Definition of Human Rights: Characteristics, Types, and Examples

Definition of Human Rights – In this world, every human being must have basic rights in life and these basic rights have existed since humans were born. In addition, these basic rights are universally recognized. These basic rights are known as Human Rights . With the existence of human rights, every human being has moral and legal protection, so that humans can be protected from various kinds of acts of violence, deprivation, persecution, and so on.

Humans who are protected from various kinds of things that can harm themselves (deprivation, persecution, etc.) will make their life freer and not feel any pressure. In other words, humans as creations of God Almighty will have a more decent life because of human rights.

Human rights itself began to be declared universally by the United Nations (UN) on December 10, 1948 or about 3 years after Indonesia experienced independence. The General Declaration of Human Rights ( The Universal Declaration of Human Rights ) was carried out with the aim of providing basic human rights freedoms to all people of the world. In addition, the declaration of human rights was also made with the aim of making people around the world aware to always respect and uphold human rights.

The Human Rights Declaration that has been proclaimed and agreed upon by nations, every country that is a member of the United Nations must respect, value and uphold human rights. Upholding human rights must be upheld so that every country can commit to advancing human life in accordance with Human Rights . In short, human rights must become a shared commitment for all citizens of the country.

Therefore, as part of the global community, we should participate in protecting and upholding human rights so that humans can live a freer and more worthy life. It doesn’t feel complete if you want to uphold human rights, but you don’t understand the meaning, characteristics, and types of human rights. So, in order to find out more about human rights, just read this article, Readers.

Definition of Human Rights

Humans, who are the creations of God Almighty, have the duty to maintain and maintain peace and prosperity for fellow human beings. This needs to be done so that environmental harmony can be maintained, so that human life becomes more prosperous and more worthy. Therefore, since birth, every human being has basic rights that are inherent in him. These basic rights must be respected, valued, maintained, and must not be taken away or taken forcibly by others so that human relations can become more harmonious.

The basic rights possessed by humans are better known as Human Rights . Even though every human being has human rights, one human being with another human being must maintain the life of society, nation and state.

These basic human rights that have been protected legally and universally can make fellow human beings have to respect and respect each other. In line with the understanding of human rights based on Law Number 39 of 1999 concerning Human Rights which reads “Human rights are a set of rights that are inherent in the nature and existence of humans as creatures of God Almighty and are His gifts that must be respected, upheld and protected by the state, law, government and everyone for the honor and protection of human dignity.”

Human rights do not only apply to people in several countries, but also apply to people throughout the world because human rights have been recognized and protected by the United Nations (UN). In line with the understanding of human rights based on KBBI, namely rights that are protected internationally (namely the UN Declaration of Human Rights ), such as the right to life, the right to independence, the right to own, the right to express opinions.

Therefore, human rights can protect humans from various kinds of torture that are carried out intentionally. However, human rights will not work properly or cannot be upheld, if humans do not carry out their obligations, namely to look after and protect fellow human beings properly.

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Understanding Human Rights According to Experts

Some experts also state the notion of Human Rights . The definition of human rights according to some experts is as follows:

1. Peter R. Baehr

In a book entitled Human Rights in Foreign Politics , Peter R. Baehr reveals that human rights are basic rights that already exist within every human being which are used for his own development, these basic rights have an absolute nature. and cannot be contested.

2.John Locke

Talking about Human Rights cannot be separated from an expert named John Locke. Quoted from the book The Second Treatise of Civil Government and a Letter Concerning Toleration, John Locke stated that human rights are rights given by God to humans, which consist of equal rights and freedoms as well as the right to defend life and to protect the property they own. .

3. AJM Milne

According to AJM Milne, human rights are rights that are owned by every human being throughout the world regardless of the human background itself, such as religion, nationality, ethnicity, social and cultural gender, and social status.

4. GJ Wolhoff

Quoted from the book Introduction to Constitutional Law of the Republic of Indonesia , GJ Wolhoff stated that human rights are rights that already exist within humans and are inherent in humans from birth. These rights must always exist in humans and cannot be taken away because it can cause humans to lose their status.

5. Austin Ranney

According to Austin Ranney, human rights are a space of freedom that belongs to an individual that has been regulated or formulated in a legal constitution and whose implementation has been guaranteed by the government or the state.

Characteristics of Human Rights

After discussing the meaning of Human Rights based on the constitution and according to experts, we will now discuss the characteristics of Human Rights .

1. Human Rights are Essential

The first characteristic of human rights is that they are essential, which means that human rights are rights that are given to all human beings from birth. Therefore, every human being must uphold the basic rights that are already owned by other human beings. If fellow human beings can respect and uphold each other, it is very likely that harmony between humans can be well established.

2. Human Rights are Universal

The second characteristic of human rights is that they are universal, which means that human rights apply to every human being in the world regardless of the background of the human being himself. In this case, the background in question is gender, religion, social status, race, ethnicity, and so on. In other words, the existence of human rights can reduce the occurrence of conflicts that occur because of differences.

3. Human Rights are Inalienable

The third characteristic of human rights is that they are inalienable. This feature of Human Rights can be interpreted that the basic rights that have existed in humans since birth cannot be handed over to other people or cannot be taken away by other people. If basic human rights are deprived by other people, it is very easy for fellow human beings to have conflicts that can endanger the individual himself and his environment.

4. Human rights cannot be divided

The fourth characteristic of human rights is that they are indivisible, which means that every human being has the right to obtain all the same rights, such as civil and political rights, economic rights, and social and cultural rights. If human rights are divided, then there will be people who feel they are being treated unfairly because they do not get the same rights as other individuals.

Types of Human Rights and Examples

According to Law Number 39 of 1999 concerning Human Rights, Human Rights consist of several types, including:

1. Human Right to Life

An example of the basic right to life, such as every human being has the right to live, every human being has the right to defend his life, and every human being has the right to improve his welfare. Another example of the basic right to life is that every human being has the right to a healthy and clean environment and has the right to feel safe, peaceful, secure and physically and spiritually prosperous.

2. Human Rights to Have a Family and Continuing Offspring

There are several examples of the basic rights to have a family and continue offspring, that is, every human being or individual has the right to build a family without pressure and the right to have children through a legal marriage. In this case, the marriage is declared valid, if the prospective husband and wife have complied with the applicable legal provisions, be it religious law or state law.

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3. The Right to Self-Development

Every human being has the right to develop himself properly. Therefore, the human right to self-development emerges. An example of this right is that every human being has the right to communicate and obtain information according to his needs, every human being has the right to benefit from knowledge, technology, art and culture. The final example of the right to self-development is that every human being has the right to fight for himself so that he can continue to develop, be it individually or in groups.

4. The Right to Obtain Justice

Every human being has the right to equal justice before the law, so there is no discrimination against certain individuals or groups. The right to justice has several examples, such as the presumption of innocence or a person’s right not to be found guilty, if there has not been a valid legal decision from a court hearing. In addition, every human being has the right to have legal assistance from the start of an investigation to a court decision.

5. Right to Personal Freedom

In everyday life, every human being has the right to determine the freedom he will choose. That freedom will still be allowed as long as it does not harm or harm other people. An example of the right to personal freedom is that everyone is free to choose the religion they will adhere to, everyone is free to make political choices, everyone is free to express opinions, everyone is free to determine their nationality, and so on.

6. The right to feel safe

Everyone has the right to feel safe, so that living life will be calmer. The right to feel safe has several examples, namely everyone has the right to get self and family protection, everyone has the right to be free from bad deeds (torture, violence, etc.), and everyone cannot be arrested, detained, forced, and exiled arbitrarily.

7. Welfare Rights

The existence of human rights gives humans the right to welfare. Humans who can live in prosperity, then his life can go well. With the right to welfare, everyone is not allowed to take by force or deprive other people’s basic rights. An example of the right to welfare, namely that everyone (male or female) has the right to get a job that is in accordance with human dignity, everyone has the right to choose a job according to the field they like.

8. Right to Participate in Government 

Indonesia, which adheres to a democratic government system, provides freedom of opinion for its people and gives freedom in choosing its political choices. Therefore, there is the right to participate in government where examples, such as everyone has the right to be appointed as an official or have a position in government, everyone has the right to express his opinion on the government system, and every citizen has the right to take part in elections. .

9. Women’s Rights

Based on Law Number 39 of 1999, there are women’s rights. Some examples of women’s rights, such as women have the right to obtain special protection in carrying out their work, women have the right to choose jobs in accordance with statutory regulations, women have the right to determine their nationality (after marrying a man with a foreign nationality.

10. Children’s Rights

Every child born into this world has the right to protection by parents, family, society and the state. Examples of children’s rights, such as every child has the right to get a name and citizenship status, every child has the right to worship, think, and express himself with the guidance of parents or guardians, and every child has the right to obtain legal protection from all kinds of acts of violence, be it physically or mentally.

Those are the 10 kinds of human rights based on Law Number 39 of 1999 concerning Human Rights that we can all know. By knowing the various types of human rights, it will be easy for us to categorize human rights.

Types of Human Rights According to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)

According to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), there are five types of human rights, namely:

1. Personal rights (related to individual needs)

2. Legal rights (related to legal protection)

3. Civil and political rights (related to the freedom to make political choices)

4. Subsistence rights (related to resources to support life)

5. Economic, social and cultural rights.

Conclusion

Basically, these Human Rights have existed since the man himself was born, so it can be said that since childhood humans have had basic rights for the development of their lives. With the General Declaration of Human Rights ( The Universal Declaration of Human Rights ), people all over the world should protect and uphold human rights. This needs to be done so that fellow human beings can live a more calm, peaceful, and decent life.

In Indonesia, Human Rights have been regulated in Law Number 39 of 1999, in which there are many articles related to human rights and human rights protection institutions. Therefore, as good citizens of Indonesia, we need to uphold human rights.