Concepts, Functions, and Kinds of Social Values

Kinds of Social Values ​​- Values ​​are one of the guides or guidelines for humans to live life. Without value, maybe we will live life as we want. Not respecting each other or even depriving each other of the rights of each other. Therefore, in living life it is necessary to hold values.

In the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), value is defined as price (in the sense of estimated price); price of money (compared to the price of other money), intelligence numbers; seed; more or less content; rate; quality; characteristics (things) that are important or useful for humanity; something that perfects man according to his essence.

Meanwhile, according to Steeman, value is something that gives meaning to life, which provides a reference, point of departure and purpose of life. Value is something that is upheld, which can color and animate one’s actions. Values ​​are not only seen as mere beliefs, values ​​always involve mindsets and actions, so that there is a very close relationship between values ​​and ethics.

In line with Steeman, Rokeach also defines value as a deep belief about actions, actions or behavior that are considered bad. Meanwhile, according to Linda and Richard Eyre, values ​​are standards of behavior and attitudes that determine who we are, how we live and how we treat others. Of course good values ​​can make people better, live better and treat others better.

Tyler also defines value as an object, activity or idea expressed by individuals who control education in directing interests, attitudes and satisfaction. It is further explained that since humans have learned to value an object, activity and idea, this object becomes an important regulator of interest, attitude and satisfaction. Therefore, schools must help students find and strengthen meaningful and significant values ​​for students in obtaining personal happiness and making positive contributions to society.

Social Value Concept

In the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), value is defined as price (in the sense of estimated price); price of money (compared to the price of other money), intelligence numbers; seed; more or less content; rate; quality; characteristics (things) that are important or useful for humanity; something that perfects man according to his essence.

Meanwhile, social in the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), social is defined as relating to society; likes to pay attention to the public interest (like to help, donate, and so on).

Social values ​​themselves can be interpreted as values ​​held by a society regarding what is considered good and what is considered bad by society. Social values ​​are the result of a collective agreement that has been recognized and adhered to by a community group.

Although social values ​​are not written down and tend to be considered implicit or abstract. However, social values ​​are binding on individuals. Over time, a value can shift, change, adapt to the times, be updated, even be abandoned.

For example, the culture of greeting and greeting has begun to erode in urban communities due to self-occupation and the introduction of individualistic culture. This will be different if in the village, residents will greet each other, both those who pass by are familiar or only know their names.

Social values ​​that develop in a society become a way of life. It is always present in society and is practiced from generation to generation.

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It should be remembered that social values ​​are not a matter of right and wrong. It becomes a concept that exists within humans, is philosophical about what is considered good and what is considered bad. A thing can be said to be valuable if it is useful (use value), true (truth value), beautiful (aesthetic value), good (moral value), and so on.

Social values ​​are very necessary in society. This is because social values ​​are often used as a guideline for life by the community in determining attitudes in everyday life.

Not only that, social values ​​are also used as the value of human life in dealing with other humans. Social values ​​are not simply obtained when they are born. It is obtained through a value system taught by parents to their children with various adjustments.

Characteristics and Functions of Social Values

Social value can be identified from several characteristics that have been summarized from the and pages as follows.

  • Value is created socially, in the sense that value is the result of an agreement with a community to meet human needs and achieve certain goals,
  • Values ​​have a broad scope, including ways of behaving, customs/habits, and culture.
  • Social values ​​are passed down from generation to generation through social interaction over a relatively long period of time.
  • Social values ​​are not static, in the sense that over time values ​​can shift, change, be renewed and abandoned.
  • Social values ​​vary between communities due to differences in cultural systems.
  • Social values ​​are binding on individuals or groups in a society.
  • Created from a process of intensive human interaction and not behavior that was born.
  • Transformed through a learning process that includes socialization, acculturation, and diffusion.
  • There are social measures or rules that help meet social needs.
  • Different for each group of people.
  • Each value has a different effect on human action.
  • Can influence individual personality as a member of society.

Launching from, there are at least three functions of social value as follows.

1. As a Code of Conduct

Social values ​​contain the way individuals act in everyday life so that they can be accepted in society. Value as a guideline means that value takes on a function as a source of reference and guidance for individual life in thinking, acting, and behaving.

All actions taken by individuals on the basis of freedom of expression must still be guided by the values ​​or norms that exist in society. The goal is to stay under control and not harm themselves or the community group itself.

2. As Social Control

Social values ​​are formed from mutual agreements. Therefore, values ​​are binding on individuals or groups in a society. Value has a function as a limiter regarding things that are appropriate and inappropriate to do. As well as, reinforce behavior that is considered good and bad.

Thus, it is hoped that every individual who grows up in society will be good and not do evil or deviate. However, unfortunately these values ​​sometimes limit self-development. For example, women are not allowed to go to high school because later they will only become housewives or fight against their husbands. In fact, women who go to high school can educate their children properly and stay sane in running the household.

3. As Social Protector

Social values ​​are passed down from one generation to the next in a relatively long time. Social values ​​carry a broad vision, which is to encourage the creation of social order in social life.

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Values ​​have a function as a social protection that minimizes the occurrence of forms of social deviation and provides a feeling of security for individuals or groups in a society.

Kinds of Social Values

Launching from the and pages , social values ​​can be grouped by type as follows.

1. Material Values

Material value is everything whose function can be felt physically (physical elements). For example, stone can be used to build buildings. Therefore, stones have material values ​​that can be felt by humans.

2. Vital Value

Vital value consists of everything that is useful in supporting daily activities. For example, jackets in winter or rain are used to warm the body. However, in hot or dry season the jakret has no value or its use decreases. Jackets based on their uses are included in objects that have vital value.

3. Spiritual Values

Spiritual value includes everything whose benefits can be felt mentally or spiritually. Spiritual values ​​include religious, moral or goodness values, beauty or aesthetics, and truth. For example, every individual believes in a religion or belief and practices these teachings in everyday life.

Which teachings are believed to give peace and serenity in their hearts. The freedom to have a religion or belief and to worship according to religious teachings is part of spiritual values.

Spiritual values ​​can be grouped into four groups as follows.

  • The value of truth, namely the value that comes from the elements of human reason (logic, reason, reason, mind, creativity). For example iron when heated expands, 1 + 1 = 2.
  • The value of beauty, namely the value that comes from the elements of human feelings (feelings and aesthetics). For example, works of art.
  • Moral values, namely values ​​relating to good and bad, originate from elements of human nature such as will or will (intention and ethics). For example helping victims of natural disasters.
  • Religious value, namely the highest and absolute spiritual value originating from human belief or belief in God Almighty. For example, religious rituals.

Launching from the page, social values ​​can also be grouped based on their characteristics. The following is a more detailed explanation of the classification of social values.

1. Ingrained Social Value ( Internalized Value )

An ingrained value is a value that becomes a subconscious personality or encourages actions without thinking with a cool head. However, when the act is violated it will cause a deep sense of shame or guilt and is difficult to forget or erase. For example, people who have sex outside of marriage without responsibility when their partners are pregnant.

2. Dominant Value

Dominant values ​​are values ​​that are considered more important than other values. This can be seen from the choices made by individuals when faced with several alternative actions to choose from. Garmeds can determine whether or not a value is dominant based on several indicators as follows.

  • The number of people who adhere to these social values. Example: most people want change towards improvement (reform) in all areas of life.
  • The length of time the social value is felt or embraced by the members of the group.
  • The high effort to maintain or enforce these social values
  • The high position (prestige) of the person who carries or uses these social values.