Functions of blood – Hello Sinaumed’s friends , have you ever wondered what exactly is the function of blood in the human body? There is no denying that blood is an important part of the human body. However, how important is the presence of blood in the body and what exactly is the function of blood itself? The function of blood for the human body is very important. Blood is the combination of plasma and cells that circulates throughout the body. Quoting Sehatq.com , blood flow in adults is equivalent to 7% of the person’s body weight.
Having an adequate amount of blood plays a very important role in maintaining the body’s metabolism. It should be understood that one of the functions of blood is to provide important substances needed by the body such as; sugar, oxygen, and hormones.
This function is supported by the presence of organs in charge of pumping blood. This organ is the heart that pumps blood throughout the body to meet the needs of oxygen and nutrients.
Continue to listen to the explanation in the following discussion regarding the function of blood in the human body. But before that, you should know in advance what is the meaning of blood.
Definition of Blood
Blood is a fluid contained in blood vessels that has the function of regulating acid and base balance, transporting O2, carbohydrates, and metabolites, regulating body temperature by conduction or conduction, carrying body heat from heat production centers (liver and muscles) to be distributed to the body. throughout the body, and hormone regulation by carrying and delivering from the gland to the target.
Blood contains not only hormones, oxygen, nutrients and impurities in the body. Blood is home to plasma, cells and proteins. This is what makes blood thicker than water.
On closer inspection, blood is more than just a fluid that helps the nose run. However, it is also a way to transmit various things in the human body. In addition, blood is actually not completely liquid. Blood consists of solids and fluids.
The solid part of the blood contains many different blood cells. The liquid part of blood is called plasma. Plasma consists of salts, proteins and water. Plasma makes up at least 55% of the total blood composition.
There are also three types of blood cells in the blood. There are red blood cells which carry oxygen. Platelets are responsible for blood clotting. White blood cells are responsible for defending the body against various diseases that can attack the body.
These blood cells are made from bone marrow. Red blood cells can live for about 120 days. Platelets can last up to six days. White blood cells live less than a day.
Functions of Blood in the Human Body
Human blood is a liquid in the body that is used to carry the oxygen needed by cells throughout the body. Blood also supplies nutrients to body tissues, transports metabolic waste products, and contains various building blocks for the immune system which protects the body from various diseases. Hormones from the endocrine system also circulate in the blood.
Human blood is red in color, from bright red when it is rich in oxygen to dark red when it is deficient. The red color of blood is due to hemoglobin, a respiratory protein that contains iron in the heme form to which oxygen molecules bind.
Humans have a closed circulatory system, meaning that blood flows through the veins and circulates through the heart. Blood is pumped by the heart to the lungs to remove metabolic waste products in the form of carbon dioxide and take oxygen through the pulmonary arteries, then returns to the heart via the pulmonary veins.
The blood is then carried throughout the body via the aorta. Blood carries oxygen throughout the body through tiny blood vessels called capillaries. Blood then returns to the heart via the superior and inferior vena cava. Here are some of the functions of blood for the human body:
1. Supplying Oxygen to Cells and Tissues
One of the first and main functions of blood is to transport oxygen. Air that enters the body and contains oxygen will enter the lungs. Then the air will go through several processes. Then the oxygen will enter the capillaries of the human body.
The next step is for oxygen to enter the plasma. Oxygen diffuses into the red blood cells, also known as erythrocytes. This happens because of the function of red blood cells which contain hemoglobin or Hb to bind oxygen in the blood.
This process is called deoxidation. Oxygen in the body will be converted into HbO2. Change can occur at a rate of about 97%. The rest will be in the plasma. Then it is transported and distributed to the tissues in the human body.
2. Circulates Hormones
Blood also has the function of circulating hormones in the body. Hormones are obtained in the presence of a stimulus or stimulus. These stimuli can come from outside the human body or from within the human body itself.
Blood will carry these hormones. Then the exocrine glands will take hormones that are not useful. Then it will be eliminated in the special channels of the human body.
While the blood will carry hormones that have been previously filtered into normal channels. This means that there is no special flow required by the exocrine glands.
Blood functions in the digestive system and endocrine system functions. Completely digested nutrients will be absorbed into the bloodstream through the capillaries in the small intestine. Some of the nutrients that are transported such as; amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, and glucose. These nutrients will be circulated by the blood to the body’s cells.
3. Attacks Bacteria and Germs
Blood is also used to attack bacteria and germs that enter the human body. This function can occur due to the function of leukocytes or leukocytes. There are five white blood cells in the human body. These include neutrophils, lymphocytes, basophils, monocytes, and eosinophils.
The largest white blood or leukocytes are neutrophils. The amount can reach 60%. Neutrophils have a function to attack germs and bacteria that enter the human body. Even so, other white blood cells also have other roles. Such as attacking germs, producing antibodies, and removing the remnants of damaged cells.
4. Distributing Food Essence
The next function of blood is to transport and distribute nutrients. Blood circulates in all parts of the body by spreading nutrients from absorption of oxygen. These food extracts are also obtained from protein, some vitamins or carbohydrates which are obtained from the food that has been consumed.
The process of transporting and spreading this food essence occurs after the process of digestion of food occurs. Before the food extracts are distributed, the food essence will first pass through the liver. This happens to filter out all the toxins and other harmful substances present in the blood.
After the filtering process, then the nutrients or food extracts are circulated throughout the human body. This will help the body get adequate and even nutrition.
5. Heal Wounds
Blood can also heal wounds. This is one function of the presence of blood in the human body. Part of the blood that plays a role in wound healing is called platelets. Platelets have a role to heal wounds on the human epidermis.
During this process, platelets release the substances they contain. This substance combines with vitamin K to form blood to clot. After the platelets freeze, they will slowly try to cover the wound on the human epidermis.
If the number of platelets in the blood is reduced, this will have an effect on the wound. Wounds become difficult to treat. Because in this section there is no substance that can cover the wound and cause blood to clot.
6. Regulate Body Temperature
Blood also functions to regulate the temperature of the human body. Body temperature will be maintained stable at 36 degrees to 37 degrees Celsius. Body temperature is also affected by blood circulation. The human body temperature is not affected by environmental conditions. However, it is affected by the human circulatory system.
As a result of blood oxidation, heat is generated in the body. If the oxidation is good, then the body temperature will also tend to be good. If the oxidation is not good, then the temperature in the body will also tend to be bad.
Blood absorbs and distributes heat throughout the body. This fluid will help maintain homeostasis. By releasing or retaining heat. Homeostasis is the regulation of conditions in the human body. Such as moisture content, temperature and carbon dioxide levels.
Blood vessels can also expand and contract in response to foreign organisms. Like bacteria or hormones in it. Also, when there is a chemical change.
This action will cause the blood to send more heat to human skin. Heat can be lost to the air. Blood vessels may constrict, which will have the effect of reducing heat loss through the skin once body temperature returns to normal.
7. Carrying the Remaining Oxidation of Body Cells
The next function of blood is to transport cellular oxidative waste. Oxidation of these cells is carried out because they are not useful for the body, so they are removed from the body. This can be seen when breathing.
There, the transport of oxygen occurs. Oxygen is carried by blood to the heart. Then, the heart will undergo a process and will circulate in all parts of the body. After being removed from the heart organ, oxygen which produces carbon dioxide is finally released by the blood. Elimination occurs during expiration simultaneously with exhalation.
8. Removing Remaining Substances of Cell Metabolism
The next function of the blood is to remove waste from metabolism or cellular excretion. This happens because not all blood-carrying substances are beneficial to the human body. Some substances that do not have a metabolic function will be transported by the blood to the excretory organs. These substances will flow into the excretory system or excretion. Such as liver, kidney and skin.
9. Germ Storage
Blood has another function, which is to store germs. In addition, blood can also keep the body fit and healthy. Prevention of blood diseases is done through blood platelets, also known as blood platelets.
This blood chip is used to bury pathogens from spreading throughout the human body. Blood will control it. Disease germs will also be killed by blood flakes. This is what makes the human body healthier.
10. Against Various Diseases
White blood cells or leukocytes are blood components responsible for fighting disease. The blood cell count is just low. About one percent of the circulating blood volume. However, these white blood cells or white blood cells can multiply. These white blood cells multiply during inflammation or infection to become more numerous.
There are five types of white blood cells, namely neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes. Neutrophils are the most abundant type of white blood cell, accounting for as much as 60-70 percent of all white blood cells.
11. Carrying Water
The volume of the human body is mostly made up of water. This water is found in plasma. Water in the human body will flow through blood vessels and capillaries. This will allow water to reach all organs or parts of the human body.
The need for water in the human body will help prevent all kinds of health problems that may arise. In addition, it can also help the digestive process. Another function of water in the body is to help the metabolic system that occurs in the human body.
12. Maintaining Acid-Base Levels of Body Fluids
Blood also functions to maintain acid and alkaline levels of fluids or pH in the human body. This function is performed to prevent damage to body tissues. This damage can occur because it can be caused by buffer compounds.
13. Transports Waste to Kidneys and Liver
Another function of the blood is to transport body waste to the kidneys and liver. The function of the blood is to transport waste to the organs which are responsible for removing and processing these wastes for elimination. These organs are the kidneys and liver.
In the kidneys, substances such as uric acid, urea and creatinine are filtered from the blood plasma. The substance then enters the ureters. Then excreted from the body in the form of urine. The liver also removes toxins from the blood. Vitamin-rich blood is the result of absorption from the digestive organs, after which it is cleaned by the liver. These vitamins are then distributed to the body’s cells.
Abnormalities in Red Blood Cells
Blood disorders depend on the part of the blood that is disturbed and the underlying cause. Here are some blood disorders that affect red blood cells:
Anemia occurs when the number of red blood cells is very low, which can be caused by excessive bleeding, iron deficiency or vitamin B12 deficiency. When anemia is severe, the person will look pale, tire easily, and often have difficulty breathing.
2. Aplastic anemia
This condition occurs when the bone marrow does not produce enough blood cells, including red blood cells. The cause of aplastic anemia is unknown, but is thought to be caused by a viral infection, autoimmune disease, side effects of drugs, chemotherapy, and pregnancy.
3. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia
In autoimmune hemolytic anemia, the immune system becomes overactive and destroys red blood cells, causing anemia. This condition is caused by an autoimmune disease, which is a condition when the body’s immune system attacks itself.
4. Sickle cell anemia
This condition makes red blood cells sticky and stiff, thereby blocking blood flow. Sickle cell disease is an inherited disease. People with this condition can experience organ damage and unbearable pain.
5. Polycythemia vera
Polycythemia vera occurs when the blood becomes too thick because the bone marrow makes too many red blood cells. This condition can increase the risk of blood clots, strokes, and heart attacks.
Abnormalities in White Blood Cells
Leukemia is a type of blood cancer in which white blood cells become malignant and are overproduced in the bone marrow. The exact cause of this condition is still unknown.
2. Multiple myeloma
Multiple myeloma is a blood cancer that occurs when white blood cells become malignant. In this condition, white blood cells produce, multiply, and release abnormal proteins that can damage organs.
3. Myelodysplastic syndrome
Myelodysplastic syndrome is a blood disorder that affects the bone marrow. This condition occurs when the bone marrow is unable to make healthy blood cells.
Lymphoma is a blood cancer that develops in the lymph nodes. White blood cells in people with lymphoma become malignant, spread abnormally, and multiply uncontrollably.