13 Organizations of the Indonesian Freedom National Movement in 1900-1945

National Movement Organization – Talking about Indonesian history is endless. Indonesian history has its own story and long journey. To become the great nation it is today, this nation was built by great Indonesians who fought for Indonesian independence. Even after independence, the people of Indonesia are still struggling to build the country on their own.

In practice, Indonesian people unite in small groups and are even stronger to carry out movements within the organization. The emergence of organizations that brought the movement of Indonesian nationalism came from various groups. Starting from student groups, nationalists, secular schools, professional movements, to the women’s movement.

The movement of these organizations later became an important history for the Indonesian people. This proves that the Indonesian people are united in accordance with their respective abilities to fight against the invaders for the sake of national independence. Many stories and concepts of their thoughts are interesting to learn. We can learn a lot from the history of national movement organizations that involve many great and inspiring figures. In the following, Sinaumed’s can look at the history of how these organizations struggled and learn about the concept of organizational goals for the movement.

A. Definition of National Movement Organization

The national movement organization is a movement carried out by the Indonesian people who have an organizational goal to improve the fate or condition of the Indonesian people who both want to gain national independence.

The background for the formation of this national movement was due to the awareness of the common suffering and misery that had befallen many Indonesian people during colonialism.

That is why this movement organization is expected to be able to end the suffering of the Indonesian people, get a better situation, and make changes for the better. There are several important factors that make many national movement organizations emerge. These factors are domestic and foreign factors. The following details the factors for the emergence of national movement organizations that Sinaumed’s needs to know:

1. Domestic Factors

    • As a result of the prolonged suffering of the Indonesian people due to colonialism and imperialism from the invaders
    • The birth of a progressive educated class
    • So far the struggle of the Indonesian people has only been regional in nature or not united in a larger force, so that it was easy to be silenced and broken by the colonialists

2. Foreign Factors

    • As a result of Japan’s victory over Russia in 1905
    • There is a national awakening of neighboring countries such as India, the Philippines, China and Turkey against their colonizers
    • Starting from the entry of new ideas such as nationalism and democracy from outside the country of Indonesia

B. Purpose of the National Movement Organization

The goal of the national movement organization is to achieve the independence of the Indonesian nation which is free from the shackles of colonialism and foreign colonialism which are very detrimental to the nation. These national movement organizations seek to determine the fate of their own nation and also for the welfare of all Indonesian people.

This national movement organization which consists of a group of people with an official membership structure has one goal to fight together for the common interest on behalf of the Indonesian nation. That is why the goals of this organization become smoother and better because they are towards the same goal.

Within a certain period of time several national movement organizations were formed. Even after the organization is weak or collapses, a revival reappears to create a new, stronger movement organization.

What are these organizations? The following is a list of national movement organizations that Sinaumed’s needs to know about in order to respect and emulate the struggles of the figures within them to fight the invaders more intelligently and strategically.

C. List of Indonesian Freedom National Movement in 1900-1945

1. Budi Utomo

Budi Utomo is a national movement organization that arose as a result of very apprehensive living conditions since the enactment of ethical politics because the natives were able to get an education, but were still hindered by funds. That’s what makes dr. Wahidin Sudirohusodo tried to raise funds by means of propaganda around the island of Java.

The idea was then accepted by dr. Sutomo, who at that time was studying at Stovia and finally on May 20 1908 he and his colleagues founded an organization in Jakarta called Budi Utomo.

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We then commemorate that day as National Awakening Day. The emergence of this organization then resulted in a response and reaction from the Netherlands. Some of the priyayi groups disagreed, but the regents turned out to be very supportive of Budi Utomo’s organization.

2. Sarekat Islam

Sarekat Islam (SI) is an association of traders which was previously named Sarekat Dagang Islam which was pioneered by KH Samanhudi who is a batik entrepreneur from the village of Lawean (Kolo).

The background to the emergence of this organization was initiated because it wanted to offset so that competition could be overcome when facing foreign traders. However, in 1912 the Sarekat Dagang Islam changed to become the Sarekat Islam under the leadership of HOS Cokroaminoto, which consisted of all members of the community who were Muslims. It was from here that this organization began to focus on religious issues.

The aim of the Sarekat Islam organization is to develop an Islamic economy as stated by Haji Umar Said Cokroaminoto. This organization was also growing and made the Netherlands worried because it was considered dangerous to the position of the Dutch government. For details on the history of the organization of the national movement Sarekat Islam, Sinaumed’s can read the book Gerakan Sarekat Islam which reveals the beginnings of the establishment of the Sarekat Dagang Islam.

3. Indische Partij

Indische Partij is a national movement organization founded by Ernest Eugene Francois Douwes Dekker or also known as Dr. Danudirja Setiabudi, dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo, and Suwardi Suryaningrat or popularly known as Ki Hajar Dewantara.

The founders of this organization later became known as Tiga Serangkai which on 25 December 1911 formed the Indische Partij in Bandung. This organization has the privilege of being an organization that has a short life but its statutes serve as the foundation for Indonesian politics with mixed organizational status between foreigners and natives.

Because of its very radical goals and principles of wanting an independent Indonesia, this organization was opposed by the Dutch government. Finally on March 4, 1913 this organization was closed and considered a banned organization.

4. Indonesian Association

The Indonesian Association is a national movement organization which was originally established under the name Indische Vereeniging by the Dutch in 1908, namely Soetan Kasajangan Soripada and RM Noto Suroto. But in 1923, this organization actually fought from afar to spearhead independence for Indonesia at that time.

Furthermore, in 1925 this organization changed its name to the Indonesian Association which showed the identity of the nation and state and replaced the word Dutch East Indies.

The figures involved in this organization are Mohammad Hatta, Cipto Mangunkusumo, and Suwardi Suryaningrat.

5. Indische Sociaal Democratische Vereeniging (ISDV)

Indische Social democratische Vereeniging (ISDV) is an organization founded on May 9, 1914 by Henk Sneevliet who is a member of the Dutch Social Democratic Labor Party. ISDV is an organization that embraces Marxism. It was this ISDV that later became the forerunner to the formation of the Indonesian Communist Party in December 1920.

ISDV’s goal is to bring socialism in the Bumiputra community that is not only obtained by the heads of members who come from Europe. This organization also spread social democracy to the people of the Indies today, Indonesia. The popularity of the ideology of capitalism and liberalism in Indonesia was also spearheaded by the ISDV.

6. Indonesian National Party

The Indonesian National Party (PNI) is an organization formed by Ir. Soekarno on 4 July 192 engaged in political, economic and social fields. Then after the 1928 congress, PNI membership increased. This is what makes the Dutch government worried. Finally four PNI figures, namely Soekarno, Gatot Mangkoepradja, Maskoen, and Supradinata were arrested and sentenced by the Bandung court on December 29, 1929.

The main goal of the PNI was the desire to achieve Indonesian independence. However, thanks to the arrest of Sukarno, all nationalist followers were afraid to act and gradually dispersed.

7. Muhammadiyah

Muhammadiyah is a national movement organization that has religious roots which was founded in Yogyakarta on 18 November 1912 by KH Ahmad Dahlan. The aim of this organization was a response to Budi Utomo’s suggestion to teach its members religion lessons, thereby making the Muhammadiyah group a modern religious organization. This organization began to move by establishing modern religious schools, orphanages, homes for the elderly and the poor, to medical centers and hospitals.

The long and winding process of the Muhammadiyah organization is also described in a book by Agus Purwanto et al with the title Becoming Muhammadiyah.

Muhammadiyah has an important role in preparing the resistance against foreign domination and Dutch influence. This organization is also effective in improving the education of the Indonesian people for the better. For details on the history of the Muhammadiyah national movement organization, Sinaumed’s can read the following book recommendations:

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Category : Social Sciences

Book: Muhammadiyah Political Paradigm

8. All Indonesian Youth Movement

The All-Indonesian Youth Movement is an organization that emerged thanks to the bright spot of the influence of Budi Utomo which had an impact on all youth in Indonesia. In 1914, the Pasundan association was founded with the aim of increasing the degree of decency, intelligence, and expanding employment opportunities. Furthermore, on August 16, 1927, the United Minahasa organization was formed under the leadership of dr. Tumbelaka and Sam Ratulangi.

As a result of a misunderstanding, the Celebes Sarekat was founded. Thanks to the enthusiasm of the Indonesian youth at that time, many youth organizations emerged, starting from the Sarekat Madura, the Timorese Union, and the Sumatran Sarekat. Youth organizations throughout Indonesia have developed thanks to the formation of regional youth associations.

9. Scout Organization

Scout association organizations were also born, apart from youth organizations, which were continuations of the original organizations. Initially, this organization only gathered youth groups who were fond of sports.

The organization that was first born was the Javaansche Padvinders Organisatie (JPO) in 1916 in Solo. After that, an organization called Neda Indische Padvinders Vereeniging (NIPV) was born in 1917 among children of European descent.

Furthermore, after 1920, this scouting organization grew which followed the development of nationalism.

10. Student Park

Taman Siswa is a national movement organization founded by Ki Hajar Dewantara in 1922 which aims to improve the culturally well-organized education system.

The student park is a milestone in the arrangement of the development of national education to reach what it is today. This organization is run democratically and prioritizes the interests of the Indonesian people. It is this organization that raises awareness of the important role of national education in achieving independence.

Taman Siswa had threatened the Dutch government because the prevention of the course of education was limited. Since then, Taman Siswa has been considered a wild school and its movements have been restricted. For details on the history of the Taman Siswa national movement organization, Sinaumed’s can read the following book recommendations:

 11. Indonesian Communist Party

The Indonesian Communist Party is an organization that arose as a result of the split of the Sarekat Islam organization. The presence of this revolutionary group formed the red SI to influence the development of socialist thought in Indonesia.

This organization was chaired by Semaun in December 1920. Until then on November 13, 1926 this party carried out an uprising in Java and Sumatra, but was still defeated by the Dutch colonialists.

Simultaneously with the emergence of the PKI, Dutch Marxism was also born under the leadership of Sneevliet. The party’s political movement is a radical political organization, so its existence was banned by the Dutch government.

However, Semaun, Darsono, and Alin continued to carry out the organization’s political activities in secret. For detailed history of the organization of the Indonesian Communist Party’s national movement, Sinaumed’s can read the following book recommendations:

12. Indonesian Party (Partindo)

The Indonesian Party was born because the Indonesian National Party (PNI) had become a banned party, so nationalist figures formed a committee to form a new party. On May 1, 1931, under Sartono’s leadership, a new association called the Indonesian Party was born. This organization hopes that the former PNI followers will join again.

The aim of this organization is to achieve Indonesian independence. After Soekarno joined this organization, Partindo followers also grew. This apparently made the Dutch government anxious again, until finally Soekarno was again arrested and exiled to Ende on August 1, 1933.

13. Women’s Movement

The Women’s Movement was pioneered by RA Kartini who participated in the struggle for independence. This organizational idealism became known as the Emancipation of women who grew from Kartini’s aristocratic environment.

It was from here that Kartini began to realize the knowledge she had learned from the west to advance education for women. Then came the movement of Indonesian women.

Apart from that, there is also a Wife priority school run by Raden Dewi Sartika in the Pasundan area and a women’s organization called Sopa Tresna is also established in Yogyakarta.

This women’s movement then became more massive and emerged, such as Aisyiyah from the Muhammadiyah organization, Minangkabau Wife Kautamaan Organization in Sumatra, and the De Gorontalo Sche Mohammedaansche Vrouwen Vereeniging organization in Minahasa which became a milestone in the birth of women’s organizations that helped the national awakening movement.

So, those are some of the national movement organizations that were victorious in their time. Is Sinaumed’s still unfamiliar with some of the national movement organizations above? Maybe some Sinaumed’s already know from history or social science lessons at school. Each of the above organizations has their own story and journey in fighting for the Indonesian nation.