Nationalism: Definition, Form, Purpose, and Development

Nationalism is – In the Big Indonesian Dictionary, nationalism is an understanding of
nationalism which then contains the meaning of awareness and the spirit of love for the Motherland.
This word itself implies belonging and a sense of pride as a nation and maintaining the honor of
the nation.

Based on the Citizenship Education book published by Erlangga Publisher, a sense of
nationalism is then synonymous with having a sense of solidarity with the misfortunes and disadvantages
experienced by our fellow countrymen.

For this reason, nationalism in a broad sense then became a means of collective struggle for independence
from colonial grip.
This spirit is also used as a method of resistance as well as an
identification tool to find out who is friend and who is the enemy.

Read more about the forms, goals, characteristics and development of nationalism in Indonesia.

Nationalism is the concept of
nationalism and love for the motherland

Nationalism is an understanding that will create and maintain a state sovereignty. In English
it is also known as a
nation by embodying a concept of identity together with a group of
people.

This group of people has the same goals and aspirations in realizing a national interest, as well as a sense of
wanting to defend a country, both internally and externally.

Nationalists then consider the state based on some political legitimacy or “political correctness”.
Sourced from romantic theory, among others, is “cultural identity”, liberalism debate which
then considers political correctness that originates from the will of the people, or a combination of
the two theories.

This bond of nationalism then grows in the midst of society when the mindset begins to decline.
This bond itself occurs when humans begin to live together in a certain area. At that
time, the instinct of self-defense would play a big role in encouraging them to defend their country.

Nationalism According to Experts

The following is an understanding according to experts that you need to know.

1. Hans Kohn

According to Hans is the formalization (shape) and rationalization of national awareness within the nation and
state itself.

2. Benedict Anderson

According to Benedict is as a political community that is imagined and imagined as something limited and
sovereign.

3. Otto Bauer

According to Otto, is a unity of character or temperament which will then arise because of a feeling of the same
fate.

4. L. Stoddard

According to Stoddard, it is a belief that is shared by most people, where they then express a sense of
nationality as a feeling of belonging together in a nation.

5.Dr. Hertz

According to Hertz is the desire to achieve unity, the desire to be independent, and the desire to achieve
authenticity and the desire to have a common goal.

6.Smith

According to Smith is an ideological movement that is used to maintain and achieve autonomy, cohesion, and
individuality.

7. Abbe Baurel

According to the Abbe is a sense of love for the area and language by a group of people or individuals.

8. Hitler

According to Hitler, is an attitude and spirit of self-sacrifice to be able to fight other nations for the sake
of their own nation

9.Ernest Renan

According to Ernest Renan, is a desire to be united and have a state. In this case,
nationalism is a great desire to be able to realize unity within a country.

10. Ernest Gelenervia

According to Gellenervia, it is a balance between national feeling towards the nation and political power.

Forms of Nationalism

Did you know that there are several goals of nationalism, one of which is to guarantee the will and strength to
defend the national community and fight enemies from outside so that a spirit of self-sacrifice emerges.

Other forms include cultivating a sense of love for the Motherland, creating harmonious and harmonious
relationships, and maintaining intact brotherhood.
Nationalism can also be realized by
eliminating extremism from a citizen.

1. Citizenship Nationalism

Citizenship or civil nationalism is a kind of nationalism in which the state then obtains a political
correctness from the active participation of its people, “people’s will”, “political representatives”.
This theory was originally built by Jean-Jacques Rousseau and became writing material.

2. Romantic Nationalism

Romantic or also known as organic nationalism, and identity nationalism as a continuation of ethnic nationalism
where a country then obtains political correctness originally so that the result of a nation or race according
to the spirit of romanticism.

3. Cultural Nationalism

Culture is a kind of nationalism in which a country then derives political correctness from shared culture and
not “hereditary traits” such as race, skin color, and so on.

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An example is the Chinese people who then consider a country based on culture. The racial
element in which the Manchus and other minority races are still considered Chinese citizens.

The Qing dynasty’s willingness to use Chinese customs later proved the integrity of Chinese culture.
There are even many Taiwanese people who consider themselves Chinese nationalists because of their
cultural similarities but reject the People’s Republic of China (PRC) because the PRC government has
communism.

4. State Nationalism

State as a variation of civic nationalism, which cannot be separated from ethnic nationalism.
This feeling itself is so strong that it is then given more priority in terms of liberties and
universal rights.

The glory of a country itself is always in contrast and conflict with the principles of a democratic
society.
The implementation of a ‘ national state ‘ as an argument, as if forming
a better kingdom on its own.

Examples are Nazism, contemporary Turkish nationalism, and in a smaller form, right-wing Franquism in Spain, as
well as the ‘Jacobin’ attitude towards the centralist group of France, as well as the nationalism of the Belgian
people, who continue to oppose the pursuit of equal rights and more autonomy for a faction of Flemings,
and Basque or Corsican nationalists.

5. Religious Nationalism

Religion is nationalism in which the state will obtain a political legitimacy from a religious equation.
Even so, usually ethnic nationalism will then be mixed up with religious nationalism.

For example, in Ireland the spirit of nationalism came from their common religion, namely Catholicism;
nationalism in India as practiced by followers of the BJP party then originates from
Hinduism.

However, for most nationalist groups, religion then only became a symbol and was not the main motivation for a
group.

Purpose and Characteristics of Nationalism

Examples of nationalism in everyday life can be seen from maintaining public order by complying with applicable
rules.

Apart from that, he also obeys and obeys state law, preserves culture, and is willing to defend and advance the
country, use domestic products, uphold the values ​​of national unity and integrity, and participate in efforts
to defend the country.

Nationalism also serves to understand its goals and characteristics. The following is an
explanation of the goals and characteristics of nationalism, including:

The following below are some of the goals of nationalism that you need to know:

  • Serves to grow and increase a sense of love for a nation, state, and homeland.
  • Its function is to build a harmonious and harmonious relationship between a community and other individuals.
  • Serves to build and strengthen the bonds of brotherhood among fellow citizens in a country.
  • Serves as an effort to eliminate and eliminate extremism or excessive demands from a citizen or society to
    the government.
  • Functioning as an effort to foster a spirit to be able to willingly sacrifice for the sake of the nation,
    state and homeland.
  • Serves to protect a nation, state, and homeland from attacks by enemies who then threaten the country, both
    from abroad and within the country.

The following below are some of the characteristics of nationalism:

  • There is a unity and integrity of a nation.
  • There is an organization that has a modern form and has a national character.
  • There was a struggle that was then carried out and had a national character.
  • Aims to liberate and establish an independent country and put power in the hands of the people.
  • Nationalism is generally more concerned with thoughts so that education then plays an important role in an
    effort to educate the life of the nation and state.

Development of Indonesian Nationalism

Broadly speaking, Indonesian nationalism started from the period of Kartini’s struggle for emancipation
among women.
Meanwhile, although Kartini is often categorized as a female warrior, Kartini was
in the very early phase of the formation of Indonesian nationalism.

Then the next stage is the process of forming national organizations which mark the rise of awareness as an
Indonesian nation.
The following below is the phase of nationalism in Indonesia.

1. First Phase

The movement for the rise of Indonesian nationalism in a historical dynamic was initiated by the Boedi Oetomo era
in 1908, which was driven by students at the children’s school for Javanese aristocrats, Stovia medicine, and a
school which was later provided by the Dutch in Jakarta.

2. Second Phase

The second phase was the process of nationalism awakening that occurred in 1928, which was 20 years after the
process of national awakening took place.

In this phase, there is an awareness of uniting the country, nation and language into one country which has been
realized by the youth and has been compartmentalised with a regional organization such as Jong Celebes, Jong
Sumatra, Jong Java, and so on.

This was then manifested in reality by holding the Youth Pledge in 1928.

3. Third Phase

The next phase or also known as the “Physical Revolution for Independence”. The real role of
the youth during the physical revolution for independence occurred when they took Soekarno-Hatta hostage to
Rengasdengklok, so that they immediately proclaimed Indonesian independence.
They are very
enthusiastic about realizing a sovereign nation state within the framework of independence.

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3. Fourth Phase

The next phase was the development of nationalism in 1966, which marked a new order in an Indonesian
government.
The 20 years following independence saw the riots of the Gestapu rebellion and its
excesses.

It seems that without the role of students and youth organizations as well as social organizations in 1966,
Suharto and the army would then find it difficult to gain power from Soekarno’s old order rulers.

Unfortunately, the New Order authorities then abandoned the youth and students who had become the main driving
force behind the formation of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia. Since the late 1970s, students
have been restricted in their movements in politics and confined to lecture halls on their campuses.

5. Fifth Phase

The upheaval during the New Order period gave birth to the fifth phase, which is also known as the “Reform
Period”.

Nationalism then did not end only during the Suharto era, but continued to roll when reform became a source of
inspiration for the struggle of a nation even through a fairly long historical journey.

Books Related to Nationalism

1. KH Ahmad Dahlan: Nationalism & Leadership

KH Ahmad Dahlan was one of the great scholars who was the pioneer of Islamic renewal in pre-independence
Indonesia.
He moved not only to release Muslims from ignorance, poverty, and suffering due to
Dutch colonialism.

More than that, KH Ahmad Dahlan together with Muhammadiyah wanted to change the deteriorating condition of
Islam with a set of modernization and renewal concepts.
With the spirit extracted from surah
al-Maa’uun and al-‘Ashr, KH Ahmad Dahlan applies rahmatan lil’alamin in Islam in various social movements to
help society.

This book summarizes all of KH Ahmad Dahlan’s work with Muhammadiyah, including his thoughts, movements and
biography.
This book explains briefly, concisely and clearly. Of course, with
language that flows and is easy to read.

2. Nationalism, Islamism, Marxism

Nationalism is a belief, a people’s conviction that the people are one group, one nation! This
nationalistic feeling creates a sense of self-confidence.
And it is this self-belief that gives
rise to the resolve of the revolutionary-nationalists in their struggle for an independent Indonesia.

True Islam is not anti-nationalist. True Islam is not anti-socialist. True Islam
contains traits that are both socialist and nationalist at the same time!
Look at Sayyid
Jamaluddin Al-Afghani everywhere who has preached nationalism and patriotism, planted the seeds of
nationalism until he became “the father of Egyptian nationalism”.

Modern Marxism does not refuse to cooperate with the Nationalists and Islamists. The new
tactics of Marxism instead supported genuine Nationalist and Islamist movements.
Marxists who
are still hostile to Nationalist and Islamist movements do not follow the trend of the times.

3. Nationalism: State Political Supremacy

It’s not easy to unite the visions and goals of many people to build a community.

The state is a form of large community consisting of many people from various backgrounds. As
with any community or other form of organization, in order to uphold the state, the cooperation and unity of
its members is needed.

Without unity in a country, it will be very difficult to maintain the country’s sovereignty.
One of the most intensively discussed and put forward as a “glue” between residents in a country is
nationalism.

4. Building Nationalism Through Language
and Culture

Building Language and Cultural Nationalism is a book full of field data and in-depth analysis of the nation’s
wealth.

National ties are actually composed of primordial bonds of various ethnic, linguistic, cultural and religious
groups spread throughout the archipelago which is clearly illustrated in the cases of the Acehnese, Dayaks in
West Kalimantan, Tetun and Malacca in East Nusa Tenggara, and ethnic relations in the Papua and Papua regions.
New Guinea.

5. Mining Nationalism in Indonesia

Mining is a crucial issue in the socio-political constellation in post-New Order Indonesia.
This is related to the many interests and actors involved in the mining sector. The
massive interest and actors are also part of the important implications of the policy of decentralizing
power from the center to the regions.

Power that was originally monolithic then developed into a pluralist with the formation of new power
centers at the local level.
However, the normative premise of decentralization which says that
the transfer of authority will foster local democracy in the community space, turns out to be a mere figment
of imagination.

The context of small kings in the regions directly strengthens this stigma with the emergence of regional
ruling regimes in populist, technocratic, and also dynastic forms.
Decentralization has also
attracted the attention of global actors to participate in instilling influence and interest in the local
space.

The entry of these global actors then adds to the complexity of the dynamics of power contestation between
global, local and national actors in regional decentralization.
Local actors try to show
national actors that decentralization can make regions self-sufficient.

Anyone who is a policy maker or mining practitioner in the mineral and coal sector must read this book.

Now we know that nationalism is an understanding of love for the motherland and is
the glue that binds the nation.
Sinaumed’s can get all the books on nationalism at
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