Contents and History of the Formulation of the Jakarta Charter

Contents and History of the Formulation of the Jakarta Charter – Pancasila which until now has been used as the ideology and basis of the Indonesian state and as we know that the values ​​of Pancasila consist of 5 precepts made by Ir. Soekarno to be precise on June 1, 1945 through his spontaneous speech in front of BPUPKI members.

However, precisely in mid-1945 national figures such as Moh Yamin, Soepomo, and Soekarno formulated the basic version of their respective countries which in the end also agreed on a formula known as the Jakarta Charter. However, in its development the Jakarta Charter is no longer used. This is because the Jakarta Charter has caused historical controversy to this day.

What is the Jakarta Charter? And what is the history of its formation, formulation, background, and contents of the Jakarta Charter? Check out the following information

Definition of the Jakarta Charter

The Jakarta Charter is a form of historical document which was the result of a cross-compromise between Islamic parties and nationalist or nationalist parties that was formed within the BPUPKI or the Investigative Agency for the Preparatory Work for Indonesian Independence and was used to become a bridge for differences in religion and the existing state .

The Jakarta Charter is also often referred to as the Jakarta Charter, this is because the Jakarta Charter is a charter or a text drawn up at a Committee meeting of nine or 9 Indonesian figures to be precise on June 22, 1945.

The Committee of Nine which was formed on 1 Jun 1045. It was formed from nine figures consisting of the following.

  • Ir. Sukarno as chairman of the Committee of Nine
  • Drs. Moh. Hatta as deputy chairman of the Committee of Nine
  • Mr. Achmad Soebardjo as a member of the Committee of Nine
  • Mr. Muhammad Yamin as a member of the Committee of Nine
  • KH. Wachid Hasyim as a member of the Committee of Nine
  • Abdul Kahar Muzakir as a member of the Committee of Nine
  • Abikoesno Tjokrosoejoso as a member of the Committee of Nine
  • H. Agus Salim as a member of the Committee of Nine
  • Mr. AA Maramis as a member of the Committee of Nine

The Jakarta Charter itself was drafted because of Jakarta’s great territory, and includes five cities and one district consisting of Central Jakarta, West Jakarta, East Jakarta, North Jakarta, South Jakarta, and the Thousand Islands. Therefore, the province of DKI Jakarta was formed through the form of the Jakarta Charter and established Suwiryo as the first governor of the province of DKI Jakarta until 1947.

History of the Formulation of the Jakarta Charter

At the beginning of the history of the Jakarta Charter, it was started with the formation of the Investigative Body for Preparatory Work for Indonesian Independence, or BPUPKI for short. At the time the BPUPKI was formed, it had the task of preparing the Indonesian nation for its independence process to become the Republic of Indonesia.

After it was formed, BPUPKI members began to express their opinions regarding various values ​​that could form the basis of the Indonesian state which was later formed and referred to as Pancasila. In the formulation of the Pancasila, there are several text formulations put forward by three figures, namely Muhammad Yamin, Soepomo, and Soekarno.

1. Pancasila according to Muhammad Yamin on May 29, 1945

Pancasila according to Muhammad Yamin consists of five values, which consist of:

  • National fairy
  • Human fairy
  • Divine fairy
  • Citizen fairy
  • People’s welfare

2. Pancasila according to Soepomo on May 30, 1945

Pancasila according to Soepomo consists of five values, which consist of:

  • Unity
  • familial
  • Consensus or democracy
  • discussion
  • Social justice

3. Pancasila according to Ir. Sukarno on June 1, 1945

Pancasila according to Ir. Soekarno consists of five values, which consist of:

  • Indonesian Nationality
  • Internationalism or fairy humanity
  • Consensus or democracy
  • People’s welfare
  • Belief in the one and only God

With three different opinions, a small committee was formed which had the task of compiling the formulation of Pancasila which would be used as the basis of the state and included in the 1945 Constitution. The small committee was called the Committee of Nine which consisted of nine national figures.

The formulation of Pancasila in the Jakarta Charter

In perfecting the various proposals issued by the three figures to be used in making the basis of the Pancasila state, a Committee of Nine was formed which had duties outside of the official meeting in formulating a draft preamble to the basic law.

The members of the Committee of Nine consist of nine figures which consist of the nine figures described above.

The task of the Committee of Nine was to compile a draft text that would be used for the preamble of the basic law which was then called by Mr. Muhammad Yamin as the Jakarta Charter which is known today.

The Jakarta Charter contains the basic formulation of the state which is the result that was first agreed upon in the session. The formulation of the state foundation contained in the text of the Jakarta Charter consists of the following.

  • Belief in God with the obligation to carry out Islamic law for its adherents.
  • Just and civilized humanity.
  • The unity of Indonesia.
  • Population led by wisdom in deliberations or representatives.
  • Social justice for all the people of Indonesia.
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The manuscript which was the result of the work of the Committee of Nine that was formed was then accepted by BPUPKI to become the Draft Preamble to the Basic Law of the Independent Indonesian State on July 14, 1945 to be precise.

After the independence of the Indonesian state, the formulation of the Pancasila state basis was then ratified by the PPKI in a session that took place on August 18, 1945 as the basis of the philosophy of the Indonesian state.

However, there have been changes made by removing the part of the sentence “with the obligation to carry out Islamic law for its adherents”. The deletion of this sentence contained in the first precept of Pancasila was carried out on the grounds that there were objections from adherents of various religions other than Islam and for the sake of maintaining the unity of the plural Indonesian nation.

The text of the Jakarta Charter which contains the basic formulation of the state which was amended by the PPKI and then ratified to become part of the preamble to the 1945 Constitution and is known today as the preamble. After the ratification of the Jakarta Charter to become part of the Preamble to the 1945 Constitution or the 1945 Constitution to be precise on August 18, 1945, Pancasila has become the ideology of the republic of Indonesia.

The Jakarta Charter itself also contained various lines of rebellion against imperialism, capitalism and fascism, and was the starting point for the formation of the Republic of Indonesia. The Jakarta Charter itself, which continues to grow older than the San Francisco Peace Charter formed on 26 June 1945 and the Tokyo Capitulation which occurred on 15 August 1945, is a source of sovereignty that radiates the Proclamation of Independence and the Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia.

Background to Changes in the Contents of the Jakarta Charter

The Jakarta Charter is a result issued from a meeting held by the Committee of Nine, in the context of welcoming the independence of the Republic of Indonesia. The contents of the Jakarta Charter outline itself regarding the direction and goals of the state as well as the initial draft of the basic formulation of the Indonesian state, which until now is known as Pancasila.

In the formulation process, the ratification which had to be carried out immediately was faced with several debates that occurred between nationalist groups and Islamic groups in Indonesia. Where, based on the opinions of national groups regarding the contents of the Jakarta Charter, it cannot be a reflection of the diversity that exists in Indonesian society.

The change actually occurred in the first basic formulation of the precepts in the text of the Jakarta Charter. The initial formulation containing the various precepts listed in Pancasila itself was originally contained in the contents of the Jakarta Charter text, but at a meeting of the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence or PPKI on August 18, 1945, it was formulated that the first precepts contained in Pancasila would be changed.

Based on Muhammad Nurudin (2019: 153) in his book entitled Scraping the Ink in the Green Valley, he stated that the background to the change in the basic formulation of the state in the first precepts of the Jakarta Charter according to Mohammad Hatta was because some representatives of other religions felt objections to this formulation. The first formulation of the existing precepts reads “Godhead with the obligation to carry out Islamic law for its adherents”.

With the existence of several parties who objected to the formulation of the first precepts, therefore there was a change in the first precept to “Belief in the One and Only God” based on the results of deliberations conducted with the aim of protecting the Indonesian nation and maintaining the existing relationship between the founding figures of the Indonesian nation so that no split.

The following are various factors that influenced the change in the basic formulation of the state in the first precepts in the Jakarta Charter text based on the opinion of Mohammad Hatta, as follows.

  • The first factor, the people of Indonesia have diverse and different religious backgrounds and beliefs from one another. Therefore, the formulation which reads “Godhead with the obligation to carry out Islamic law for its adherents” cannot be representative of the entire society in Indonesia.
  • The second factor, as a founding figure of the Indonesian nation, he made an effort to accommodate various aspirations and opinions, especially from representatives of Eastern Indonesia where adherents of other religions exist in Indonesia.
  • The third factor, the changes made to the formulation of the first precepts of the Jakarta Charter were carried out in order to maintain the integrity of the Indonesian nation and strengthen the unity and unity that is owned as the Indonesian nation.

Contents of the Jakarta Charter 

The contents of the Jakarta Charter consist of four paragraphs which later became the Preamble to the 1945 Constitution, apart from that the Jakarta Charter is also included in five points, one of which was later replaced with “Belief in One Supreme God” in Pancasila.

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The following is the contents of the Jakarta Charter:

That in fact independence is the right of all nations, and because of that, colonialism in the world must be abolished, because it is not in accordance with humanity and justice. 

And the struggle for the movement for Indonesian Independence has come to a happy moment when we are safely bringing the Indonesian people to the gates of the Indonesian State, which is free, united, just and prosperous.

Thanks to the Grace of Allah Almighty, and driven by this noble desire, we can live a free national life. Therefore the Indonesian people hereby declare their independence.

Then, from that, forming an Indonesian State Government that protects the entire Indonesian nation and all of Indonesia’s bloodshed, and in order to promote public welfare, educate the nation’s life and participate in carrying out world order based on freedom, eternal peace and social justice, the independence of the Indonesian nation was drafted. that is in a Basic Law of the Indonesian State, which was formed in a state structure of the Republic of Indonesia which has people’s sovereignty, based on: divinity, by making it obligatory to carry out Islamic law for its adherents; according to just and civilized humanity, Indonesian unity and democracy led by wisdom in representative deliberations, as well as by realizing social justice for all the Indonesian people.

Djakarta, 22-6-1945

Ir. Sukarno

Drs. Mohammad Hatta

Mr. AA Maramis

Abikusno Tjokrosujoso

Abdulkahar Muzakir

A.Salim 

Mr. Achmad Subardjo

Wachid Hasjim

Mr. Muhammad Yamen

Furthermore, during the drafting of the Basic Law which took place at the Second Session of the BPUPKI. The existing formulation of the Jakarta Charter is used as a preamble or preamble. Then, at the ratification of the 1945 Constitution or the 1945 Constitution on August 18, 1945 which was carried out by PPKI, the term Preamble changed to the Preamble to the Basic Law or UUD.

The initial point which previously contained a person’s obligation to carry out Islamic law for its adherents, was changed to Belief in the One and Only God by Mohammad Hatta who took the suggestion from AA Maramis after consulting with Teuku Muhammad Hasan, Kasman Singodimedjo and Ki Bagus Hadikusumo.

The text of the Jakarta Charter itself was written using the Republic spelling which was then signed by Ir. Soekarno, Mohammad Hatta, AA Maramis, Abikoesno Tjokrosoejoso, Abdul Kahar Muzakir. Achmad Soebardjo, Wahid Hasjim, Muhammad Yamin, and HA Salim.

The development of the Jakarta Charter was then continued in a Presidential Decree which took place on July 5, 1959. In the Presidential Decree, the Jakarta Charter stated that it had the soul of the 1945 Constitution and became a continuum with the Constitution. The House of Representatives that existed at that time accepted this by acclamation which occurred on July 22, 1959.

The GR 1966 DPR Memorandum which discussed the sources of the Republic of Indonesia’s legal order was improved and made into MPRS decision Number XX/MPRS/1966, in which the decision reaffirmed that the Jakarta Charter which was the result of the formulation issued on June 22, 1945 embodied the values Law or the 1945 Constitution and became a continuum with the constitution.

Amendments to the Contents of the Jakarta Charter 

After being read out at the proclamation of Indonesian independence on August 17, 1945, there was a change in the contents of the Jakarta Charter.

This happened in the afternoon right after the reading of the proclamation of independence, where the Vice President of Indonesia at that time, Mohammad Hatta, was visited by a representative or envoy from the Japanese navy named Maeda.

At the meeting, Maeda said that several representatives of Protestants and Catholics who came from areas controlled by the Japanese Navy had objections to the part of the sentence that contained the basic formulation of the state in the text of the Jakarta Charter.

The formula sentence referred to in the Jakarta Charter has the sound “. .. with the obligation to carry out Islamic law for its adherents ”.

In responding to the objections of the Protestant and Catholic representatives, Mohammad Hatta invited several figures such as Ki Bagus Hadikusumo, KH Wahid Hasyim, Mr. Kasman Singodimedjo, and Mr. Teuku Mohammad Hasan to hold a meeting before the PPKI trial begins.

At the preliminary meeting, a decision was issued to remove the sentence part of the Jakarta Charter and replace it with the sentence Belief in One Almighty God.

This is done in order to prevent divisions among Indonesian people who consist of various beliefs within them. After this change, the name of the Jakarta Charter was changed to the Preamble to the 1945 Constitution, which was then re-officially re-enacted by PPKI on August 18, 1945.

Comparison of the Contents of Pancasila

The contents of Pancasila as conveyed in the Jakarta Charter are as follows.

  • Godhead, with the obligation to carry out Islamic law for its adherents
  • Just and civilized humanity
  • the unity of Indonesia
  • Population led by wisdom in representative deliberations
  • Social justice for all the people of Indonesia

The contents of Pancasila which were then perfected and re-established on August 18, 1945, are as follows.

  • Belief in the one and only God
  • Just and civilized humanity
  • the unity of Indonesia
  • Population led by wisdom in representative deliberations
  • Social justice for all the people of Indonesia

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