Examples of Socio-Cultural Threats – Intentionally or not, humans build civilization. Each civilization has its own culture. Even in each region has cultural characteristics that are different from the culture of other regions.
The culture in each era will also be different from the culture in other times. For example, the culture of the Indonesian people in the 40s will be different from the Indonesian people in 2022. Those who lived in the 40s mobilized by bicycle, buggy and other traditional means of transportation.
Meanwhile, the Indonesian people in 2022 will mobilize using motorcycles, planes, cars, buses and other modern means of transportation. Culture will continue to develop according to the region, era, and patterns of interaction or social conditions of the people.
Socio-cultural conditions are also the same, will continue to develop according to the times. Before getting to know more about socio-culture, Sinaumed’s needs to know about social and culture in advance.
Culture itself in the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), culture is a mind; common sense; customs; something about a developing (civilized, advanced) culture; something that has become a habit and is difficult to change. Meanwhile, social in KBBI is interpreted as relating to society; likes to pay attention to the public interest (like to help, donate, and so on).
The socio-cultural situation of a country is not always in a stable state. Cultures mix and influence other cultures or even change. The following will explain about socio-culture and its threats in a country.
Understanding the Concept of Culture
Culture does not form by itself. If examined more deeply, culture consists of 7 elements. Here are 7 elements of culture that have been summarized from the Merdeka.com page.
1. Language System
Language is a medium for humans to fulfill their social needs in the form of interaction or relationships with others. Humans are able to build, maintain, and pass on culture using language.
Language is able to help artists to provide an understanding of social phenomena that are expressed symbolically. Not only that, language is also used by allied people to communicate with each other.
2. Knowledge System
Knowledge systems are culturally universal with regard to systems of living equipment and technology. Because, knowledge systems are abstract and embodied in human ideas. The knowledge system includes various elements in life so that the boundaries are very far or wide.
For example, people usually have some traditional astronomical knowledge. In the form of calculating the day based on the moon or celestial bodies which are considered to provide signs for human life.
Every culture always has a series or set of knowledge about nature, animals, objects, humans, and plants. Every ethnic group in the world has knowledge about the natural environment, the plants that grow around it, and the animals that live in the area where they live.
Not only that, they also have knowledge about substances, raw materials, and objects in their environment, the human body, human characteristics and behavior, as well as space and time.
3. Social Organization System
Social organization is one of the constituent elements of culture. Cultural elements in the form of kinship systems and social organizations are one of the efforts to understand how humans form society through various social groups.
Kinship is also related to the notion of marriage in a society. This is because marriage is the core or basis for forming a community or social organization.
4. Life Equipment Systems and Technology
Living equipment and technology become one of the 7 elements of culture. Humans will always try to defend their lives so they always make tools or objects that make it easier and maintain their lives.
Initially, objects used as living equipment had simple shapes and technology. So that discussion of cultural elements included in living equipment and technology becomes a discussion of physical culture.
In traditional societies there are 8 kinds of physical culture equipment systems used for moving around or farming. The eight systems include productive work tools, weapons, containers, tools for starting a fire, food, drink, aphrodisiacs and herbs, clothing and jewelry, shelter and housing, and means of transportation.
5. Economic System / Livelihoods
Livelihoods or the economy is one of the 7 elements of culture. Traditional community livelihoods are usually hunting and gathering, raising livestock, cultivating crops in the fields, catching fish, and sedentary farming with irrigation systems.
This livelihood was carried out by the community in the past. Now, people prefer other jobs. Gathering livelihoods have long been abandoned due to limited natural resources along with the increasing population.
6. Religious System
The religious or religious system is one of the elements of culture. Human life cannot be separated from religious emotions. Religious emotion itself is a feeling in humans that encourages them to take religious actions.
This emotion also creates the conception of objects that are considered sacred and profane in human life. In a religious system there are three elements that must be understood including the belief system, the system of religious ceremonies, and the people who adhere to that religion.
Evolutionarily, human religion also develops from simple to complex forms. For example, belief in worship of a supernatural power outside of human beings.
Such as wind, mountains, forests, trees, sea, and so on. This belief continues to develop into a higher level, namely the belief in only one god ( monotheism ) and the birth of the concept of revealed religion (Islam, Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, and so on).
Art is an element of culture. This stems from the concern of anthropologists regarding the artistic activities of a traditional society. In this research, descriptions of objects or artifacts containing elements of art were collected, such as statues, ornaments, and carvings.
Based on its type, the art of music consists of vocal and instrumental art. Meanwhile, literary art consists of prose and poetry. Meanwhile, fine art consists of sculpture, make-up, painting, relief, and carving.
Not only that, there is the art of movement and dance, namely art that can be captured by the senses of sight or hearing. Meanwhile, traditional arts consist of lenong, ludruk, ketoprak, dance, wayang, and so on. Meanwhile, modern art, for example films, songs, and choreography.
Art can be analyzed using visual culture studies, namely cultural analysis that specifically examines photographs and films. Both of these media seek to display human life and culture from a visual perspective in the form of documentaries or photographs regarding the cultural activities of a society.
Social in KBBI is interpreted as relating to society; likes to pay attention to the public interest (like to help, donate, and so on). Social interaction is usually carried out between individuals, individuals with groups, or groups with groups.
Through social interaction that occurs continuously, a social structure will be formed to channel feelings and ideas. The interactions that occur are also limited by social and cultural norms.
Launching from the Bobo.grid.id page, social is formed from various elements as follows.
1. Social Groups
A social group is a collection of people who interact because they realize that they are part of a community group.
Culture exists because humans embody ideas or ideas that are in the mind. In social life, a culture will certainly be created which becomes the identity of the group.
3. Social Institutions
Social institutions become a place to regulate relationships between individuals in society so that they are orderly and as expected. Social institutions have standards that are used to achieve goals and make rules that have been agreed upon.
4. Social Stratification
Social stratification is the grouping of each member of society. This is usually done by a group with the aim that their lives are orderly and appropriate.
5. Power and Authority
This social element has the right to regulate and control an individual in a society. This right can also be exercised directly or indirectly to achieve the agreed objectives.
Examples of Socio-Cultural Threats
Socio-cultural conditions do not always work well and are stable. Summarizing from various pages on the internet, here are some examples of socio-cultural threats that can be experienced by Indonesian people.
- The emergence of a consumptive lifestyle and always consuming goods from abroad.
- The emergence of the nature of hedonism, namely personal enjoyment is considered as the highest value of life.
- There is an attitude of individualism, namely the attitude of always being selfish and seeing other people as non-existent and meaningless.
- The emergence of symptoms of westernization, namely a lifestyle that is always oriented towards western culture without being selected first.
- The spirit of gotong royong, solidarity, care and social solidarity is fading.
- The fading of religious values in social life.
- A consumptive lifestyle is the behavior of buying many things you want, even though you don’t actually need them, but only to satisfy your desire for recognition from those around you.
- The fading of religious values allows various immoral acts to occur.
- Entry of foreign ideas that are not in accordance with socio-cultural norms in a country.
- Normalization of actions contrary to socio-cultural norms.
- Discrimination on ethnicity, religion, race or class.
- Intolerance culture.
- Declining interest in using products from within the country
Strategies to Prevent Socio-Cultural Fading
To minimize and even prevent the fading of the social culture of the Indonesian nation. Communities and governments can implement several strategies mentioned on the Museumnusantara.com page as follows.
- Strengthen the love of the nation’s wealth and culture.
- Educate yourself to have a high tolerance.
- Building a spirit of corps/brotherhood between tribes, religions, races or groups.
- Use social media sparingly.
- Increasing love for domestic products.
- Strengthening the country’s indigenous social and cultural norms education.
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