Get to know the figure of Uthman Bin Affan as a caliph and friend of the Prophet

Uthman Bin Affan – Prophet Muhammad SAW is a human figure who is most loved by all his
people, but not only among his people, his family and friends also love him very much.
As a
friend who lived at the same time as the prophet and spent his days with the prophet, of course, the nature
and character of a friend of the prophet is not much different from the noble character of the prophet
himself.

Of the several companions of the prophet that we know, one of them who was once the caliph replacing
leadership after the departure of the prophet was Uthman Bin Affan.
He is the figure of the
third caliph after Abu Bakr and Umar Bin Khattab who rose to continue the just and prosperous
government.

Imitating his figure must be very good because he is also known to have a good role model and should be an
example for the next generation, especially Muslims around the world.

For this reason, it is good for us to follow his story in this discussion which will summarize his life journey
as a caliph and companion of the Prophet Muhammad SAW.

Further discussion regarding Uthman Bin Affan can be seen below!

Life History of Uthman Bin Affan

‘Uthman bin’ Affan 17 June 579 AD was the third Caliph who ruled from 644 AD to 656 AD and was the longest
reigning Rashidun Caliph.
Like his two predecessors, ‘Uthman was one of the main companions of
the Prophet Muhammad.
His successive marriages to the two daughters of the Prophet Muhammad and
Khadijah earned him the nickname Dzun Nurain (holder of two lamps).

During his reign, the Muslim government expanded its territory into Fars (now Iran) in 650 and parts of
Khorāsān (now Afghanistan) in 651. Armenian conquests had begun in the 640s.
Uthman bin Affan
bin Abi Al-Ash bin Umayyah bin Abdu Shams bin Abdu Manaf bin Qushay bin Kilab.

Uthman was born to a father named Affan bin Abi al-‘As, from the Umayyad tribe, and to a mother named Arwa
bint Kurayz, from Abd Shams, a wealthy and respected Quraysh tribe in Mecca.
Uthman had a
younger sister, Aminah.
Uthman was born in Ta’if.

He is listed as one of the 22 Meccans who could write. His father, Affan, died young while
traveling abroad, leaving Uthman an important legacy.
He became a merchant like his father, and
his business thrived, making him one of the wealthiest men among the Quraysh.

Uthman bin Affan was a friend of the Prophet and also the third Caliph from Rashidun Khulafaur.
He is known as a rich and reliable businessman in the economic field but very generous.
He greatly helped the economy of Muslims in the early days of Islamic da’wah. He was
nicknamed Dzun Nurain which means one with two lights.
This nickname was obtained because
Uthman married the second and third daughters of Rasulullah ﷺ Ruqayyah and Umm Kulthum.

Uthman bin Affan was born in 574 AD from the Umayyads. His mother’s name was Arwa bint Kuriz
bin Rabiah.
He converted to Islam at the invitation of Abu Bakr and belonged to the As-Sabiqun
al-Awwalun group (the first group to convert to Islam).
Rasulullah ﷺ himself described Uthman
bin Affan as the most honest and humble Muslim.
Imam Muslim narrated that Aisyah asked
Rasulullah ﷺ, “Abu Bakr came in but you were normal and didn’t pay attention to him, then Umar also came to
you normally and didn’t pay special attention.
But when Uthman came in, you kept fixing your
clothes, what’s wrong?”
Allah’s Messenger replied: “Am I not ashamed of those whom even the
angels are ashamed of?”

At the time of the raging Dzatirriqa War and the Ghatfahan War, where Rasulullah ﷺ raised the banner of
war, Uthman was believed to be the mayor of Medina.
During the Battle of Tabuk, Uthman donated
950 camels and 70 horses, plus a personal contribution of 1,000 dirhams for the Battle of Tabuk, which was a
third of the cost of the war.
Uthman bin Affan also showed his generosity by buying a spring
called Rumah from a man from the Ghifar tribe for 35,000 dirhams.

He dedicates water resources for the benefit of society. During the reign of Abu Bakr, Uthman
also donated grain which was transported by 1000 camels to help those in need during the dry season.

He was the first king to expand the Masjid al-Haram in Mecca and the Prophet’s Mosque in Medina as more and
more Muslims practiced the fifth pillar of Islam (hajj).
He creates security policy ideas for
his people;
construction of a special building for courts and case decisions that were
previously conducted in mosques;
developed agriculture, conquered several small areas around
the border such as Syria, North Africa, Persia, Khurasan, Palestine, Cyprus, Rhodes, and formed a strong
navy.

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The Beginning of Entering Islam

When the Prophet Muhammad SAW received revelations and preached Islam, Abu Bakr became the first person to
convert to Islam.
After taking a business trip to Syria in 611 AD, Abu Bakr came to Uthman bin
Affan to invite him to convert to Islam.
Uthman also decided to convert to Islam and was later
brought by Abu Bakr to meet the Prophet Muhammad to declare his faith.

In this way, Uthman became one of the first to convert to Islam, after Ali, Umar, Abu Bakr and several
others.
From then on, he remained loyal to the Prophet Muhammad SAW and became one of the
Prophet’s main companions.
After receiving an invitation to move to Medina, Uthman became one
of the people who left and accompanied the Prophet Muhammad SAW in spreading Islam until the end of the
Prophet’s life.

Uthman accepted Islam easily, as he had a dreamlike vision when he returned from Syria. As he
struggled to fall asleep, Uthman heard a voice calling: “O sleeping one, wake up for Muhammad has appeared
in Mecca,” he said.

Until he returned, he had never heard of the new religion. Uthman contacted Abu Bakr, who
informed him that he had sworn allegiance to the Prophet Muhammad and had accepted the new religion.
Then he brought Uthman to the Prophet Muhammad.

Uthman listened to the story of the experiences of the Prophet Muhammad and the circumstances under which
his prophethood was revealed.
He immediately accepted Islam and then moved with great ease in
the circle of the Prophet Muhammad’s companions.

When the message of the Prophet Muhammad reached the public, it threw Makkah into chaos. Many
leaders are afraid of losing money.
His God-only message means that the entry of pilgrims to
the Kaaba to worship its many idols will now slow or even stop.

Challenges after joining Islam

As the ranks of the Prophet Muhammad’s followers began to grow, the Quraysh began a campaign of persecution
and harassment of the new Muslims.
The Quraysh were ready to fight to protect their idols and
also to protect their economic and social way of life.
The campaign quickly escalated into
violence and abuse and even their family members were not safe.

Uthman’s acceptance of Islam caused a backlash in his own family. Uthman’s father had died but
his uncle tried to restrain Uthman.
He tied her hands and feet and locked her in the
cupboard.

His mother and uncle wanted him to stop converting to Islam, but he refused. Uthman also faced
difficult choices in his marriage.
His wives refused to accept Islam and although he tried to
convince them of the beauty of Islam, he eventually had to divorce her.

Become caliph

When the Prophet Muhammad SAW died in 632, Abu Bakr became the caliph who ruled over the Muslims.
At this time, Uthman bin Affan and other friends became the main advisors to the government of Abu
Bakr.
After the death of Abu Bakr in 634, Umar bin Khattab succeeded him until his death in
644.

After Umar took office as the second Rashidun Khulafaur, Uthman remained in Medina to run his business and
participate in government.
He experienced various events, until Umar bin Khattab died because
he was killed by Abu Lu’luah.

After that, discussions were held to choose the next caliph. There were six candidates
proposed, namely Ali bin Abi Talib, Uthman bin Affan, Abdurrahman bin Auf, Sa’ad bin Abi Waqqas, Zubair bin
Awwam and Talhah bin Ubaidillah.
However, Abdurrahman bin Auf, Sa’ad bin Abi Waqqas, Zubair bin
Awwam and Talhah bin Ubaidillah withdrew, leaving Uthman and Ali alone.

After an opinion poll, the majority wanted Usman to replace Umar as the third king. So in the
month of Muharram 23 H or 644 AD, Uthman bin Affan became caliph at the age of 70 years.

The reign of Uthman Bin Affan

One of the things that Uthman bin Affan did during his time as caliph was to expand his territory and
establish a naval fleet.
His government succeeded in controlling Barqah, West Tripoli, the
southern part of Nubah’s country in Africa, Armenia, Tabaristan, Amu Darya, Balkha, Harah, Kabul, Haznah in
Turkistan in Asia and Cyprus in Europe.
Uthman also divided the Muslim empire into ten
provinces with an emir or governor each.

Under his reign, the Muslim Ummah experienced the greatest period of prosperity and prosperity.
That said, people can go on pilgrimage more than once. Uthman also built a police and
court which always stood in the former mosque.
Uthman’s most glorious achievement was the
compilation of the Koran which was then reproduced and sent to Mecca, Syria, Basrah, Kufa and Medina.

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End of Reign

Uthman bin Affan ruled for two periods, each lasting six years. However, during his second
reign, there were divisions and rebellions because the Umayyads gave a strategic position in government to
his family.
In 35 AH or 655 AD, around 1,500 people came to Medina to protest Uthman’s
policies.

The example of Uthman bin Affan

Here are 5 exemplary examples from Uthman bin Affan:

1. Care about religion and people

Uthman bin Affan was mentioned as the third caliph after the death of ‘Umar bin Khattab.
Uthman bin Affan was chosen because of his noble and sincere attitude and behavior in his efforts
to develop Islam.

After becoming Caliph, much was done to advance Islam. One of his services is to establish a
group of Al-Quran publishers chaired by Zaid bin Thabit.
This is due to the interest of Muslims
in how to read the Qur’an because the existing texts are not in order and there are disputes about how to
read them.

The first step is to collect Al-Quran mushaf in the community. Because the mushaf of the Koran
among the people may not be in accordance with the truth.
The next task is to copy and compile
the Al-Qur’an manuscripts which are related to the manuscripts kept by Hafsah bint Umar which are still well
and properly preserved.
The recorded or published Al-Qur’an is then called “Mushaf Al-Imam” or
Ottoman Mushaf to be used as a guide in reading the correct Al-Qur’an.

2. His generosity

Uthman bin Affan is known as a generous figure. During the time of Caliph Abu Bakr, the city
of Mecca was hit by famine due to a prolonged dry season.
When coming from the land of Syam
Uthman came a trade caravan with 1000 camels carrying food.
Before entering the city, Uthman’s
entourage was stopped by Mecca merchants to buy all of Uthman’s luggage in exchange for a large profit.
But Uthman was not tempted at all because he intended to give all the goods he brought to the
poor.

3. Courage

Caliph Uthman bin Affan was fearless in the face of 120,000 Roman soldiers in North Africa who were fully
equipped for war.
When the Islamic territory expanded and many areas were surrounded by seas,
to protect Muslim areas from enemy attacks, Caliph Uthman established fleets and naval forces. Islam always
won in naval battles.

4. Simple and Humble

Uthman bin Affan was classified as a rich man, but he did not live in luxury. His behavior in
life is simple and unobtrusive, such as dressing, eating, and living.

Syurahbil bin Muslimin reported that “Uthman used to eat well as the rulers usually served him, but at home he
used to eat bread with vinegar or oil.”

5. Firm in the faith

After hearing that Uthman bin Affan converted to Islam, his uncle Al Hakam bin Abil Ash was very angry.
Uthman was bound and beaten many times to return to his ancestral religion. But Uthman
remained firm in his beliefs and would not leave the religion taught by the Prophet no matter what.
Year

Conclusion

This is a brief discussion of Uthman Bin Affan’s biography.

Getting to know the figure of Uthman Bin Affan gives us an idea that there was a human figure who was so kind
after the departure of the Prophet Muhammad SAW who gave us the opportunity to become part of this good person
and teach good life lessons for the next generation.

Thus the review about Uthman Bin Affan. For Sinaumed’s who want to know more about the figure of
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Author: Pandu Akram
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