordered, Dullah, the court painter to redesign it by adding a “crest” to the head of the Garuda Pancasila.

Not only that, then the position of Garuda’s claws gripped in front of the ribbon, previously it was behind the ribbon. Finally, Sultan Hamid II finalized the image of the state symbol by increasing the size and color of the image of the state symbol.

A masterpiece designed by Garuda Pancasila was formed in the form of a large statue of gold-plated bronze which was later used as a reference, stored neatly in the Independence Room of the National Monument. So this is a 3-dimensional shape scale, then designated as the symbol of the Republic of Indonesia, without changing the design until now.

In Hindu mythology, Garuda is described as having a golden body, white face, red wings, he is the king of birds who comes from the descendants of Kasyapa and Winata, one of Daka’s daughters has a beak and wings like an eagle, but a body like a human.

Meanwhile, Prof. Ahmad Mansur Suryanegara in his book “Fire of History” volume 2, explains, the Garuda Pancasila bird is not a Garuda Airlangga bird from Kediri, but a Rajawali Eagle Sayyidina Ali ra. Then where did Sultan Hamid II, as the winner of the design of the State Emblem, get inspiration from?

Various values ​​are contained in Pancasila and are often used as a guideline or legal basis in Indonesia, as discussed in the book People with Pancasila Character.

2. The similarity of the Garuda Pancasila symbol with the coat of arms of the Samudera Pasai Kingdom

Sourced from the claims of R Indra S Attahashi who is a descendant of the lineage of the Samudera Pasai Kingdom in Aceh. According to him, the Garuda Pancasila symbol bears a resemblance to the symbol of the Samudera Pasai Kingdom, so it is considered to be imitating.

The Kingdom of Samudera Pasai, founded in the 13th century or in 1267, was the first Islamic kingdom in Indonesia with its founder Sultan Malikussaleh (Meurah Silu).

An adventurer named Ibnu Battutah wrote in his book Tuhfat Al Nazha, about the Kingdom of Samudera Pasai known as a madrasah or Islamic study center in Southeast Asia. The emblem of this kingdom was designed by Sultan Zainal Abidin, who is also the sultan of the Islamic kingdom of Samudera Pasai. This emblem is a symbol that means a STRONG ISLAMIC MESSAGE.

Indra tried to compare the Garuda Pancasila symbol with an image from the legacy of Muluk Attahashi bin Teuku Cik Ismail Siddik Attahashi. After the Cumbok War of the Young Sultan of Aceh, Teuku Raja Muluk Attahashi was appointed sultan in 1945. At that time the Sungai Iyu Kingdom was founded in Aceh Tamiang.

If we look at the painting of the symbol of the legacy of the Aceh kingdom, at first glance it is shaped like a bird, similar to the Garuda Pancasila. Golden Arabic writing shaped like an eagle.

In the middle of the bird’s body, it looks like a shield inscribed with a series of red and blue.

According to Indra, the state symbol of Samudera Pasai contains the words Tauhid and the Pillars of Islam. So in detail the sentence “BASMALLAH” forms the head of a bird, while the wings and legs are the words of the two sentences of the Creed. Then the sentence of the Pillars of Islam is found on the bird’s body.

Teuku Raja Muluk Attahashi is a descendant of the Ottoman commander, when he came to Aceh to help Sultan Iskandar Muda face the Portuguese. Teuku Raja Muluk Attahashi painted the coat of arms as a symbol of the kingdom.
Aswi Warman Adam as LIPI historian, emphasized that this claim is not a negative thing, it shows proof of the love of the Indonesian nation.

The Meaning of Each Precept on the Garuda Pancasila Symbol

Before we discuss the meaning and significance of each of the Pancasila precepts , it is helpful to know briefly the history of the formation of these five precepts.

At the first BPUPKI session, the basic formulation of the state had not yet been agreed upon, so a Recess Period occurred on June 22, 1945, and then a small committee was formed, known as the Committee of Nine, to re-formulate basic state proposals and accommodate ideas. After these nine committees held their session, a basic formulation of the state was produced which was later listed in the opening of the 1945 Constitution, with the name JAKARTA CHARTER.

The Jakarta Charter became the forerunner to the basic formulation of Pancasila with the first principle, namely: “Divinity with the obligation to carry out Islamic law for its adherents.”

However, after the signing of the Jakarta Charter, when KH Achmad Sanoesi and Ki Bagoes Hadikoesoemo, who were not part of the Committee of Nine, proposed that the words for their adherents be abolished and become “Godhead with the obligation to carry out Islamic Sharia.” Bung Karno as President at the Dokuritsu Zyunbi Sakai Plenary Meeting on July 14, 1945, rejected the proposal, on the grounds that it had been approved by the entire Committee of Nine. Bung Hatta himself made this suggestion on August 18, 1945, to abolish the seven words in the Jakarta Charter which had been approved by the Committee of Nine.

Quoting Ki Bagoes Hadikoesoemo’s advice written in the book “Fire of History” Volume 2, Ahmad Mansur Suryanegara:

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Then, it was suggested to Ki Bagoes Hadikoesoemo that we as the majority Muslims are temporarily giving in, namely erasing these seven words, for the sake of the Victory of our shared ideals, namely the achievement of an independent Indonesia as a sovereign, just, prosperous, calm and peaceful country blessed by Allah.

Finally at the PPKI meeting, August 18, 1945 produced a decision, namely:
· Ratify the Constitution of the State
· Elect a President and Deputy, namely Ir. Soekarno and Moh. Hatta
· The President will temporarily be assisted by a Central Indonesian National Committee (KNPI) until state institutions are formed.

Then produce the basic formulation of the state with 5 precepts which we will discuss later according to their meaning and significance.

There are symbols on the Garuda Pancasila depicted on the shield, symbolizing the precepts in Pancasila, namely:
· First Precept Single Star
· Second Precept Gold Chain
· Third Precept Banyan Tree
· Fourth Precept Bull Head
· Fifth Precept Rice and Cotton
(In book PKN and Pancasila (2020) by Ni Putu Candra Prasetya)

According to Prof. Ahmad Mansur Suryanegara shield on the chest of the Pancasila Garuda Bird, the bottom right and left color is Red and White in the middle, it is black in the shape of a square and a curve at the bottom as a symbol of the Ka’bah and Hijir Ismail.

How to read it from the star symbol in the middle, down to the Chain, up to the Palace Tree (Bayan Tree), then turn right to the Bull, down to Cotton and Rice called Thowaf like circling the Kaaba.

Pancasila, which was formulated by the founding fathers of the state, is a crystallization of the social and cultural values ​​of the ancestors of the people and nation of Indonesia. With various positive values ​​drawn from all aspects of people’s lives, the formulation of Pancasila contains the values ​​of divinity, humanity, unity, democracy, and justice which are fully discussed in the book Pancasila Existence & Actualization.

1. Single Star

A single star that has five angles, is in the middle of the Garuda bird’s shield. Used as a symbol of the first precept, namely Belief in One Supreme God. The symbol on the Garuda Pancasila emblem is considered a “light”, like the spiritual light that radiates from God to each of His servants, Humans. The black background signifies eternity and the original natural color that belongs to God.

2. Gold Chain

From the Single Star then to the lower right, namely Just and Civilized Humanity, a gold chain symbol is drawn which represents the second precept of the Pancasila. The chain links are rectangular and circular, representing men and women. These rectangles and circles are interrelated which means that every human being, both male and female, is a social being who needs one another. The bonds are united to be strong like a chain.

3. Banyan Tree

Continue to the top right, there is an image in the form of a tree. This is a symbol of the banyan tree which symbolizes the third precept, namely the Unity of Indonesia. The symbol of the banyan tree is a symbol of shelter or shelter, because this tree grows big and is fertile. It can be interpreted that in the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia, the people who live in it can “take shelter” safely. The roots and tendrils of the banyan tree spread in all directions, this means the diversity of ethnic groups that unite under the name Indonesia.

4. Bull Head

Then turning left there is a bull’s head or the top left of the shield, there is a bull’s head symbol which symbolizes the fourth precept of Pancasila, namely Democracy Led by Wisdom in Representative Deliberations. The philosophical meaning of the head of the Bull is an animal as a social animal who likes to gather. People discussing to make a decision is the meaning of deliberation in Pancasila.

5. Rice and Cotton

Then down the bottom left, namely Social Justice for All Indonesian People, symbolized by the symbols of rice and cotton which symbolize the fifth precept of Pancasila. This symbol represents food and clothing (clothing) which are basic human needs.

You can learn a complete explanation of Pancasila as the basis and ideology of the state, starting from the long process of Pancasila from its initial formulation, philosophical and ideological interpretations in the Pancasila book by Prof. Drs H. Achmad Fauzi DH.MA below.


The meaning of the Garuda Pancasila symbol

The Meaning of the Head of the Garuda Bird Symbol Facing Right

In the Garuda Pancasila bird symbol, we will see that the Garuda bird’s head is facing to the right. The meaning of the Garuda Pancasila head facing right is virtue.

The meaning of the Garuda Pancasila Shield

In the Garuda Pancasila, in the center there is a shield-like symbol in which there are many Pancasila symbols, from the 1st precept to the 5th precept.

The Meaning of the Number of Feathers on the Garuda Bird Coat of Arms

According to Prof. The Garuda Pancasila Bird Mansyur is a reflection of the Eagle Eagle Sayyidina Ali ra.

The wings of the Pancasila Garuda bird on the right and left are 17 strands each. Then on the tail there are 8 strands. While on the tail of the Garuda Pancasila, there are 19 strands of feathers. Meanwhile, on the neck of the Garuda Pancasila there are 45 strands. So, if all the strands on Garuda Pancasila mean the Proclamation Day or the Independence Day of the Republic of Indonesia (17-08-1945).

The meaning of the Garuda Bird’s Foot Grabbing the White Ribbon with the Motto of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia (NKRI)

The white ribbon is a symbol of the equator, Garuda Pancasila’s feet hold a ribbon that reads “Unity in Diversity”. (“Fire of History”, Volume 2 by Ahmad Mansur Suryanegara.)

This motto is quoted from Kakawin Sutasoma by Mpu Tantular, used to describe the unity and oneness of the Nation and the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia.

The sentence on the Garuda Pancasila symbol has different meanings but in fact it is still one unit, binding various cultures, regional languages, races, ethnic groups, religions and beliefs.

The Meaning of the Colors on the Garuda Pancasila Coat of Arms

1. Black Color

On the Garuda Pancasila symbol there is a black color located on the shield lines and the background of the star symbol. The meaning of black is immortality.

2. Red Color

The red color is also present on the Garuda Pancasila symbol which is located on the background color of the bull’s head and the background color of the chain. This red color has a meaning as courage.

3. White Color

The white color is also present on the Garuda Pancasila symbol, which is located on a background of the color of a banyan tree and a background of the color of rice and cotton, as well as on a ribbon that reads “Unity in Diversity”. The white color in Garuda Pancasila has the meaning of purity and holiness.

4. Yellow color

Almost all of the Garuda Pancasila bird symbols are yellow in color. Besides that, the yellow color is also in the rice symbol and the chain symbol. The yellow color on the Garuda Pancasila symbol means grandeur and greatness.

5. Green Color

The banyan tree symbol and the cotton symbol on the Garuda Pancasila symbol are green. The meaning of the green color is fertility and prosperity.