National integration – reflects the compositional form of a process of unity from the collection of individuals from various diverse regions. A simple example of national integration that Sinaumed’s can find is the flag ceremony. The country of Indonesia with a diversity of tribes and cultures from Sabang to Merauke makes its society heterogeneous.
National integration is needed to reconcile these differences. The concept of national integration is a coalition of countries that occupy a certain territory within a sovereign country. In general, national integration reflects the composition of the unified process of bringing together individuals from different and diverse regions.
Definition of National Integrity
National integration is the unification or assimilation of nations so that they become one unified whole. There are various definitions of national integration. According to the Big Indonesian National Dictionary (KBBI), integration means assimilation until it becomes a unified whole. Even though the meaning of the word “nation” means nation.
Therefore, national integration is a process of uniting regions that make a difference. In a political sense, national integration is the integration of various social and cultural groups into a unified national territory that develops a national identity. From an anthropological point of view, national integration is a process of adjusting to various cultural factors to achieve harmony of existing functions in people’s lives.
So basically, national integration is an important concept that all citizens need to understand. In terms of national integration, among others, there are conditions, formations and obstacles. The following is the definition of national integration according to experts in detail:
1. According to Dr. Nazardin Shamsdin
National integration is the process of uniting a nation which covers all aspects of its life, namely political, social, economic and cultural aspects.
2. According to Howard Wiggins
National integration is the unification of individual parts of society into one unit or a more complete whole, or the unification of many small communities into one state.
3. According to Myron Weiner
National integration is the process of various social and cultural groups in one region forming a national identity.
4. According to J. Soedjati Djiwandono
National integration is a way to reconcile continuity in national unity in the broadest sense with the right to self-determination.
5. According to Safari in Bahar
National integration means the unification or improvement of various elements of the nation that were originally separated.
6. According to Alfani
National integration is the formation of a national identity and the integration of various social groups from culture into a unified territory.
7. According to KBBI
National integration is a form that integrates various cultural and social groups regionally and forms a national identity.
Concept of National Integrity
The concept of vertical national integration involves the relationship between people and government that are vertically integrated with each other. The concept of integration also includes how central and local governments can be integrated.
The concept of horizontal national integration includes the unification of the Indonesian nation which has a relatively high level of pluralism. How to build the same national identity, even though community groups, religions, ethnicities and identities are different.
National Integration, with the motto Bhineka Tunggal Ika, unites various cultural differences or social groups in one region to form a harmonious whole within the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia (NKRI), or is a form of effort to combine.
In other words, national integration is the desire and awareness to unite as one country, the state of Indonesia. The following is an explanation of the concept of national integration that can be seen politically and anthropologically:
- Political Definition of National Integration is the process of integrating different cultural and social groups into a unified national territory, which forms a national identity.
- Anthropological understanding of national integration is the process of adapting different elements from different cultures so that there is a harmony of functions in social life.
Various types of diversity that exist in Indonesia must be protected and maintained by all elements of society. Don’t make differences as contradictions, because these differences and diversity are the wealth and benefits that Indonesia has.
National integration becomes a process of uniting the differences that exist within a country in order to create unity for its people. To achieve national integration, several factors and conditions must be met, including recognition from all elements of society.
The general concept and understanding of national integration is an effort or process to unite differences that exist within a country to create national harmony and harmony. National integration is important to achieve national unity and integrity.
In Indonesia, the concept of national integration from the past has been intensively applied. Given the ethnic and cultural background of the Indonesian people, achieving national unity is an important and absolute necessity for creating national and state harmony in the country.
However, achieving national integration is not easy. To achieve this requires the participation and contribution of all levels of society. In addition to the rules, values and norms that have been agreed upon, this is also one of the conditions for achieving national integration.
National Integration Requirements
In practice and in its achievements in the field, national integrity requires several conditions to achieve it because integrity cannot be possessed without any effort, including in the nation and state. Below are the three main requirements for achieving a national integration process in Indonesia that Sinaumed’s needs to know:
1. The Existence of Mass Consciousness
The main condition for building national integrity and unity is the awareness of all people that relations are necessary to meet their needs. National integration can only be achieved with the contribution of all elements of society.
2. Agreement on Rules and Guidelines
The next requirement is the creation of community agreements regarding social norms and values that are preserved and used as guidelines. All people must agree to the rules of life that have been set.
3. Existence of Applicable Values and Norms
National integration can also be achieved through the existence of social norms and values that are used as standard rules in carrying out the process of social integration. These values and norms are important as rules that apply in society.
Types of National Integration
In practice, national integration also has several types that explain every integrity phenomenon that occurs within the nation and state as follows:
- Assimilation integration is a form of integration which is a blend of two or more cultures that eliminates the original cultural characteristics that are accepted by society.
- Acculturation integration is a combination of two or more cultures without eliminating the characteristics of the original culture in their environment.
- Normative integration is integration based on the norms that connect society.
- Equipment integration is integration that is proven to be the result of individual unity in society.
- Idealistic integration is integration that is carried out and proven by a strong spiritual bond without any coercion.
- Functional integration is integration that takes place for certain functions of all parties in society.
Factors Forming National Integration
The formation of national integration has certain factors as follows:
1. Feelings of Unity and Struggle
One of the most important factors and contributors to national integrity and unity is the feeling of sharing the same fate and friendship. It started in the colonial period when Indonesians, regardless of ethnicity, religion, race or class, united for independence from the same will.
2. Want Unity
One of the events that showed Indonesia’s desire to unite was the Youth Pledge incident on October 28, 1928. The Indonesian people wanted to unite with the same fighting spirit in accordance with the nation’s ideals.
3. Love the Motherland
The factors that affect national integration are also caused by the Indonesian people’s love for their homeland. This is evident to this day in the struggle for the conquest, maintenance and occupation of the Republic of Indonesia.
4. Forms of National Idealism
National Integration is a form of national ideology that is mutually agreed upon. Through Pancasila ideology, Indonesia, which has many differences and diversity, can continue to unite. This is because the values of Pancasila apply to society, the nation and the life of the nation.
5. Mutual Cooperation Culture
The factor that allows for national integration is the existence of a Culture of Gotong Royong. The Gotong Royong culture is known as the hallmark of the individuality of the Indonesian people, which has been passed down from generation to generation and has been preserved to this day.
6. Predicting Foreign Threats
National integration is also important in predicting external threats. Forms of external threats can be in the form of occupation of the outermost regions or islands of Indonesia.
Obstacle to National Integration
In addition to the supporting factors for forming national integration, there are also things that can hinder it, such as the following:
1. Diverse Indonesian Society
The existing community is very diverse and includes various ethnicities, religions, races and other groups. In fact, it has been proven that there are thousands of ethnic groups in Indonesia that hinder national integration due to strict differences.
2. The area of Indonesia
The size of Indonesia’s territory can also hinder national integration. Indonesia is known as an archipelagic country with more than 17,000 islands separated by vast oceans.
3. A Strong Understanding of Ethnocentrism
Ethnocentrism is a form of ethnic group fanaticism that recognizes that their culture is superior to other cultures. This allows all Indonesian ethnic groups to believe that their culture is superior to other tribes. This situation can be a threat to national integration.
4. Uneven Development
Given Indonesia’s vast territory, the challenge in carrying out national integration is development inequality. The regions of Java and western Indonesia may be more developed than eastern Indonesia. This may lead to dissatisfaction with some stakeholders.
5. Erosion of Indigenous Culture Begins
Indonesia Erosion of indigenous culture can also hinder national integration. The weakness of a country’s cultural values stems from the strong influence of foreign culture that is not in accordance with the country’s personality, either through direct or indirect contact.
Example of National Integrity
The application of national integration can be realized in everyday life. The following is an example of national integration of the school environment and also the community:
School uniforms are the same for all school children. Regardless of parental class, economy, ethnicity, race or religion, they wear school uniforms. Usually only the character of the institution that distinguishes them. If the school is Muslim, it will use a uniform with a more closed form or a hijab for female students.
This all means national integration in schools. Combining all existing elements to achieve a common goal. Uniforms for teachers and principals as well as students are also part of national integration.
2. Implementation of mutual cooperation
The Indonesian nation is known as a society that has very high human values. Gotong Royong leaves many differences in society to achieve common goals. Working together simplifies all existing problems. It’s the same weight as carrying it, and it’s the same as carrying it lightly.
This is a term we often hear and read about. Implementation of gotong royong is lower in urban communities. Few people do. There are still many areas in rural communities where everything is judged based on sincerity, not material things.
3. Respect each other
Mutual respect and respect is another form of national integration. This is especially important in a pluralistic society like Indonesia. Mutual respect and gratitude among people of different ethnicities, different cultures, different customs, different races and different religions. This attitude guides humans to live in harmony and peace.
4. Acculturation and Cultural Acculturation
All regions in Indonesia have different cultures and customs. The process of national integration in terms of culture occurs through acculturation and assimilation. Therefore, all aligned cultures try to unite and adapt. Acculturation and assimilation often create a more advanced country’s culture without neglecting the local culture.
The most famous example of acculturation and assimilation occurred when immigrants from Java settled in Lampung. Two different cultures united in the same field. Initially, due to ethnic differences and differences, there were frequent conflicts between the two tribes. But over time, the people of Lampung and immigrants from Java were able to coexist peacefully.
5. Compliance with Laws
Rules issued in the public interest. This is to ensure that one’s rights do not conflict with the rights of others. Thus, national integration is also achieved through compliance with regulations. For example, follow the rules of the road: If people don’t follow each other, the roads will be chaotic, making crossings for pedestrians and cars easy for accidents to occur.
6. Religious tolerance
Indonesia has six religions that are recognized as state religions. Human rights are highly protected here. Religion and freedom to practice religion according to one’s beliefs is well developed. The Indonesian nation which has racial and religious diversity has a high level of tolerance compared to other countries which only have racial diversity.
This example of inter-religious tolerance has led to the success of national integration in the decades of independence. Remember that forgiveness does not mean that all believers must participate in various religious activities. Tolerance means not disturbing worship or other religious activities.
7. Flag Ceremony
An example of national identity is the flag ceremony. The flag ritual, which is held every Monday at school, takes place on certain holidays, such as Independence Day and Youth Pledge Day, and is part of national integration.
Currently, by waving the red and white flag and singing the national anthem and the national anthem, a sense of love for the motherland and an attitude of self-sacrifice permeates the students. In the flag ceremony, students also practice discipline about obeying rules, obeying teachers, and wearing uniforms which are part of obeying rules.
So, that’s an explanation of national integrity, starting from the definition, concept, types, supporting and inhibiting factors to examples in everyday life or at school. Does Sinaumed’s feel that it has been integrated nationally? As a nation’s generation, we certainly understand the concept of national integration. To learn more broadly, Sinaumed’s can access sinaumedia’s collection of books on national integration at www.sinaumedia.com, such as the following book recommendations: Enjoy studying. #Friends Without Limits.