Understanding Violence: Types, Characteristics, Causes, and Examples


Definition of Violence – Every human being in this world will always be side by side with what is called difference, be it background differences (religion, race, tribe, etc.), physical differences, gender differences, and many more. There is nothing wrong with living side by side with differences, even with those differences can make life more diverse and colorful.

However, on the other hand, these differences that are close to us can be the cause of a conflict that occurs between individuals and individuals, individuals and groups or groups and groups. Even worse, differences can also be a trigger for violence in a community.

Currently, there are many acts of violence that occur in the community where the acts of violence that occur will cause injuries to the victim, be it physical injuries or psychological injuries. In general, violence often occurs because of the existence of various problems in a society, then those problems are very difficult to solve.

The number of acts of violence in a region indicates that the region is not doing well. For victims of violent acts, it is best to immediately report to the authorities, Government Board, family, Non-Governmental Organization (NGO). That way, perpetrators of violent acts can be immediately arrested and punished.

Acts of violence are indeed one of the things that are not allowed in this world. However, there is no harm in knowing what violence is, the characteristics of violence, the types of violence, and examples of violence. By knowing violence more deeply, then we will become more aware that acts of violence should be avoided or even should not be done by everyone.

Definition of Violence

Quoted from the book M, Rahmat, entitled Encyclopedia of Social Conflict, in Latin, this violence is often referred to as violentia which means ferocity, violence, cruelty, and ferocity. Violence itself can be regarded as intentional or unintentional behavior with the aim of hurting others.

For this reason, violence is one of the actions that violate Human Rights. This is because acts of violence never reflect the norms and values ​​that reflect Human Rights. Because perpetrators of acts of violence must be immediately punished in order to obtain a deterrent effect.

Violence is an act that is done deliberately by individuals or groups with the aim of oppressing the weak in order to continue suffering. This violence can be in a physical form or it can also be in a psychological form. As for acts of physical violence, such as someone hitting or kicking, and so on. Whereas psychological violence, such as forcing others to do things they don’t like. Both forms have an impact that can harm the victim.

In the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI) violence is the act of a person or group of people that causes the injury or death of another person or causes physical damage or property of another person.

If there is an act of violence in a social environment, then there is a high possibility that you will enter into yourself, so that it does not exclude the possibility of committing an act of violence as well. Moreover, it will be very difficult for us to differentiate between acts of violence and those that are not.

In addition, the development of technology also makes acts of violence more widespread. In other words, acts of violence do not only occur in the real world, but also occur in the virtual world or the world of social media. Therefore, so that we do not become perpetrators of violence in the virtual world, we need to use social media.

Types of Violence

In order to be able to group the violence that is happening, then we need to know the types of violence. Violence in society is divided based on the form and perpetrator.

Based on the Shape

This form of violence is divided into three, namely physical violence, structural violence, and psychological violence.

1. Physical Violence

Physical violence is a violence that occurs for real or can be seen and felt by the body directly. This physical violence often leaves scars for the recipient of violence or the victim of violence, so when you want to report this violence will be reported first. As for physical violence, such as beatings, beatings, even taking someone’s life.

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This physical violence can also be called direct violence because it can directly cause injury to the victim. This physical violence does not only happen outside the home, but can also happen in the family environment, such as Domestic Violence (KDRT).

2. Structural Hardness

This structural violence can be regarded as a very complex violence because it is not only related to individuals, but also often occurs with a group. Structural violence is a type of violence that can occur and the perpetrator can be a group or a person by using the legal system, the economic system, or the norms that occur in the community.

Therefore, this structural violence often causes social inequality, be it in education, income, skills, decision makers, and resources. From these things can have an impact on a person’s soul and physique. Some structural violence can be resolved through deliberations or through legal channels.

3. Psychological Violence

Psychological violence is violence which is carried out to injure a person’s mental or soul, so that it can cause a person to suffer from mental disorders. This psychological violence is better known by many people as psychic violence. Forms of psychological violence are usually, such as offensive remarks, insulting a person or group, making threats, and so on.

This psychological violence can not only cause fear, but can also cause a person to get psychologically traumatized. If the victim of psychological violence is severe enough, then he needs to be taken to a psychiatrist or psychologist. In addition, the people around him must continue to support him in order to get justice.

Based on the Actor

Violence can not only be seen from the form of violence, but can also be seen based on the perpetrators. Violence based on the perpetrators is divided into two, namely individual violence and collective violence.

1. Individual Violence

Individual violence is a type of violence in which the violence is perpetrated by someone against another person or it could be more than one person. Usually this individual violence occurs in the form of violence, such as beatings, theft, assault, and others. This individual violence can happen in our immediate environment, so we need to always be vigilant so we don’t become victims of violence.

2. Collective Violence

Collective violence is violence which is carried out by a group or mass. Usually this violence occurs due to disputes between groups, thus triggering brawls, clashes, and others. This collective violence can harm the surrounding infrastructure. Even worse, this violence can cause casualties.

Therefore, when collective violence occurs, it is usually only resolved by the authorities. So, if you see collective violence occurring, you should immediately notify the authorities.

Those are several types of violence that are divided based on the form and perpetrator. From the types of violence, we can classify the violence that is happening and how to solve it.

Causes of Violence

Violence perpetrated by a person or by a group does not just happen. In other words, there is a reason for the violence to occur. Here are the causes of violence.

1. Loss of Self-Esteem

Everyone in this world must have self-esteem. In other words, someone definitely wants to be appreciated by others, especially those in their immediate environment. However, if a person has lost self-esteem and is no longer valued by his immediate environment, then he can commit acts of violence which usually start with angry attitudes and behavior.

Violence caused by loss of self-esteem has a very strong motive. In addition, not only can it be done individually, but can also be done in groups.

2. Different Economic Levels

The next cause of violence is a different economic level or you could say it is poverty. This cause can also be interpreted as the difficulty of getting access to the economic center, especially during critical times.

The existence of this social change presents a different economic level as well. In fact, someone who is difficult to deal with social change can trigger himself to commit acts of violence, especially when facing different economic levels. This can happen because a person has lost his health in order to be able to meet his life’s needs, so he dares to commit violence, such as robbing, mugging, and so on.

3. Cannot Control Emotions

Everyone can never be separated from the name of the problem, so that it can bring up the name of emotion. The next cause of violence is a person or group who cannot control their emotions. If the emotions inside are difficult to control, then emotions will continue to increase, so they will easily get angry with trivial problems. From there, acts of violence can occur and can cause casualties.

4. Revenge

Revenge is a trait that can cause a person to commit violence. The emergence of this feeling of revenge is caused because a person does not accept the behavior that has befallen him, thus triggering a feeling of anger within. From that feeling of anger, a person will be determined to commit violence in order to be able to repay what he has received at that time.

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The venting of anger that is poured through this violence is not good because it can harm oneself and others. In fact, with a sense of revenge could have resulted in casualties. From this grudge, it could continue to bring violence against the next generations which could make the hostility difficult to get rid of.

5. Has Become a Tradition

Violence can also be caused by the existence of a tradition of violence in an environment. Violence caused by tradition is very difficult to eradicate, so it will continue to the next generation. An example of an act of violence committed because of tradition is an orientation period activity or what is better known by many people as ospek. This prospect applies to students or new students who will study at a new educational institution.

In ospect activities, acts of violence often occur, causing fear to the ospek participants. From that fear, the victims of this ospect arose the desire to make students or new students feel what they had experienced, so that ospek became a tradition.

However, currently ospects have been banned and replaced with more positive activities when students or new students enter a new educational institution. In this way, the opek tradition will slowly disappear.

6. Drunkard or Drug User

The cause of violence can also be triggered by unhealthy and unhealthy lifestyles, such as excessive drinking of alcoholic beverages and drug users. When someone is drunk and can’t control himself, be it because of alcohol or drugs, it can create chaos that triggers acts of violence. It could even torture more than one victim.

Violence caused by drunkenness and drug use can also occur between groups, so that it can trigger brawls or clashes that will be difficult to eliminate. In fact, these fights can cause casualties, it’s really very unfortunate if something like that can happen.

Examples of Violence

Examples of violence as follows.

  1. Committing theft or robbery.
  2. Doing stabbing or burglary.
  3. Hurting the feelings of others, both in the form of insults, mocking, and cursing.
  4. Injuring other people’s bodies, such as beating, stabbing, raping, and sexually assaulting.

Characteristics of Victims of Violence

Victims of violence must immediately receive good treatment. Therefore, we need to know the characteristics of victims of violence, including:

1. There is a change in behavior

Someone who has been a victim of violence will experience changes in behavior that are far from usual. The change in behavior in question, can be like becoming more afraid when you want to do activities outside the home. Apart from that, it can also be seen that those who usually live quietly become vengeful.

2. Become More Silent

Victims of violence are often afraid to express it to others, so they just stay silent. This can happen because the victim of this violence is traumatized, so that his psychological condition is also affected. In fact, he will reduce the intensity of talking to other people.

3. Get moody and anxious quickly

In addition to being quiet, victims of violence will also turn into someone who is gloomy and anxious. If there are people close to you who look like that, you should immediately be given moral support so that their mental condition does not get worse.

4. Closing Yourself

Fear will continue to approach victims of violence, so they will try their best to close themselves from other people.

5. Fear of meeting other people or perpetrators of violence

Trauma to victims of violence will be difficult to remove, so they will be afraid to meet other people or meet the perpetrators of violence. In fact, victims of violence will feel that other people are very dangerous for them.

Impact of Violence

  1. It can cause a person to experience trauma that is difficult to remove.
  2. Fear of dealing with the abuser or even other people.
  3. Can damage psychiatric conditions or depression.
  4. Can leave physical scars that are difficult to remove.
  5. Makes emotions unstable.


Violence is an act that does not reflect Human Rights. Therefore, the perpetrators of violence must be immediately given legal sanctions that already apply. In addition, every member of society must protect each other so that acts of violence can be avoided.

Even though acts of violence have been numerous and could have happened near us, we must not reduce our sympathy for victims of violence. This needs to be done so that victims do not feel traumatized and have the courage to live their lives. In addition, we also have to demand justice so that the perpetrators of violence are given strict sanctions.