Padang Traditional Weapons – Does Sinaumed’s know what are the traditional Padang weapons of West Sumatra? Speaking of Padang culture, we cannot be separated from the Minangkabau tribe, which is also famous and is located in the city of Padang, the capital of West Sumatra Province. That is why traditional weapons in Padang also include weapons from the Minang people.
The following is an explanation of the traditional weapons of Padang, West Sumatra, based on the culture of the Minangkabau tribe, which is closely related to the historical values of traditional weapons there:
Getting to Know Traditional Padang Weapons
Weapons are an element of human culture, and their age coincides with the emergence of human civilization. Traditional weapons can also be seen as cultural products that shaped the progress of metallurgical science and technology in the Archipelago in the past. Traditionally shaped weapons are designed to meet human needs.
Traditional societies use weapons to protect themselves from enemy attacks. Guns, on the other hand, are also used to raise and hunt animals to fulfill their food needs. Traditional weapons are dominated by men. This is inseparable from the social culture that adheres to paternal understanding and depictions of male leaders.
That’s why guns seem to be a must for men. For example, in Minangkabau culture, Keris is considered a symbol of male greatness, symbolized by the keris weapon worn by the groom at the time of marriage. The same thing can be seen in the culture of people in various regions in Indonesia.
Included in the culture of the Minang people or we can also call it one of the tribes in the desert of West Sumatra. Minangkabau or Minang is an archipelago ethnic group that speaks and supports traditional Minangkabau values. The Minangkabau tribe is one of the largest and most famous tribes in Indonesia in West Sumatra.
The Minangkabau Cultural Area covers West Sumatra, half of mainland Riau, northern Bengkulu, western Jambi, west coast of North Sumatra, southwest Aceh, and the Negeri Sembilan region, Malaysia. Minang people are often equated and also called Padang people because Padang is the capital city of West Sumatra. However, the Minang people usually refer to their ethnic group as urang crew to refer to the Minang people themselves.
Since pre-Hinduism, the Minangkabau have also introduced a proto-democratic system with a dense cultural development, with the aim of determining important tribal and legal issues. The statement of the Minangkabau tribe is briefly contained in the statement of Adat Basandi Shark (Adat Based on Law, Law Based on the Qur’an), which means that Adat is based on Islamic teachings.
Minangkabau people are also very famous in the field of trade, especially as experts and intellectuals. The Minang people are the most important and respected inheritors of the ancient traditions of the Malay and Sriwijaya Kingdoms, which were once favored by dynamic and commercial activities. Nearly half of all parishioners are abroad.
In Tambo, the system used by the Minangkabau people is said to have been first initiated by two brothers, Datuk Ketuman Galungan and Datuk Perpatih Nan Sebatang. Datuk Ketumanggungan inherited the aristocratic custom of Koto Piliang, and Datuk Perpatih inherited the egalitarian tradition of Bodi Caniago.
Throughout the Minangkabau tribe, the two customary systems are known to be compatible and complement each other, forming a Minangkabau social system. The Minang tribe has three pillars that develop and maintain the integrity of Minan culture and customs. The three pillars are Ninik Mamak who is also known as Alim Ulama, Clever Clever, and Furnace Tigo Sajarangan.
The three pillars complement each other and stand side by side at the same height. In a democratic and egalitarian Minangkabau society, all public affairs are discussed by consensus among these three elements.
Until now, Minangkabau society is the largest matrilineal society in the world. The maternal line itself is one of the main aspects in identifying the identity of the Minangkabau people. The customs and culture of the Minan people regard women as inheritors of inheritance and relatives. That is why there are many cultures in the Minang tribe, including their traditional weapons which are also very popular.
7 Deadly Traditional Padang Weapons
The following is a list of the types of traditional weapons from Padang, West Sumatra, that Sinaumed’s needs to know.
Minangkabau culture has very interesting characteristics compared to other cultures in Sumatra. Of course there are many unique and interesting things in the Minang tribe. This extends to wedding customs, traveling culture, including the traditional weapon, namely ruduih which is a traditional Padang weapon similar to a machete from Minang culture in West Sumatra.
This weapon has a function as a weapon used to fight on the battlefield. On the other hand, for hunting weapons other than blowguns. Does Sinaumed’s know the current location of the magic weapon? Yes, Ruduih’s weapon is now in the Tridaya Eka Dharma Museum of Struggle and is recorded as a weapon used in the Manggopoh War before 1908.
The 1980 Mangopo War occurred on June 15, 1908. The war broke out from the wrath of the Ninik Mamak people, religious scholars, scholars, and the Kanagari community from Mangopo in Lubuk Basung sub-district, Agam Regency, West Sumatra. The actions taken by the Dutch soldiers are believed to uphold the noble values of Minangkabau customs and culture and violate the Minangkabau people’s customs which are outside the bounds of decency.
From the existing literature, several sources state that this ruduih weapon is similar to the Kelewang weapon. The shape of this weapon resembles a sword with a sharp blade on one side. There are some differences between them. If the Kerewan weapon has a sharp and straight blade, the Ruduih weapon has a sharp edge that tends to convex inwards.
The form of the sword attacks the enemy more deadly. So do not be surprised if this weapon is often used by royal soldiers when fighting against the Dutch army in the Manggopoh war in 1908.
The Karambit weapon is a small knife with a curved shape. Karambit is also one of the traditional weapons of Padang, West Sumatra and is used as one of the deadliest weapons in the world. Although Karambit is small, it turns out to be very dangerous because it can tear or damage the opponent’s limbs.
Apart from that, surprisingly, this Karambit weapon can quickly immobilize enemies, but is undetectable. The Karambit weapon itself comes from Minangkabau and was then spread by Minangkabau migrants to various areas such as Java on the Malay Peninsula. The shape of the traditional Kerambit weapon is very unique because it is inspired by the many claws of tigers that roam the forests of Sumatra.
After people saw tigers fighting with their claws, they started to create the initial concept of the Kerambit weapon. This is of course one of the Minangkabau philosophies, known as “Alam Takambang Jadi Guru”. The function of the Karambit Weapon in most areas is as an agricultural tool such as the following uses:
- Root cleaning
- Gathering rice stalks
- Collecting threshing rice
But especially for this traditional Padang weapon, it is made more curved after the Minang people saw a tiger fighting with its hooves. This traditional weapon is also one of the main silat weapons used in martial arts. In other words, the more popular the martial art of Pencak silat, the more familiar it is with this Kerambit knife.
Currently, this weapon is being developed by European-American countries with many types and varieties. In Indonesia itself, Kerambit is still used by wrestlers, especially the Minangkabau tiger silat in Sumatran pencak silat. Traditional Karambit Weapons can be divided into two variations: Kerambit in West Java and Kerambi Minangkabau. Karambit in West Java usually has a rounded bow, while Karambit Minang has an angled bow.
3. Klewang Padang
The Klewang weapon is a traditional Minangkabau weapon, in the form of a one-sided machete, which has a heavy pedestal in the middle. Klewang weapons usually have a sharp eye shape, but also curved. In ancient times, this weapon was used as the main weapon of the Padri troops in the 19th century West Sumatra war.
This incident was seen by Padri officers very quickly at the Klewang Arms during the battle. Although used as the main weapon of war, Klewang is often used for agricultural activities. Weapons that had previously spread to the public ranged from hilts giving off a dragon shape to scabbards made of striped motifs.
Karih is a stabbing weapon like a dagger, with the same point on both sides. The shape is very distinctive and can be easily distinguished from other types of weapons. Karih is asymmetrical, spreading at the base and tapering upwards. The blade is more dominantly curved to form a typical Minangkabau art.
Given the history of Kaliminan in West Sumatra, it has been used as a weapon of war and to protect it from enemy attacks when leaving home since the beginning. In addition, another function of this weapon is to provide kitchen equipment. This tool used to be multi-purpose for the Minang people throughout their lives.
Another feature is the shape of the potash, the scabbard of which is beautifully carved with various motifs. Likewise with the stem or ulunya. The main color is dark brown or light brown, similar to the inner skin color. As time progressed, the Karih weapon stopped functioning as a personal protective equipment and kitchen utensil, but its presence approached various traditional ceremonies and cultural celebrations of the Minang Empire.
Traditional weapons from Padang, West Sumatra, are usually used by traditional leaders, lobbyists, religious leaders, traditional owners or sako, and others. Minang Karih is not only worn by traditional leaders, but also as an accessory for the groom at a wedding reception. Karih is placed on the front right hip with the sarong.
The presence of this traditional West Sumatran weapon is also a characteristic of the Minang people wherever they are. From a symbolic point of view, the weapon of Karih acts as a judge, that is, as a mediator of disputes and disputes within the clan and Nagari. In addition, when the career is held upright it forms the character Arif in Arabic.
This symbolizes the teaching of monotheism about the existence of Allah SWT. As quoted from Julfian Azrael’s book “Becoming Pangul”, the meaning of Minang Karih is said to be both physical and spiritual. The outside means the scroll symbolizes the relationship between Pel and her nephew. This can be identified from the shape of the ulu or stalk of the career.
The inner meaning is the main source of teachings for the heirs of Sako or applicants for the position of Minangkabau leader. Several parts of this Minang Keris, namely Ulu, Punting and Tali, symbolize the three Minang customary systems: the Sambah Manyambah custom, the Baso Jo basi custom and the Siriah jo pinang custom.
At first glance, for those who see this Minang Karih weapon for the first time, they will definitely think that it is a Keris, because when Karih is put into the sheath or sheath it really looks like the keris weapons that are commonly found in Java. The Karih weapon has also been registered with UNESCO as one of the World Cultural Heritage Intangible Humans which was established in 2005.
The Piarit weapon is a traditional weapon from Padang, West Sumatra, in the form of a spear with three sharp eyes. Apart from West Sumatra, it is also widely used in other areas such as South Sumatra and is commonly called the Trisula weapon. In shape, this weapon resembles the main weapon of the Hindu god Shiva.
Because in ancient times, before Islam entered West Sumatra, especially in the Padang area, they still adhered to Hinduism. The people of West Sumatra often hunt large animals using this traditional Piarik weapon as a handle.
Chopsticks or blowguns are also used in West Sumatra and are used in hunting and field combat to attack long distances. The advantage of this traditional weapon from Padang, West Sumatra is that it can provide firepower with an accuracy of up to 200 meters. The blowpipe is not only used as a traditional weapon in West Sumatra, but also by the Dayak people in Kalimantan.
The function of this traditional weapon is still the same as that used for hunting animals and is made naturally so it doesn’t damage nature. As a cultural heritage of their ancestors, the Minangkabau people still preserve the blowpipe as a traditional weapon. The shape of the chopsticks is usually in the form of a small tube which allows the small arrows that are fired to shoot far into the target.
This is a traditional weapon of West Sumatra and is still preserved by the Minangkabau people until now. How proud they are with their traditional weapons, so that traditional weapons are still well preserved today. Not surprisingly, every region needs to preserve traditional weapons as regional heritage and enrich the nation’s culture.
7. Minangkabau Heritage Keris
The Minangkabau heritage keris is a special keris that can only be worn by traditional rulers on the waist on certain occasions. The Minangkabau Heritage Keris is always milled left and right. This means that Pengle can give justice to everyone, prosecute them, and ensure justice.
This heirloom keris is not used in all traditional rituals. Usage must also be taken into account. That is, the keris eye is on the left, not on the right. This is interpreted as an attitude that Pengle must always be careful and think before speaking or acting.
This traditional weapon from Padang, West Sumatra, is a symbol of greatness. Customary leaders can always be relied upon, whether the Minangkabau people are happy or sad. In conclusion, we still need to maintain and preserve local culture. The Minangkabau people set an excellent example for all of us by preserving the noble heritage of their ancestors.
So, that’s an explanation of the traditional weapons of Padang, West Sumatra, or what we might call Minangkabau traditional weapons. If sinaumedia is interested in learning Padang culture, you can access sinaumedia’s books at www.sinaumedia.com . As #Friends Without Limits, sinaumedia will always provide the best products, so that Sinaumed’s can have #MoreWithReading information.