Get to know the history, heyday, and the founder of the Umayyad dynasty

Founder of the Umayyad Dynasty – When discussing the Umayyad Dynasty, it is no stranger to
the struggle of Rasulullah SAW in preaching to spread Islam.
Sinaumed’s certainly knows, after the
death of the Prophet and his companions, such as Abu Bakr, Umar, Usman, and Ali, a new leadership was
formed, namely the Umayyad dynasty.
Initially, the Islamic leadership after the Rashidun
Khulafaur was handed over to the son of Ali bin Abi Talib, namely Hasan.
However, because Hasan
was focused on uniting Muslims, who at that time were in conflict, the leadership was handed over to other
friends.
Wow, who is that? Come on, let’s look at the further explanation
below.

Founder of the Umayyad dynasty

The Umayyad dynasty was born in 41 H or 661 AD. The founder of this dynasty was Muawiyyah bin Abi Sufyan.
Muawiyyah has a well-known nickname, namely Abu Abdurrahman and Al Quraysh Al Umawi Al
Makki.

He is a tall male figure with white skin as well as handsome and dignified. In addition,
Caliph Umar bin Khattab also explained Muawiyyah’s stature, which he called someone who styled like a king
and liked cleanliness.
This is reasonable, considering that Muawiyyah was indeed born into a
respected family in Mecca.

Muawiyyah himself was the son of Abu Sufyan and Hindun bint Utbah who used to oppose the Prophet’s Islamic
teachings.
Place of birth in Khaif, Mina before 15 years before the migration. The
Muawiyyah family only embraced Islam after the events of Fathu Makkah or the liberation of Mecca by the
Prophet in 630 AD.

After embracing Islam, the Prophet appointed Muawiyah as one of the authors of the revelation.
This is in accordance with the communication between the Prophet and the Angel Gabriel.
Even though previously, Muawiyyah was someone who strongly opposed the Prophet.

However, the Prophet’s heart was so soft to those who repented and emigrated to embrace Islam.
It is recorded that Muawiyah became the scribe of the revelation until Rasulullah SAW died in 632
AD. Apart from that, he was also believed to be the Islamic military commander in the war under Commander
Abu Ubaidah bin Jarrah.

Before establishing the Umayyad dynasty, Muawiyyah himself was a governor of Sham during the time of the caliphs
Umar bin Khattab and Uthman bin Affan, he succeeded in uniting the entire territory of the country of Sham with
his ability to lead a country.

In addition, Muawiyyah has also strengthened his position with good military strength. He even
spent a lot of his wealth to gather people with good military abilities.
Muawiyyah also
encouraged Umar to form a navy, but Umar refused.

It was only after the leadership of Caliph Uthman that the navy was formed according to Muawiyyah’s advice.
He was a capable leader in war. His ability was recognized by Rasulullah SAW.

Muawiyyah himself died in 680 AD After ruling and serving in the Umayyad dynasty for approximately 20
years.
He died due to a long illness at the age of 80, then he was buried in Babus Shaghir,
Damascus.

Muawiyah Brothers

Muawiyyah was a child born to the respected Quraysh tribe. He has many siblings, both
biological and half-siblings.
Here are the brothers of Muawiyah bin Abu Sufyan:

1. Yazid bin Abu Sufyan

Yazid is Muawiyah’s half brother. As for his mother is Zainab bint Naufal. Then
Yazid served as governor in Jund Al Urdun.

2. Utbah bin Abu Sufyan

Utbah was Muawiyah’s first sibling. He served as Governor in Egypt. His ability
to lead is also recognized by many people.
He became a brother who was trusted by
Muawiyyah.

3. Anbasah bin Abu Sufyan

He is Muawiyyah’s half-brother who was born to a woman named Atiqa bint Abi Udhayhir.

4. Ramlah daughter of Abu Sufyan

Ramlah or Umm Habibah was Muawiyyah’s half sister. Ramlah was born to a mother named Safiyyah
bint Abi Al Ash.
She is also the cousin of Caliph Uthman bin Affan as well as being one of the
wives of the Prophet Muhammad SAW.

5. Ummul Hakam bint Abu Sufyan

Ummul Hakam was Muawiyyah’s first biological sister.

6. Azzah bint Abu Sufyan

7. Umaimah bint Abu Sufyan

Umaimah the half-sister of Muawiyyah, her mother was the same as Ramlah’s mother, Safiyyah bint Abi al-Ash.

8. Muhammad bin Abi Sufyan

9. Hanzalah bin Abu Sufyan.

Hanzhalah is Muawiyyah’s third sibling. He took part in the Battle of Badr, and was eventually
killed.

10. Amr bin Abu Sufyan

He is another half-brother of Muawiyyah from a mother named Safiyyah bint Abi Amr.

Muawiyah’s wives

The wives who accompanied Muawiyah during his lifetime, both those who had been divorced and died, were as
follows:

1. Maisun bint Bahdal al-Kalbiyah

Maysun is a child who comes from Bani Kalb. Bani Kalb itself is a tribe that controls the
Syrian steppe.
Maysun married Muawiyyah purely because of tribal union. Muawiyyah
divorced Maysun because he was not used to living in a big palace and at the same time preferred to live in
his cool village.

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2. Katwa bint Qarazhah al-Naufaliyah

Katwa is part of Bani Naufal. Namely a group of Quraysh whose members are descendants of
Naufal bin Abdul Manaf.
Katwa was very loyal to accompany Muawiyyah in the war in
Cyprus.

3. Fakhitah bint Qarazhah al-Naufaliyah

Fakhitah still has a biological relationship with Katwa. He is also part of Bani Naufal.
Muawiyyah married her after his brother Katwa died.

4. Na’ilah bint Imarah al-Kalbiyah

Muawiyah’s wife who is a cousin of his first wife, namely Maysun. However, the marriage did
not last long, because Muawiyyah rejected her because of some problem.

Muawiyah’s children

From his marriages with several of the women above, Muawiyyah was blessed with the following children:

1. Yazid bin Muawiyyah

Yazid is the son of Muawiyah and Maisun bint Bahdal. Unfortunately Muawiyyah divorced Maysun
when Yazid was still small.
Therefore, he followed his mother to his hometown until his
childhood was spent in his mother’s village.

2. Abdurrahman bin Muawiyyah

Born from Muawiyah’s wife named Fakhitah bint Qarizh. Abdurrahman died when he was still
small.

3. Abdullah bin Muawiyah

Muawiyyah’s second child from Fakhitah bint Qarizh. Abdullah is a mentally retarded and weak
child.
Therefore, his father prefers Yazid to be his successor one day.

4. Ramlah bint Muawiyah

Muawiyyah’s daughter who, when she was an adult, married Amr bin Uthman bin Affan.

5. Hindun bint Muawiyah

Muawiyah’s second daughter who was married to Abdullah bin Amir, cousin of Caliph Uthman bin Affan.

6. Aisyah bint Muawiyah

7. Atikah bint Muawiyah

8. Shafiyyah bint Muawiyah

Muawiyah’s Contribution to the Rashidun
Khulafaur Period

Muawiyyah was very instrumental in several ways after he embraced Islam. Several caliphs in
his time were greatly assisted by the role of Muawiyah.
Here is the explanation:

1. During the Time of Abu Bakr Ash-Shiddiq

At this time many apostate movements emerged due to the influence of false prophets. This is
very disturbing internal conditions that occur.
Muawiyah’s role in this matter was to help
fight the false prophet, namely Musailamah Al Kadzab.
After that, he was also sent by Caliph
Abu Bakr to fight in Syria as a commander.

2. During the time of Umar bin Khattab

Several important roles were held directly by Muawiyyah at this time, as follows:

a. Open Qaisariyah

Caliph Umar assigned Muawiyyah to liberate the city of Qaisariyah from infidels. It took him
quite a long time to break through the Qaisariyah stronghold.
Finally he managed to conquer
this city.

b. Liberate the Sham Coast

The coastal region of Syria became the next target for liberation during the Caliph Umar.
Muawiyyah also played an important role in this liberation mission, until he finally won.

c. Appointed Governor of Jordan

The two previous events made Umar think about appointing Muawiyah as governor in Jordan. He
also managed to lead this country for decades.

d. Appointed Governor of
Damascus

After his brother died from Tha’un’s illness at that time, he was ordered by Umar to become governor in Damascus.

e. Gives an Idea Regarding the
Distribution of Troops

Caliph Umar at that time had to face attacks from two major regions, namely, Byzantium and Persia.
Therefore, Muawiyah proposed to divide the army into two parts in order to guard the boundaries of
the caliphate, namely, hot troops and cold troops.
He also fought with the ferocious army
against the Byzantines in 20 H.

f. Forming the Navy

Muawiyyah submitted his umpteenth proposal to Caliph Umar regarding the formation of a navy.
According to him, the dominant Muslim troops were Arabs who were not familiar with the sea.
This can be a disadvantage if the troops are swallowed up by the ferocious sea waves during
battle.

3. During the time of Uthman bin Affan

During the Caliph Uthman, Muawiyah played many important roles. He also did this because
Muawiyyah was of the same clan or clan with Uthman, namely the Umayyads.
Here are some things
that Muawiyah did at that time:

a. Appointed Governor of Syam

As was the case during the Caliph Umar period, Muawiyyah also had the opportunity to rule over a country
during the Uthman Caliph period.
He was appointed governor of Syria completely, after the two
previously appointed leaders died and became ill.
He ruled Syria, until the death of Caliph
Uthman.

b. Cypriot Liberation

Muawiyyah had great determination in his mission to liberate several borders which were difficult areas.
After the rejection during the time of Caliph Umar when proposing the liberation of Cyprus, Uthman
finally allowed him to carry out the mission.
He also succeeded in occupying Cyprus, besides
that he also learned that it turned out that Cyprus was only a Byzantine puppet.

c. Helping Uthman Facing the Test
Storm

Uthman experienced many severe tests during his leadership. The exam is present both
internally and externally.
For example, the people accused Uthman of embezzling money until he
appointed his own family to office.
However, Muawiyyah was always on Uthman’s side.

Background to the Establishment of the Umayyad
Dynasty

The establishment of the Umayyad dynasty dates back to the end of the reign of Khalifaturrasydin.
After Uthman died because he was killed, finally Ali’s friend replaced him to become the next
leader.
But during his reign a lot of chaos that occurred.

Muawiyah was among those who urged Uthman’s killer to be found immediately. However, for
Caliph Ali this was not an easy thing to do at this time.
Until there was a conflict between
the two that led to the Shiffin War.

The Shiffin war ends with an agreement or tahkim. Unfortunately, this has split several camps,
such as the Khawarij, Shiites and Muawiyah.
Shortly after this incident, Caliph Ali was also
killed and this was a sign of the end of the Khulafaur Rashidun leadership.

After Caliph Ali died, the leadership was continued by his son, Hasan. However, to end the
feud between the camps, Hasan finally chose to step down and hand over leadership to Muawiyah.
This was the beginning of the formation of the Umayyad dynasty with its first leader
Muawiyyah.

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The Golden Age of the Umayyad Dynasty

The Umayyad dynasty had many contributions to the advancement of Islam. Since the end of the
leadership of
the Rashidun khulafaur , namely in 41 H or 661 AD, the Ummayah dynasty took
over the leadership of the Muslims.
The expansion of Islamic power, construction and
development of science is proof that this dynasty was once victorious.

Some of the caliphs of this dynasty have prominent historical records. There are at least four
known major caliphs, namely Muawiyah bin Abu Sufyan as the founder of the dynasty, Abdul Malik bin Marwan,
Al-Walid bin Abdul Malik, and Umar bin Abdul Aziz.
The following are the advances by the four
caliphs that we managed to compile from historical records.

1. Muawiyah bin Abu Sufyan

As the founder of the Umayyad dynasty, Muawiyah is known as Muawiyah I. He ruled this dynasty from 41 H to 60 H
or 661-680 AD. Some of the major policies he has carried out and are widely known for are as follows:

  • Moved the national capital from Kufa City, Iraq to Damascus, Syria.
  • Replacing the caliphate system of the khulafaur rashidin which appointed the caliph based on the
    deliberations of the Muslim community, became a kingdom that inherited leadership based on
    lineage.
  • Print a means of exchange of payment or money.
  • Establish a postal service to deliver goods. This service is equipped with special
    officials in their positions and horses in certain places as a means of transportation.
  • Ownership of property by the people is transferred to belong to God which will later be used for the benefit
    of the state and the people.
  • Providing space for Christians who are experts in their fields to get involved in economic, scientific
    and pharmaceutical development projects.
    An idea like this had previously been rejected at
    the time of the caliph Umar bin Khattab
    radhiyallahu anhu because of caution.
  • Establish a military intelligence agency to monitor the military strength of other countries.
  • Establish civil registration service posts to make it easier to coordinate the country’s civil affairs.

2. Abdul Malik bin Marwan

As the fifth caliph, Abdul Malik bin Marwan led the Umayyad dynasty in 65-86 AH / 684-705 AD The following are
the major accomplishments he has done:

  • Print your own currency that reads Arabic letters. This step was taken to replace the
    currency printed by the Roman Empire and the Persian Empire in areas that had been controlled by
    Islam.
  • Established a ship factory in the Tunisian region to strengthen the naval power.
  • Established a Special Court to deal with government employees and royal aides who committed wrongdoing.
  • Improving the work system of the postal service by increasing the number of postal expeditions so that the
    work system is more organized and reliable.
  • Established a beautiful magnificent building in the country.

3. Al-Walid bin Abdul Malik

As the sixth caliph, Al Walid bin Abdul Malik was nicknamed Al Walid I. He ruled the Umayyad dynasty in 86-96 H /
705-714 AD. During the time of Al Walid bin Abdul Malik, the Umayyad dynasty recorded its peak of glory.

The following are the innovations he has made so that he was able to bring his dynasty to the pinnacle of glory:

  • Providing teaching staff for orphans.
  • The elderly who had no friends in life, orphaned children, and travelers received special attention
    during this reign.
    This is because Al Walid I built nursing homes, orphanages, and halfway
    houses.
  • Persons with disabilities are provided with special institutions so that they can develop themselves despite
    their limitations.
  • The travelers built a special lake so they don’t get thirsty.
  • Al-Quran memorizers, scholars, the poor, and weak people get regular subsidies.
  • Provide guides for the blind.
  • Royal officials at the time of Al Walid I were strictly selected. Only those who are
    smart, clever, and have integrity are accepted.
  • Established factories and government buildings.
  • Build a special hospital for lepers.
  • Established free hospitals and clinics for sick people.
  • Renovating the Prophet’s Mosque in Medina and Al Aqsa Mosque in Palestine.
  • Roads are repaired and equipped with markings to make it easier for road users to use the road.

4. Omar bin Abdul Aziz

Caliph Umar bin Abdul Aziz was nicknamed Umar II because he was related by blood to the caliph Umar bin
Khattab.
From his mother’s path, Umar bin Abdul Aziz was the great-grandson of the main
companion of the Prophet Muhammad.

Not only close to blood ties, Umar bin Abdul Aziz’s piety was not much different from his predecessors.
He is careful of the world, concerned with the propagation of Islam, gentle towards the weak, hard
against all forms of cheating, and passionate about studying religion.
It was these reasons
that raised his rank before Allah so that his name became legendary, even though the peak of the glory of
the Umayyad dynasty did not occur in his era.

He was known as a scholar and scholar before being appointed caliph. The people and Islamic
leaders loved him before he sat in the government chair.
So when the announcement reached all
corners of the country, everyone was happy, except for the corrupt officials.

There are many things he has done for Islam and his dynasty. Some of them are:

  • Returning property to its owner. During the founding of the dynasty, private property
    ownership was not recognized
  • The followers of Islam grew rapidly without having to carry out many invasions of other countries.
    He uses diplomacy a lot.
  • The execution of the punishment must be carried out with the consent of the caliph.
  • Eradicating poverty in an instant to the point that no resident of Medina is entitled to receive zakat.
  • Send preachers all over the country.

Apart from the five points above, there are still many achievements that have been recorded by Umar bin
Abdul Aziz.
The country was really prosperous at that time. Unfortunately, his
leadership only lasted three years because God took him home before His grace.

He died from being poisoned by a royal maid. However, after being caught, he released the maid
and was ordered to isolate himself so as not to be punished by the state.
He left his family in
a state of little wealth because he felt he had no right to it all.

Conclusion

Sinaumed’s, from the whole story above we can see that Muawiyah was the founder of the Umayyad dynasty.
In the founding of this dynasty itself, there were many conflicts. However, thanks to
its ability, this dynasty can stand up to 14 generations of successors.

Oh yes, did you know that Muawiyah was a capable leader? This was widely acknowledged by
previous caliphs.
He also received many orders in very important roles. Until
finally his glorious period when he founded the Umayyad dynasty after the Rashidun Khulafaur ended.

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